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Unit1 Principle Processes Unit1 Principle Processes Presentation Transcript

  • Welcome toPsychology 41G:
  • Write About You
    • You are going to write a letter to me.
    • Address to Mr. Boughen
    • Content
    • Brief introduction about yourself
    • Goal of this class
    • What kind of student are you…
    • Reader, writer, presenter, group worker. When do you work well, work do you not work well.
    • What do you need from me?
    • Interests
    • What you did over the summer
  • KWL
    What do you know about Psychology
    What do you want to know about Psychology
    What have you learned about Psychology
  • What is Psychology?
    • “This course is designed to be an introduction to the field of Psychology. Psychology is a diverse and ever-changing discipline that is constantly seeking revolutionary ways to apply knowledge gained from new research. This class will explore what the study of psychology has to offer individuals, groups, and society as a whole.”
  • Units of Study
    Unit 1: The Foundations of Psychology
    • - Introduction to the Field of Psychology
    • - Historical Overview of Psychology
     
     
    Unit 2: Research Methods
    • - Types of Research Methods
    • - Experimentation
    • - Ethical Guidelines ,Restrictions, and Questions
     
     
    Unit 3: The Principles of Learning
    • - Classical Conditioning
    • - Operant Conditioning
    • - Observational Learning
    • - Punishment
  • Units of Study Continued…
    Unit 4: Memory
    • Structure of Memory
    • Models of Memory
    • Types of Memory
    • Memory Improvement Techniques
    • Eye Witness Testimonies
     
     
     
    Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
    • Problem Solving and Decision Making
    • Thinking
    • Creativity
    • Language
    • The Brain Structures and Functions
    • Intelligence – Testing, Types Etc.
     
     
  • Units of Study Continued…
    Unit 6: Experiencing the World
    • Sensation
    • Perception
    • Sleep and other Altered States of Consciousness
    Unit 7: Aspects of Identify Formation
     
  • Assessment
     
     I will be assessing you every day. Observations, discussions, and daily work etc. You will know well in advance the work I will be collecting and using to determine your grade.
    Course work 70%
     
