Earl warren Born on March 19,1891 in Los Angeles Earned law degree at University of CA Appointed attorney general of CA in 1939 Governor of CA from 1942-1950 Ran for vice president in 1948 unsuccessfully Appointed chief justice by President Eisenhower and serves from 1953-1969 Known for controversial decisions about civil rights First major case was Brown v. Board of Education Engle v. Vitale 1962: prayer in public school is unconstitutional Miranda v. Arizona 1966: authorities must inform criminal suspects of their rights
Historical background Plessy v. Ferguson 1896- establishes the “separate but equal” doctrine Different interpretation of the 14th amendment Court battles with this issue for over 50 years People take advantage of this doctrine to oppress African Americans “Separate but equal” doesn’t become an issue in education until later due to the slow development of public education.
Historical background The case combined several cases from Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware. The most famous case and namesake is that of Linda Brown and her family. 1952- The case was heard by Chief Justice Fred Vinson No decision was reached He died that year and was replaced by Earl Warren 1953- The case was reargued 1954- The court reached a unanimous decision declaring “separate but equal” unconstitutional.
Main idea The court found that even if segregated schools had identical facilities (which wasn’t usually the case), something about them was “inherently unequal.” They came to the conclusion that segregation itself “had a detrimental effect” and was giving African American children a sense of “inferiority” that “affects the motivation of a child to learn.” They also declared that segregation violates the 14th amendment of equal protection under the law.
effects The court passed a 2nd clause for the decision dealing with implementation. The cases would be brought back to the state courts so states could set up a means for integration in their public schools. This didn’t acknowledge the problem of balance. Many states fought back against mandated integration. Changed public schools into private schools and charged whites tuition Angry mobs prevented African American students from entering schools. Example: Little Rock Nine 1957
effects It forced Americans to redefine the meaning of “all men are created equal.” It destroyed the “separate but equal” loophole in the 14th amendment. Step in the right direction for African Americans gaining equality in society Major stimulus to civil rights movement
Works cited "Brown v. Board of Education." pbs.org. Public Broadcasting Corporation, Web. 27 Sept. 2009. "Earl Warren." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 24 Sept. 2009. <http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com>. "School Desegregation." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 24 Sept. 2009. <http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com>.