Think about it: If someone asked you what memory is (to define) memory, what would you say? Are there different types / kinds of memory? If so, brainstorm some. How important is the ability to remember? Why? Explain your thoughts? Without our memory we would not survive. Agree or disagree, and explain your choice. Without memories we would not know who we are. Agree or disagree, and explain your choice.
Memory: The concept of memory is difficult to define. Memory is one of those abilities that we take for granted. Certainly memory is related to learning. Memory: Is the system or process by which the products or results of learning are stored for future use.
There are many ways we memorize learned material: Serial Learning: - Material that has been learned must be repeated in the order which it was presented. Examples: - Phone numbers - Simple procedure like how to make coffee - Math equations
Items to be recalled are learned in pairs. During recall,
one member of the pair is presented and the other is to be recalled. Example: Learning a foreign language, basic definition study, etc. Free Recall: - When material that has been learned may be repeated in any order. Here the task is to remember as many items as possible, regardless of their order Example: Essay Answers.
Read Handout: Initial Studies in Memory: Who was Herman Ebbinghaus? What are nonsense syllables and why are they important? Explain the curve of forgetting. What is a recognition test (provide an example). What is a relearning test? What does it show?
Advertisers have found a strategy that emphasizes free recall. . . Use music.
How many commercials have you seen or heard that did not include music or a jingle?
Advertisers assume that we are more likely to remember brands and products if they are associated with catchy phrases or jingles.
Surprisingly little research has been conducted to verify this assumption Results of research that has been done are mixed: Some studies have yielded a positive correlation between memory and music, some have found no relationship, and still others have found that music can actually interfere with recall. Most psychologist conclude that items associated with musical jingles or catchy phrases are easier to retrieve from memory, but that pairing an item with music it does not necessarily enhance recognition of those items
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of Memory: The encoding-storage-retrieval model of memory would serve our purpose well if we only had one type of memory to store However, we have at least three well-defined types of memory: Sensory Memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory
Lasts only briefly about one half to one second, depending on which sensory systems are involved Sensory information that is not selected for further processing by higher brain centers is displaced by incoming stimuli and may be lost completely
It appears that items are lost from STM in 10 -20 seconds
For example: one study found that participants’ recall of a three-letter stimulus fell from 90% correct immediately following the presentation of the stimulus, to 5% correct after 18 seconds There are two reasons for this: 1. Unless memories are practiced or rehearsed they become weaker and fade away 2. To make room for new incoming information some of the memories in STM are pushed out or displaced
For example: In the same experiment as above participants counted backwards by threes (an interfering task) after learning the three-letter stimulus. The result was that most Short Term information was simply lost.
STM is limited to five to nine items 7(+-)2, each of those items may consist of a chunk or group of items
Phase Two: Working Memory
Initial 15-20 second STM leads to a second phase called working memory
Working memory – the intermediate processing stage between STM and LTM, where attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on the material
For example: you are in class listening to a lecture in which a definition is mentioned. While you hold what the teacher is saying in your STM, you retrieve word meaning from LTM. Then you use Working memory to make sense of the new sentence you just heard.
Long Term Memory: Memory stage that has a very large capacity and the capability to store information relatively permanently Rehearsal or practice is important in the transfer of information from STM into LTM Two types of memory rehearsal: 1. Maintenance Rehearsal 2. Elaborative Rehearsal
Two Types of Memory Rehearsal to Move Material into LTM:
Maintenance Rehearsal: rehearsal used when we want to save or maintain a memory for a specific period of time.
Elaborative Rehearsal: Meaning is added to the material to be remembered.
- This leads to more permanent memory and promotes transfer of information into LTM.
Why do we forget? Some memory loss is due to fading or decay of memories over time (Curve of Forgetting) Other memory loss is caused by interference There are two main types of memory interference: Proactive Interference Retroactive Interference
Proactive Interference: Situation in which previously learned (old) information hinders the recall of information learned more recently (new information) For example: You move into a new house but find yourself still using your old address and phone number Example 2: In January many people continue to write the previous year’s date
2. Retroactive Interference: - Situation when information learned more recently (new information) hinders the recall of information learned previously (old information) - Models of memory suggests that when a memory is recalled from LTM and enters our consciousness, it may be combined with new information that have been received, creating a new memory. - If this new modified memory is properly rehearsed it may be transferred back to LTM for permanent storage
Bollywood Movie Trailer 26 Right What word was written under the diamond at the end of the trailer? 2 Wrong 6 Right What mode of Transportation was used to weave between cars 22 Wrong
Bollywood Movie Trailer 4 Right What colour was the first helicopter? 24 Wrong How old was the last woman / girl in the trailer? Woman Avg =24 Girl Avg = 18 Was anyone wearing a watch? 19 Right 9 Wrong
10 Techniques for Improving Memory: Influential Factors: 1.Number of study sessions: - Generally the greater the number of sessions the better the learning and memory 2. Distribution of Study Sessions: - Sessions should be spread out. Spaced practice is more effective than massed practice 3. Meaningfulness of Material: - If you attach meaning you will learn better and remember longer
4. Similarity of items: - a group of items of the same general type will be learned better than a group of dissimilar items 5. Serial Positioning: - Items at the beginning and end of a study session or list will be learned better than items in the middle of the study session or list 6. Mnemonic Devices: - When you are not able to attach authentic meaning to information, creating associations to help you remember the material will increase memory
7. Imagery: - Creating mental images or pictures in your mind enhances recognition and recall of information 8. Grouping or Chunking: - grouping similar items together into categories helps to remember them better 9. Coding: - Creating special codes to help learn material that lack relevance 10. Exercise regularly – Both mind and body
Memory Champ! What was his technique? Walk a path several times Then hang a memory on each significant part of the path. We are going to do that.
