“This course is designed to be an introduction to the field of Psychology. Psychology is a diverse and ever-changing discipline that is constantly seeking revolutionary ways to apply knowledge gained from new research. This class will explore what the study of psychology has to offer individuals, groups, and society as a whole.”
Units of Study Unit 1: The Foundations of Psychology
Dr. Phil’s Basic Personality Test: Below is Dr. Phil’s Test. (Dr. Phil scored a 55, he did this test on Oprah – she got a 38) Some folks pay a lot of money to find this stuff out When you take the test don’t be overly sensitive. They say it is accurate. Take the test for yourself. Answers are for who you are now . . . Not who you were in the past. This is a real test given by the Human Relations Dept at many major corporations today, it helps them get better insight concerning their employees and prospective employees Have a pen or paper ready. Its only 10 simply questions
1. When do you feel your best ?: a) In the morning b) During the afternoon and early evening c) Late at night
2. You usually walk: a) Fairly fast, with long steps b) Fairly fast, with little steps c) Less fast head up looking straight d) Less fast, head down e) Very slowly
3. When talking to people you: a) Stand with your arms folded b) Have your hands clasped c) Have one or both your hands on your hips d) Touch or push the person to whom you are talking e) Play with your ear, touch your chin, or smooth your hair
4. When relaxing, you sit with: a) Your knees bent with your legs neatly side by side b) Your legs crossed c) Your legs stretched out or straight d) One leg curled under you
5. When something really amuses you , you react with: a) Big appreciated laugh b) A laugh, but not a loud one c) A quiet chuckle d) A smile
6. When you go to a party or social gathering you: a) Make a loud entrance so everyone notices you b) Make a quiet entrance, looking around for someone you know c) Make the quietest entrance possible, trying to stay unnoticed
7.You’re working very hard, concentrating hard, and you’re interrupted, you: a) Welcome the break b) Feel extremely irritated c) Vary between these two extremes
8. Which of the following colors do you like most: a) Red and orange b) Black c) Yellow or light blue d) Green e) Dark blue or purple f) White g) Brown or gray
9. When you are in bed at night, in those last few moments before going to sleep you are: a) Stretched out on your back b) Stretched out face down on your stomach c) On your side, slightly curled d) With your had on one arm e) With your head under the covers
10. You often dream that you are: a) Falling b) Fighting or struggling c) Searching for something or somebody d) Flying or floating e) You usually have dreamless sleeps f) Your dreams are always pleasant
Others see you as someone they should “handle with care”
You can be seen as vain, self-centered, and as someone who is extremely dominant
Others may admire you, wishing they could be more like you, but don’t always trust you hesitating to become too deeply involved with you
51 to 60 Points:
Others see you as an exciting, rather impulsive personality, a natural leader, who is quick to make decisions, though not always the right ones
Others see you as bold and adventuresome, someone who will try anything once, some one who takes chances and enjoys adventure
People enjoy being in your company because of the excitement that you radiate
41 to 50 Points:
Others see you as fresh, lively, charming, amusing, practical, and always interesting
Your seen as someone who is constantly in the center of attention, but sufficiently well-balanced enough not to let it go to your head
Others see you as kind, considerate, and understanding, someone who will always cheer them up and help them out
31 to 40 Points:
Others see you as sensible, cautious, careful and practical
You are seen as clever, gifted, or talented, but modest
You are not a person who makes friends too quickly or easily, but someone who is extremely loyal to friends you do make and who expects the same loyalty in return
Those who really get to know you realize it takes a lot to shake your trust in your friends, but equally that it takes you a long time to get over it if that trust is ever broken
21 to 30 Points: Your friends see you as painstaking and fussy They view you as very cautious, extremely careful, and slow and steady It would really surprise them if you ever did something impulsively or on the spur of the moment, expecting you to examine everything carefully from every angel and then, usually decide against it They think this reaction is caused partly by your careful nature
Although this definition emphasizes behavior, it also
includes the inner self, such as dreams, daydreams, and other inner emotions / drives
Count every " F" in the following text: You don’t need to say the number out loud. FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS...
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Name the Color that the following words are written in: Red . . . Yellow . . . Blue . . . Purple . . . Orange . . . Green . . .Pink . . . White
My question to you is . . Why did Sir Arthur Conan Doyle believe these girls and these photographs?
Bias: Preconceptions (already held beliefs) that cloud our observations and influence the questions we ask. Law of Parsimony: Theory that tells us to adopt the explanation that requires the fewest assumptions
When studying Psychology you should always ask yourself: 1.What is the claim and who is making it? 2.Is the claim based on scientific observation? 3. What do statistics reveal? -When evaluating a claim we need to know whether the findings occurred by chance - Findings are only significant if they are statistically significant (occur over and over enough times) 4.Are there plausible alternative explanations for the claim?