    Exam 30%
    Course work will include, test, assignments, presentations, and projects.
  • Unit 1:
    Foundations of Psychology
  • Dr. Phil’s Basic Personality Test:
    Below is Dr. Phil’s Test. (Dr. Phil scored a 55, he did this test on Oprah – she got a 38)
    Some folks pay a lot of money to find this stuff out
    When you take the test don’t be overly sensitive. They say it is accurate. Take the test for yourself.
    Answers are for who you are now . . . Not who you were in the past.
    This is a real test given by the Human Relations Dept at many major corporations today, it helps them get better insight concerning their employees and prospective employees
    Have a pen or paper ready. Its only 10 simply questions
  • 1. When do you feel your best ?:
    a) In the morning
    b) During the afternoon and early evening
    c) Late at night
  • 2. You usually walk:
    a) Fairly fast, with long steps
    b) Fairly fast, with little steps
    c) Less fast head up looking straight
    d) Less fast, head down
    e) Very slowly
  • 3. When talking to people you:
    a) Stand with your arms folded
    b) Have your hands clasped
    c) Have one or both your hands on your hips
    d) Touch or push the person to whom you are talking
    e) Play with your ear, touch your chin, or smooth your
    hair
  • 4. When relaxing, you sit with:
    a) Your knees bent with your legs neatly side by side
    b) Your legs crossed
    c) Your legs stretched out or straight
    d) One leg curled under you
  • 5. When something really amuses you , you react with:
    a) Big appreciated laugh
    b) A laugh, but not a loud one
    c) A quiet chuckle
    d) A smile
  • 6. When you go to a party or social gathering you:
    a) Make a loud entrance so everyone notices you
    b) Make a quiet entrance, looking around for someone you know
    c) Make the quietest entrance possible, trying to stay
    unnoticed
  • 7.You’re working very hard, concentrating hard, and you’re interrupted, you:
    a) Welcome the break
    b) Feel extremely irritated
    c) Vary between these two extremes
  • 8. Which of the following colors do you like most:
    a) Red and orange
    b) Black
    c) Yellow or light blue
    d) Green
    e) Dark blue or purple
    f) White
    g) Brown or gray
  • 9. When you are in bed at night, in those last few moments before going to sleep you are:
    a) Stretched out on your back
    b) Stretched out face down on your stomach
    c) On your side, slightly curled
    d) With your had on one arm
    e) With your head under the covers
  • 10. You often dream that you are:
    a) Falling
    b) Fighting or struggling
    c) Searching for something or somebody
    d) Flying or floating
    e) You usually have dreamless sleeps
    f) Your dreams are always pleasant
  • Points:
    1. (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6
    2. (a) 6 (b) 4 (c) 7 (d) 2 (e) 1
    3. (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 5 (d) 7 (e) 6
    4. (a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 2 (d) 1
    5. (a) 6 (b) 4 (c) 3 (d) 5 (e) 2
    6. (a) 6 (b) 4 (c)2
    7. (a) 6 (b) 2 (c)4
    8. (a) 6 (b) 7 (c) 5 (d) 4 (e) 3 (f) 2 (g) 1
    9. (a) 7 (b) 6 (c)4 (d) 2 (e) 1
    10. (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 5 (e) 6 (f) 1
  • Over 60 Points:
    • Others see you as someone they should “handle with care”
    • You can be seen as vain, self-centered, and as someone who is extremely dominant
    • Others may admire you, wishing they could be more like you, but don’t always trust you hesitating to become too deeply involved with you
  • 51 to 60 Points:
    • Others see you as an exciting, rather impulsive personality, a natural leader, who is quick to make decisions, though not always the right ones
    • Others see you as bold and adventuresome, someone who will try anything once, some one who takes chances and enjoys adventure
    • People enjoy being in your company because of the excitement that you radiate
  • 41 to 50 Points:
    • Others see you as fresh, lively, charming, amusing, practical, and always interesting
    • Your seen as someone who is constantly in the center of attention, but sufficiently well-balanced enough not to let it go to your head
    • Others see you as kind, considerate, and understanding, someone who will always cheer them up and help them out
  • 31 to 40 Points:
    • Others see you as sensible, cautious, careful and practical
    • You are seen as clever, gifted, or talented, but modest
    • You are not a person who makes friends too quickly or easily, but someone who is extremely loyal to friends you do make and who expects the same loyalty in return
    • Those who really get to know you realize it takes a lot to shake your trust in your friends, but equally that it takes you a long time to get over it if that trust is ever broken
  • 21 to 30 Points:
    Your friends see you as painstaking and fussy
    They view you as very cautious, extremely careful, and slow and steady
    It would really surprise them if you ever did something impulsively or on the spur of the moment, expecting you to examine everything carefully from every angel and then, usually decide against it
