The transmission electron microscope

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The chapter gives insight into the transmission electron microscope technique. From "Electron Microscopy and Analysis" textbook by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys and Richard Beanland. Courtesy of Taylor and Francis Books UK.

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The transmission electron microscope

  1. 1. Contents (Note: Page numbers are as in the whole book so that the index remains valid) Acronyms …………………………………………………….……………………… iii Preface ………………………………………………………………………………. iv 4 The transmission electron microscope 4.1 The instrument ……………………………………..… 66 4.2 Contrast mechanisms .…………………...…………… 76 4.3 High voltage electron microscopy (HVEM) .………… 108 4.4 Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) .. 110 4.5 Preparation of specimens for TEM ……………..……. 110 4.6 Questions …………………………………………….. 121 Further reading ……………………………………………………………..……. 236 Answers ……………………………………………………………………………. 238 Index …………………………………………………………………………..……. 243
  2. 2. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  3. 3. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  4. 4. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  5. 5. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  6. 6. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  7. 7. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  8. 8. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  9. 9. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  10. 10. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  11. 11. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  12. 12. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  13. 13. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  14. 14. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  15. 15. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  16. 16. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  17. 17. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  18. 18. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  19. 19. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  20. 20. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  21. 21. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  22. 22. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  23. 23. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  24. 24. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  25. 25. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  26. 26. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  27. 27. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  28. 28. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  29. 29. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  30. 30. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  31. 31. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  32. 32. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  33. 33. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  34. 34. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  35. 35. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  36. 36. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  37. 37. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  38. 38. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  39. 39. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  40. 40. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  41. 41. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  42. 42. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  43. 43. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  44. 44. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  45. 45. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  46. 46. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  47. 47. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  48. 48. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  49. 49. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  50. 50. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  51. 51. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  52. 52. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  53. 53. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  54. 54. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  55. 55. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  56. 56. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  57. 57. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  58. 58. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  59. 59. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  60. 60. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  61. 61. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  62. 62. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  63. 63. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  64. 64. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  65. 65. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

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