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  1. 1. Unit 5B Life cycles Through this unit children learn that plants and animals reproduce as part of their life cycle and that in every life cycle there are distinct processes and stages. They should begin to understand how reproduction is important to the survival of the species. Some of the work in this unit is likely to be undertaken in relation to the school's programme for PSHE. It is recommended that this flipchart is used in conjunction with the QCA Scheme of work for Science
  2. 2. Unit 5B Life Cycles Life Cycles
  3. 3. Unit 5B Life Cycles Life Cycles In this unit you will learn about: w why plants produce fruits and seeds w how seeds are spread w what seeds need to grow w how pollen is spread w flower parts and how seeds are made w how the stages in a plant life cycle fit together w the stages in a human life cycle w how humans compare with other animals w life processes
  4. 4. Where did the fruits grow from? What will happen to the fruits? Why are the fruits important to the plants? Unit 5B Life Cycles
  5. 5. Not all fruits are the sort that we eat. honeysuckle flower honeysuckle fruit developing fruit of a poppy Unit 5B Life Cycles
  6. 6. Fruits and seeds Apple Tomato Unit 5B Life Cycles Can you see the seeds?
  7. 7. seeds seed head holes Have you heard of the pepper pot effect? Unit 5B Life Cycles How are poppy seeds spread?
  8. 8. How are these seeds spread? Unit 5B Life Cycles
  9. 9. sycamore goose grass cleavers How are these seeds spread? Unit 5B Life Cycles
  10. 10. Why do seeds need to be dispersed? Unit 5B Life Cycles Why do plants produce so many seeds? See next page.
  11. 11. Dispersal Seeds need to be dispersed so that they are spread out, away from the parent plant. This means they will have enough space to grow. The roots need space to collect water . The leaves need space to collect sunlight . If the seeds are dispersed they will not be competing with each other when they grow. Each new plant will have more chance to get enough water , sunlight , air and space to grow healthily. Unit 5B Life Cycles Rub and reveal.
  12. 12. Wind Animals Explosion Sort the seeds Unit 5B Life Cycles The three main agents of dispersal
  13. 13. Wind dispersal Wings Parachute "Pepper pot" effect Sort the seeds. Can you think of other seeds for each section? Unit 5B Life Cycles
  14. 14. Dispersal by animals Seeds get eaten Seeds get stored Seeds get stuck in fur Sort the seeds Unit 5B Life Cycles
  15. 15. Investigating Germination What do you think a seed needs to make it germinate? When seeds have been dispersed they need to germinate (start to grow). This often happens in the spring. Why do you think this is? Unit 5B Life Cycles
  16. 16. What do you think seeds need to germinate? Ideas: Unit 5B Life Cycles ACTIVity link
  17. 17. Investigating which factors affect germination Prediction : Which of these factors do you think will affect germination? Give a reason for each one. 1. Water 2. Light 3. Temperature 4. Soil 5. Air Unit 5B Life Cycles
  18. 18. Controlling the variables - making it a fair test This investigation has lots of variables (factors that we want change to see if they affect germination). Variables: water, light, temperature, soil, air We can't change more than one of these variables at a time. We need to set up lots of pots and only change one thing each time. We also need to set up one pot to compare each of the other pots with. It is called the control . We only change one thing in each of the other pots. Unit 5B Life Cycles
  19. 19. Six pots are set up. They are all left in darkness apart from pot 2. damp compost wet compost damp compost damp kitchen towel dry compost water cress seeds Left in fridge In darkness 1. Control 2. Not in darkness 3. No water 4. No compost 5. No air 6. No warmth In darkness In darkness In darkness damp compost Unit 5B Life Cycles
  20. 20. Results: Conclusion: Unit 5B Life Cycles
  21. 21. Unit 5B Life Cycles What happens to seeds after they have germinated? If the seedlings have the correct conditions they will grow into healthy plants. Later the plant will produce flowers . These produce pollen which needs to be transfered from one plant to another. How is it transfered - can you think of the two main ways? insect pollination wind pollination
  22. 22. Unit 5B Life Cycles Flower parts Flowers come in all different shapes and sizes but they have the same basic parts. A male part which produces the pollen. A female part which produces the eggs (ovules). A sticky part that pollen sticks to. Petals. stamen ovary stigma Match up the names with the parts.