Placebo Effect: Found in research and experiments, refers to the effects (either positive or negative) associated with a subject’s beliefs and attitudes This phenomena has been found in: 1. Headache Experiments 2. Alcohol Experiments
Specialties in Psychology: Research Forensic (Jury Selection, Discredit Eye Witness) Psychiatrist School Consumer Cognitive Health (changing Harmful Behaviours) Industrial and Organizational Neuropsychology Eclectic sports
Clinical (Diagnosis and treatment of Psychological disorders)
The Three Debates: Nature Vs. Nurture Person Vs. Situation Stability Vs. Change
The Three Big Debates: Read the handout “Enduring Issues in Psychology” and think about the three debates discussed in the article: The Nature vs. Nurture debate, The Person vs. Situation Debate, and the Stability vs. Change Debate. Pair up with a partner and discuss the debates. Write a definition of each debate in your notes. Then take a stance on your own beliefs. Journal Assignment: In three well written paragraphs explain what each debate is and then take a stance about which side of each debate you think is correct. Explain why you think a particular side is more correct by providing examples that you have seen in your own life, and/or by making reference to different things you have heard about or read.
Historical Psychology First lab devoted to the scientific study of Psychology – 1879, University of Leipzig, Germany. Wilhelm Wundt credited with establishing psychology as an academic discipline
Wilhelm Wundt: A German medical doctor and psychologist regarded as the father of psychology founded one of the first formal laboratories for psychological research His greatest contribution was to show that psychology could be a valid experimental science
Three Most Influential Movements in Modern Psychology 1. Behavioral Perspective [Behaviorism] 2. Psychodynamic Perspective 3. Humanistic Approach
Behavioral Perspective of Psychology Simply called “Behaviorism” Main focus is on observable behaviors – only what can be seen Does not speculate on mental processes such as thinking Main belief is that all behavior is learned
Ivan Pavlov: Russian Psychologist Won Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1904 Created a famous behaviorist theory on learning – Classical Conditioning
Learned Associations - Conditioning When two unrelated things (stimuli) are paired together and eventually become associated with each other For example when the school bell rings you stand up and leave the classroom
Pavlov Con’t: Famous for his Salivating (drooling) Dog Experiment When he would jingle his keys the dogs would begin to drool This is an example of conditioning because the sound of the keys and the food are unrelated, but when paired together many times, the dogs associated the sound of keys with feeding Same thing happens when a cat hears the can opener and comes running
John B. Watson brought Behaviorism to America Insisted all psychology should only be concerned with observable behaviors Developed strict laboratory control systems By controlling a subjects environment you can control all behavior
B.F. Skinner “Give me a child and I'll shape him into anything."
B.F. Skinner called the “greatest contemporary psychologist of all time” believed that behavior changes as the result of rewards and consequences (punishments) environment, not free will, shapes human behavior goal of psychologist is to identify and change the environmental conditions to control subjects behavior Created the “Skinner Box”
Sigmund Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective: Freud sought to delve deep beneath observable behaviors Wanted to find the root of the problem that he believed was often located in the unconscious mind Believed behaviors were only manifestations or signs of a deeper problem
Sigmund Freud: trained Neurologist Patients who came to him often suffered from a variety of anxieties and other mental disturbances Often his theories on behavior and personality were based on patients who would be considered “psychotic”
Psychodynamic Perspective: Developed by Freud States both normal and abnormal behaviors are determined primarily by unconscious forces The unconscious mind exerts great control over behavior
Psychodynamic Theory Con’t: Goal treatment – to bring unconscious causes of behavior to the conscious level Only once the source of distress was brought to awareness could it be changed It treating patients he often used hypnosis Developed Psycho-Therapy
The Humanistic Approach: Often viewed as the “third force” because this view of psychology offered an alternative perspective Is a distinctly positive view of human nature Major players – Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Albert Bandura
Humanistic Approach Con’t: States that human beings have choices in their lives Each person is a unique individual and experiences the world differently All human beings share the basic need to grow to their fullest potential – Self Actualization
Assingment Historical Treatment of the Mentally ill Define the following terms and state what they have to do with Historical psychology Lunatic Bleeding a patient Asylum insane Crazy List 4 Eras of History Eg 20th C, 16 - 18th C, Early Civilizations eg Greek Egypt etc For each Era you need 6 points of information Cite your work. State where you found it.
Each of the following descriptions could apply to one of the historical perspective on psychology discussed in class. Which perspective best fits the description? Believes that unconscious forces are the most significant determinants of behavior. Is concerned with observing behaviors that can be seen Believes that as humans we have a choice and desicion. Believes in dream analysis and hypnosis Is interested in studying the neurons of the brain
Identify the individual who is most likely to have made each of the following statements. “Even though Albert may have been scared, the experiment was worth it.” “The study of my parents convinces me that unconscious forces lie beneath many of their disturbances.” “What impresses me about human behavior is the freedom each of us has to make choices.” “When I jingled my keys my subjects (dogs) started to salivate.”
Name the type of psychologist (or specialty) described in each of the following: Was asked to diagnose and treat a 35-year-old man who hears frightening voices every day. Helped an second base men for the Yankees complete a throw to first. Designed a survey to determine whether purchasers of a liquid detergent were satisfied with the product Was involved in determining the accuracy of eyewitness testimony for jurors.