    They think this reaction is caused partly by your careful nature
  • What is Psychology?
    Psychology:
    • The science of behavior and mental processes
    • Although this definition emphasizes behavior, it also
    includes the inner self, such as dreams, daydreams, and
    other inner emotions / drives
  • Count every " F" in the following text:
    You don’t need to say the number out loud.
    FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS...
  • The Cambridge University Language Study O lnysrmatpoelpe can raedtihs. I cdnuoltblveieetaht I cluodaulacltyuesdnatnrdwaht I was rdanieg. The phaonmnealpweor of the hmuanmnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at CmabrigdeUinervtisy, it deosn'tmttaer in wahtoredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olnyiprmoatnttihng is taht the frist and lsatltteer be in the rghitpclae. The rset can be a taotlmses and you can sitllraed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamnmniddeos not raederveylteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyastghuhotslpeling was ipmorantt!
  • Name the Color that the following words are written in:
    Red . . . Yellow . . . Blue . . . Purple . . .
    Orange . . . Green . . .Pink . . . White
  • Old or Young Lady?
  • Good or Evil?
  • Psychologist:
    • Individuals who have earned a doctoral degree and are interested in the behavior of humans and animals
    Vs.
    Psychiatrist:
    • Physician with specialized training in the medical treatment of mental and emotional disorders
  • Boughen the Mentalist
    Think of two simple geometrical shapes, one inside the other.
    Now a number between 1-50
    Both digits odd, but not the same one.
    15 is OK but 11 is no good.
  • A Little Case Study with a Big Point!
    Q: Who was Sir Arthur Conan Doyle?
    A: He invented the character of detective Sherlock Holmes!!!
  • Rise of Spiritualism and Mediums
  • Look at this picture and tell me what you think:
  • My question to you is . .
    Why did Sir Arthur Conan
    Doyle believe these girls and
    these photographs?
  • Bias:
    Preconceptions (already held beliefs) that cloud our
    observations and influence the questions we ask.
    Law of Parsimony:
    Theory that tells us to adopt the explanation that
    requires the fewest assumptions
  • When studying Psychology you should always ask yourself:
    1.What is the claim and who is making it?
    2.Is the claim based on scientific observation?
    3. What do statistics reveal?
    -When evaluating a claim we need to know whether the findings occurred by chance
    - Findings are only significant if they are statistically
    significant (occur over and over enough times)
    4.Are there plausible alternative explanations for the claim?
  • The Placebo Effect
  • Placebo Effect:
    Found in research and experiments, refers to the effects
    (either positive or negative) associated with a subject’s
    beliefs and attitudes
    This phenomena has been found in:
    1. Headache Experiments
    2. Alcohol Experiments
  • Specialties in Psychology:
    Research
    Forensic (Jury Selection, Discredit Eye Witness)
    Psychiatrist
    School
    Consumer
    Cognitive
    Health (changing Harmful Behaviours)
    Industrial and Organizational
    Neuropsychology
    Eclectic
    sports
    • Clinical (Diagnosis and treatment of Psychological disorders)
  • Phineas Gage
  • The Three Debates:
    Nature Vs. Nurture
    Person Vs. Situation
    Stability Vs. Change
  • The Three Big Debates:
    Read the handout “Enduring Issues in Psychology” and think about the three debates discussed in the article: The Nature vs. Nurture debate, The Person vs. Situation Debate, and the Stability vs. Change Debate.
    Pair up with a partner and discuss the debates. Write a definition of each debate in your notes. Then take a stance on your own beliefs.
    Journal Assignment: In three well written paragraphs explain what each debate is and then take a stance about which side of each debate you think is correct. Explain why you think a particular side is more correct by providing examples that you have seen in your own life, and/or by making reference to different things you have heard about or read.
  • Historical Psychology
    First lab devoted to the scientific study of Psychology – 1879, University of Leipzig, Germany.
    Wilhelm Wundt credited with establishing psychology as an academic discipline
  • Wilhelm Wundt:
    A German medical doctor and psychologist
    regarded as the father of psychology
    founded one of the first formal laboratories for psychological research
    His greatest contribution was to show that psychology could be a valid experimental science
  • Three Most Influential Movements in Modern Psychology
    1. Behavioral Perspective [Behaviorism]
    2. Psychodynamic Perspective
    3. Humanistic Approach
  • Behavioral Perspective of Psychology
    Simply called “Behaviorism”
    Main focus is on observable behaviors – only what can be seen
    Does not speculate on mental processes such as thinking
    Main belief is that all behavior is learned
  • Ivan Pavlov:
    Russian Psychologist
    Won Nobel Prize for Medicine
    in 1904
    Created a famous behaviorist theory on learning – Classical Conditioning