  23. 23. Unit 5B Life Cycles Flower parts Use the next few pages to practise identifying the different flower parts. Then collect some flowers of your own and see if you can find the different parts. How will wind pollinated flowers be different? See if you can find any.
  24. 24. ovule pollen stigma ovary stamen stem petal Label the poppy Unit 5B Life Cycles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  25. 25. Label the buttercup pollen stigma ovary stamen sepal petal Unit 5B Life Cycles 1 2 3 4 5 6
  26. 26. Label the flower ovule pollen stigma ovary stamen petal sepal Unit 5B Life Cycles style 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  27. 27. Unit 5B Life Cycles Pollination and Fertilisation Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the stamen of a flower to the stigma of another flower. The pollen grows down from the stigma to the ovary . Fertilisation is the joining of the pollen and the egg (ovum) . A fertilised egg can then form a seed . Use the diagrams to show what happens in pollination and fertilisation.
  28. 28. What are the functions of the parts? petal sepal pollen stigma stamen ovary ovule fertilises the eggs (ovules) attracts insects for pollination protects the flower before it opens pollen sticks to it male part makes pollen female part becomes fruit (egg) becomes seed makes nectar to attract insects nectary Unit 5B Life Cycles Note: Inside the ovule is the egg cell (ovum) which is fertilised by the pollen. The ovule then becomes the seed.
  29. 29. Pollination is the transfer of _________ from the _________ to the __________. Pollen is carried by _________ or by __________. When this has happened the pollen grows down into the ___________ and joins with an _________(ovum). This is called ___________. The ovum will become a ______ and the ovary will become the _________. seed insects egg stamen stigma ovary fruit fertilization wind pollen Unit 5B Life Cycles Pollination and Fertilisation
  30. 30. Unit 5B Life Cycles Observing pollen Collect some stamen and pollen from different species of plants. Observe them carefully with a microscope or hand lens. Can you see any differences? How might these differences be useful to the plants? stigma stamen pollen grains
  31. 31. Put the stages in the plant life cycle in the correct order, starting with germination. growth flowering pollination fertilisation dispersal fruit formation germination Unit 5B Life Cycles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Look at the next page to check.
  32. 32. Plant life cycle growth flowering pollination fertilisation dispersal fruit formation germination Unit 5B Life Cycles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  33. 33. toddler baby child adolescent senior citizen adult Stages in the human life cycle Put the pictures in the correct order then match up the labels. Unit 5B Life Cycles
  34. 34. toddler baby child adolescent senior citizen adult Stages in the human life cycle Unit 5B Life Cycles How long does each stage last? What changes take place during each stage? ACTIVity links; Growth: Growth Graphs
  35. 35. Unit 5B Life Cycles Stages in the human life cycle w Pregnancy 9 months w Birth w Baby 0 - 12 months w Toddler 12 months - 3 years w Child 3-12 years w Adolescent 12-18 years w Adult 18 years onwards w Death 70 years or more The exact times for the stages will vary for each individual person.
  36. 36. Unit 5B Life Cycles The human life cycle Human children are extremely dependent on their parents. Bringing up children is a big commitment. 1. Human babies are born completely helpless. 2. Babies remain helpless for a long time. 3. They are unable to: w Feed themselves w Clean themselves w Walk w Keep themselves warm w Protect themselves 4. They need parental care for many years as they grow. 5. Children live with their parents until adulthood (approx 18 years) or longer! The decision to have a baby is a very important one, what needs to be thought about beforehand?
  37. 37. Differences between humans and other animals Pregnancy - A human baby develops for 9 months inside the mother's womb. This is called the gestation period. A human child needs to be cared for by its parents for about 18 years until it becomes an adult. Find out how long these stages take in other animals. Unit 5B Life Cycles
  38. 38. Life processes Unit 5B Life Cycles Reproduction is just one of the life processes that all living things need to carry out in order to survive. Can you think of the other life processes? There are seven altogether. Reproduction an important life process. Why is it important for plants and animals to reproduce? Some animals such as pandas, tigers and cheetah are facing extinction. How can they be helped? Look at the next page to check.
  39. 39. Look at the clues. Match up the correct name for each life process. Excretion Movement Growth Sensitivity Reproduction Respiration Nutrition Unit 5B Life Cycles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  40. 40. Excretion Movement Growth Sensitivity Reproduction Respiration Nutition Can Mrs Gren help you to remember all the life processes? Rub and reveal. Unit 3B Helping plants grow well