CHEN Ying DEFINING QUOTA SYSTEM• An affirmative measure: • establishes a fixed percentage or number for the nomination or representation of a specific group, i.e. women• Goal: • to increase the participation of under- represented groups in decision-making positions
CHEN Ying A TYPOLOGY• Two dimensions: • where the quotas system is mandated • The level of the selection and nomination process
Isabel Naucler WOMEN IN POLITICS• Global average of seats in national parliament: 18,4%
Isabel Naucler ‘QUOTA FEVER’• A dynamic quota development happening around the world. -Legal quotas• Only reached a few countries in Europe•
Isabel Naucler WOMEN´S ROLE• Europe: individual focus compared to the family oriented focus in Asia.• Education and career is often as important to male as to female, since women wish to support for themselves and not rely on their husband/partner.
CHEN YingPROGRESS CAUGHT IN BOTTLENECK • Viviane Reding, European commissioner for justice • Legislation to install a gender quota of at least 40% in company boards across EU • The great division • Plan suspended for more discussion, till TODAY
Isabel NauclerARGUMENTS AGAINST THE USE OF QUOTAS • Quotas are undemocratic & goes against the principle of equal opportunity for all. • Politcal representation: about ideas & interest, not gender. • Quotas imply that gender is more important that qualifications. • Quotas can cause conflict within the parliament/organization. • Do not change the view of women’s roles. • Women often do not want to get elected just because of their sex. • Instead of quotas: improve education, give more financial support and use flexible maternity leave.
Isabel NauclerARGUMENTS FOR THE USE OF QUOTAS• Equal representations are womens rights as citizens.• ‘Real equality of opportunity’• Election is about representation not about educational qualifications.• Conflicts from introducing quotas are likely to be temporarily.• Quotas compensate for the barriers that are preventing women from their share of the political seats.• Womens experiences are needed in politics.• Women are as qualified as men, but that is not visible in a male-dominated political system.• Improving education and training skills, giving more financial support and to use flexible maternity leave should not be used instead of quotas, but together with a quota system for the desired outcome.
CHEN YingWOMEN IN TRADITION Words for you: 1. Ignorance is bliss 2. “Three Obediences” and “Four Virtues”
CHEN YingHOLDING UP HALF THE SKY?• Central decision-making • NPC: around 21% since 1983 • CCP Portfolio: 1 out of 24 (LIU Yandong)• 10% vice-ministerial or provincial-level leaders• 1-2 % of the local decision-making positions• 7.2% of board directors
CHEN Ying A MIXED PROSPECT• Legal ground: • Principle of equality as stated in Constitution and other laws • YET • Ambiguity: eg. In electoral law, “appropriate amount” instead of mandated quota • Lack of ratification of relevant international laws• Institutional: • Lack of enforcement, petition, and supervision mechanism • Lack of effective elections at all levels
CHEN YingA MIXED PROSPECT(Cont’d) • Societal value: "Men should mainly focus on career and women should be family oriented.” • 62% of men and 55% of women agreed • Increased by 7.7% and 4.4% for men and women respectively, compared to views in 2000 A resurgence of traditional gender roles? -- invalidating economic recession and gender role reversion?
CHEN Ying CONCLUSION• EU experiences: Utility and Necessity • With appropriate implementation, quota system increases women representation, changes women’s role, AND improves decision outcomes• Quota system as a means, not an end • To break the “glass ceiling” • To be removed/replaced after achieving genuine gender equality
CHEN Ying CONCLUSION (Cont’d)• China perspective: • Feasibility: Legal, institutional, societal constraints • Fundamental obstacle: political system• Differences with EU countries a slow track first • Raise social awareness (woman’s self-actualization) and understanding of quota system • Enhance women’s core competences • Political Reform: pressure on top leadership