  • Learned Associations - Conditioning
    When two unrelated things (stimuli) are paired together and eventually become associated with each other
    For example when the school bell rings you stand up and leave the classroom
  • Pavlov Con’t:
    Famous for his Salivating (drooling) Dog Experiment
    When he would jingle his keys the dogs would begin to drool
    This is an example of conditioning because the sound of the keys and the food are unrelated, but when paired together many times, the dogs associated the sound of keys with feeding
    Same thing happens when a cat hears the can opener and comes running
  • John B. Watson
    brought Behaviorism to America
    Insisted all psychology should only be concerned with observable behaviors
    Developed strict laboratory control systems
    By controlling a subjects environment you can control all behavior
  • Watson’s Little Albert Experiment:
  • B.F. Skinner
    “Give me a child and I'll shape him into
    anything."
  • B.F. Skinner
    called the “greatest contemporary psychologist of all time”
    believed that behavior changes as the result of rewards and consequences (punishments)
    environment, not free will, shapes human behavior
    goal of psychologist is to identify and change the environmental conditions to control subjects behavior
    Created the “Skinner Box”
  • Sigmund Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective:
    Freud sought to delve deep beneath observable behaviors
    Wanted to find the root of the problem that he believed was often located in the unconscious mind
    Believed behaviors were only manifestations or signs of a deeper problem
  • Sigmund Freud:
    trained Neurologist
    Patients who came to him often suffered from a variety of anxieties and other mental disturbances
    Often his theories on behavior and personality were based on patients who would be considered “psychotic”
  • Psychodynamic Perspective:
    Developed by Freud
    States both normal and abnormal behaviors are
    determined primarily by unconscious forces
    The unconscious mind exerts great control over behavior
  • Psychodynamic Theory Con’t
    • Created idea of slip of the tongue – a persons true feelings are revealed through slips in speech
    • Dream Analysis – mind often disguises dreams with symbols or deeper meanings
    • Childhood Experiences – have major influence on personality development
    • Gained great fame and controversy by suggesting people (even children) are driven by motives that are sexual in nature
  • Psychodynamic Theory Con’t:
    Goal treatment – to bring unconscious causes of behavior to the conscious level
    Only once the source of distress was brought to awareness could it be changed
    It treating patients he often used hypnosis
    Developed Psycho-Therapy
  • The Humanistic Approach:
    Often viewed as the “third force” because this view of psychology offered an alternative perspective
    Is a distinctly positive view of human nature
    Major players – Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Albert Bandura
  • Humanistic Approach Con’t:
    States that human beings have choices in their lives
    Each person is a unique individual and experiences the world differently
    All human beings share the basic need to grow to their fullest potential – Self Actualization
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
  • Treatment Mental Illness: A Historical Overview
  • Rush’s Tranquilizer Chair
  • Assingment
    Historical Treatment of the Mentally ill
    Define the following terms and state what they have to do with Historical psychology
    Lunatic Bleeding a patient
    Asylum insane
    Crazy
    List 4 Eras of History
    Eg 20th C, 16 - 18th C, Early Civilizations eg Greek Egypt etc
    For each Era you need 6 points of information
    Cite your work. State where you found it.
  • Each of the following descriptions could apply to one of the historical perspective on psychology discussed in class. Which perspective best fits the description?
    Believes that unconscious forces are the most significant determinants of behavior.
    Is concerned with observing behaviors that can be seen
    Believes that as humans we have a choice and desicion.
    Believes in dream analysis and hypnosis
    Is interested in studying the neurons of the brain
     
    Identify the individual who is most likely to have made each of the following statements.
    “Even though Albert may have been scared, the experiment was worth it.”
    “The study of my parents convinces me that unconscious forces lie beneath many of their disturbances.”
    “What impresses me about human behavior is the freedom each of us has to make choices.”
    “When I jingled my keys my subjects (dogs) started to salivate.”
     
    Name the type of psychologist (or specialty) described in each of the following:
    Was asked to diagnose and treat a 35-year-old man who hears frightening voices every day.
    Helped an second base men for the Yankees complete a throw to first.
    Designed a survey to determine whether purchasers of a liquid detergent were satisfied with the product
    Was involved in determining the accuracy of eyewitness testimony for jurors.