Here is the Task Walk a path in the school. Classes are in session so you need to be silent. As you walk the path create 10 anchors. These could be rooms or teachers. It should be some place where you have a memory. Walk the path 4 times! Memorize the order of your anchors. Attach a memory technique on an anchor. Try to have meaning to the association Ex. Maybe Serial Positioning could be associated with the Foods’ Lab (Cereal -> food, get it?)
Memory Reconstruction Article: Question #5 Will be discussed / presented and Handed in by group: Leader – Leads discussion / makes sure everyone has contributed ideas Recorder – Writes down group’s answers / thoughts Focuser – Redirects the group back to the task at hand when they get off task Time Keeper – reminds group of time remaining so that task gets complete Reporter – Shares key points of the groups discussion with the whole class
Different Types of LTM 3 Major types of LTM: Procedural Memory for making responses and performing skilled actions.
Different LTMs Semantic Memory for general knowledge. 7-2 = ? Alberta shares a border with BC Big cities tend to be rather impersonal Tip-Of-The-Tongue phenomenon. We will test your semantic memory. Write down your answers to each of the following questions.
Sematic LTM Which ocean is adjacent to California? Which type of engine is used to power an automobile? What do bears do in the winter? What are 2 Manitoban lakes? What is the capital of Saskatchewon? Who was Canada’s first Prime Minister? Where will the 2019 Olympics be held?
Semantic LTM (TOT) Name the province each of the following cities are in: Edmonton Dauphin Wistler Ottawa Medicine Hat Fort Nelson Fort Francis Abbotsford FlinFlon Moncton St. John’s Peterborough A M B O S B O B M N N O
Episodic Memory Personal experiences. Also Called Flashbulb! Think of a comera Take a picture and it will stay in memory. Here are some of mine: May 25th 2002 4:03PM 35 cm of Snowfall Nov. 15th 2005 Nov 26th 2007 The death of Michael Jackson Sep 11th 2001
Eye Witness Testimony Height from: 5’3 - 6’3 Weight from: 150 – 220 lbs Age From: 17 - 37 years old Shirt: Yellow, Green, White, Plaid Pant Style: Khaki, Cargo, Dress, Slacks Pant Colour: Cream, Tan, Beige, Dark, Black, Brown, Green Hair Style: Short, Spiky, Curly, Straight Hair Colour: Black, Dark Brown, Light Brown, Brown, Blonde Mole Black Briefcase White Necklace Non-Athletic Had a knife “Looked like a white Boughen” 5’10 175 lbs Brown Hair Yellow Shirt Greenish Grey Dress Pants Glasses 21 years old
Déja Vu French for “Already Seen” There are 40 theories 70% of population stated to have experienced it Most in ages 15 – 25 result from an overlap between the neurological systems responsible for STM and those responsible for LTM. The events would be stored into memory before the conscious part of the brain even receives the information and processes it. Disorders Eye seeing faster than the other eye.
75% of individuals who were asked consistent questions after seeing the slides correctly picked the slide that they had seen
Only 40% of the participants asked the inconsistent questions were able to select the slide they had actually seen.
The experiment proved that questioning had altered their memory of the incident
Loftus repeated a similar experiment, called the CrashExperiment and found similar results.
Recently Loftus had found similar findings in what became known as the “Bugs Bunny” experiment
In addition to demonstrating the memory –altering effects of questioning. Loftus did many other controversial experiments involving the accuracy of eye witness testimonies. Her findings all concluded three important things: 1. Participants have trouble distinguishing between individuals of other races 2. Violence interferes with memory retrieval 3. The degree of confidence of an eye witness is not related to the accuracy of the memory.
Unit 5: Thinking, Language, Intelligence, and the Brain