Can Scotland’s renewable energy sector become a viable energy source for the entire country? Sam Tarvet
Contents• Scotland as a country - lots of natural resources• Scotland’s policy and promise – 2020. Compare and contrast with Europe policies• Renewable Energy – scientific standpoint. Mention Comenius• Scotland’s wealth of resources = hydro, solar, wind and others w/ Statistics on current state of them• Developments being made in anticipation of 2020.• Hydroelectric movement 2012 – 20,000 new jobs http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk- scotland-highlands-islands-17061075• Other developments in Scotland- off-shore wind, biomass, geothermal.• Government debates in 2011 – money spent• Comenius Project – my involvement, France trip. Own results.• European problems with nuclear energy- Japan crisis – Scotland’s accelerated pace.• My view = situation has become corrupted by politics? Talking about it will only prolong its finishing.• Institutes of Mechanical and Civil Engineers’ doubts over 2020 target = unrealistic expectation.• If Scotland could achieve the target = more jobs, much safer energy sources. (carbon footprint = practically 0) Leading light in a new era. First country ever to be fully independent of fossil fuels.
Scotland - A wealth of natural resources.Scotland has incredible potential.• ¼ of Europe’s tidal/offshore wind power.• 1/10 of Europe’s wave power.• Strong winds.• Surprisingly high sunlight levels.• Intricate river network.
2020 Promise• The Scottish Government has set the target of 100% of our electrical energy demands to come from renewable sources by 2020.• Already been revised upwards three times.• As it stands, 32% already comes from renewable energy.Can it be done with just eight years to go?
Renewable energy• ‘‘Energy generated by natural resources which are theoretically inexhaustible and free of fossil fuels.’’• ‘‘The capacity of a physical system to perform work.’’ Energy can be produced through solar, wind, biomass, tidal, hydroelectric and geothermal means.
Energy Sources in Scotland• Like all countries in the EU, Scotland is looking to minimise its carbon emissions (NREAP requirement).• Thus coal and nuclear plants are coming to an end. Energy in Scotland currently comes from a variety of sources, and at least initially, they will all be required to keep up with Scotland’s energy demands.• The most prominent sources of energy are wind, wave, solar, hydroelectric and tidal.
Wind Energy in Scotland• ‘‘With 25% of Europe’s offshore wind potential, the manufacturing, supply chain, job creation and training opportunities present Scotland with huge scope for sustainable economic growth.’’• Wind energy in Scotland can come from either the installed wind farms onshore or the new offshore projects recently developed or in development.• 1367 turbines across 117 sites (2.4 GW) installed and operating.• 36.5 GW estimated in Scotland, leaving roughly 34 GW that can still be harnessed.
Solar Energy in Scotland• A solar panel system set up in Inverness measured over thecourse of 2011.• This represents the power output of a 2.3 kWp panel system.The system is quoted as the lowest power output value at which itcan function.• kWp is kilowatt-peak = 1000W/m2
Hydroelectric Energy in Scotland• 10% of Scotland’s current total energy generation.• Scotland’s hydroelectric power capacity is currently little over 1.4 GW, but an update on the 2008 Hydro Resource Study estimates a further 1.2 GW worth of hydro schemes is achievable.• The 100MW Glendoe Project is likely to resume energy generation later this year after a period of inactivity. It is also likely to be the last large scale hydro scheme in Scotland ever.• There are plans to produce the further 1.2 GW through 7000 new ‘run of river’ projects. These are designed to be small (100kW-1MW capacities).
Hydroelectric Energy in ScotlandThe advantages of smaller ‘run of river’ schemes
Comenius Project• Linking schools in Scotland, France, Germany and Italy with the intention to study and learn about each others renewable energy sectors.• Visit to France – learnt from various presentations that all member states of the EU made National Renewable Energy Action Plans in 2010.• Germany’s 2020 target = 18%• France’s 2020 target = 20%• Italy’s 2020 target = 17%• Our target = 100%