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Memory

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  • 1. Unit 3: Memory
  • 2. Think about it:
    If someone asked you what memory is (to define) memory, what would you say?
    Are there different types / kinds of memory? If so, brainstorm some.
    How important is the ability to remember? Why? Explain your thoughts?
    Without our memory we would not survive. Agree or disagree, and explain your choice.
    Without memories we would not know who we are. Agree or disagree, and explain your choice.
  • 3. Memory:
    The concept of memory is difficult to define.
    Memory is one of those abilities that we take for
    granted.
    Certainly memory is related to learning.
    Memory:
    Is the system or process by which the products
    or results of learning are stored for future use.
  • 4. There are many ways we memorize learned material:
    Serial Learning:
    - Material that has been learned must be
    repeated in the order which it was presented.
    Examples:
    - Phone numbers
    - Simple procedure like how to make coffee - Math equations
  • 5. Paired-Associate Learning:
    • Items to be recalled are learned in pairs. During recall,
    one member of the pair is presented and the other is to
    be recalled.
    Example: Learning a foreign language, basic definition
    study, etc.
    Free Recall:
    - When material that has been learned may be repeated in any order. Here the task is to remember as many items as possible, regardless of their order
    Example: Essay Answers.
  • 6. Read Handout: Initial Studies in Memory:
    Who was Herman Ebbinghaus?
    What are nonsense syllables and why are they important?
    Explain the curve of forgetting.
    What is a recognition test (provide an example).
    What is a relearning test? What does it show?
  • 7. Music and Memory:
    • Advertisers have found a strategy that emphasizes free recall. . . Use music.
    • 8. How many commercials have you seen or heard that did not include music or a jingle?
    • 9. Advertisers assume that we are more likely to remember brands and products if they are associated with catchy phrases or jingles.
  • Surprisingly little research has been conducted to verify this assumption
    Results of research that has been done are mixed:
    Some studies have yielded a positive correlation between memory and music, some have found no relationship, and still others have found that music can actually interfere with recall.
    Most psychologist conclude that items associated with musical jingles or catchy phrases are easier to retrieve from memory, but that pairing an item with music it does not necessarily enhance recognition of those items
  • 10. Let’s Test Your Memory for Advertisements:
  • 11.
  • Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of Memory:
    The encoding-storage-retrieval model of memory would serve our purpose well if we only had one type of memory to store
    However, we have at least three well-defined types of memory:
    Sensory Memory
    Short Term Memory
    Long Term Memory
  • 71. D C R M
    Y N S V
    I E G Z
  • 72.
    • Therefore the information processing model of memory must be modified:
    Encoding – “type” of storage – Retrieval
    Sensory Memory:
    • Storage of sensory events such as sights, sounds, and tastes, with no further processing or interpretation
    • 73. Provides us with a very brief image of all the stimuli that are present at a particular moment
    • 74. it is quite large
  • Lasts only briefly about one half to one second, depending on which sensory systems are involved
    Sensory information that is not selected for further processing by higher brain centers is displaced by incoming stimuli and may be lost completely
  • 75. 2. Short Term Memory:
    • Once info has be selected from sensory memory, it is transferred to our conscious awareness
    • 76. Info must be processed in STM before it can be transferred to more permanent storage in LTM
    • 77. STM lasts only for a short period of time
    • 78. It appears that items are lost from STM in 10 -20 seconds
  • For example: one study found that participants’ recall of a three-letter stimulus fell from 90% correct immediately following the presentation of the stimulus, to 5% correct after 18 seconds
    There are two reasons for this:
    1. Unless memories are practiced or rehearsed they become weaker and fade away
    2. To make room for new incoming information some of the memories in STM are pushed out or displaced
  • 79. For example: In the same experiment as above participants counted backwards by threes (an interfering task) after learning the three-letter stimulus.
    The result was that most Short Term information was simply lost.
  • 80. George Miller and the 7 Plus or Minus 2 Model
    • Theory states that we can hold approximately 7 (+-) 2 items in our STM
    • 81. What about phone numbers that are 10 digits with the area code?
    • 82. Grouping or chunking things is the solution
    • 83. STM is limited to five to nine items 7(+-)2, each of those items may consist of a chunk or group of items
  • Phase Two: Working Memory
    • Initial 15-20 second STM leads to a second phase called working memory
    • 84. Working memory – the intermediate processing stage between STM and LTM, where attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on the material
    For example: you are in class listening to a lecture in which a definition is mentioned. While you hold what the teacher is saying in your STM, you retrieve word meaning from LTM. Then you use Working memory to make sense of the new sentence you just heard.
  • 85. Long Term Memory:
    Memory stage that has a very large capacity and the capability to store information relatively permanently
    Rehearsal or practice is important in the transfer of information from STM into LTM
    Two types of memory rehearsal:
    1. Maintenance Rehearsal
    2. Elaborative Rehearsal
  • 86. Two Types of Memory Rehearsal to Move Material into LTM:
    • Maintenance Rehearsal: rehearsal used when we want to save or maintain a memory for a specific period of time.
    • 87. Elaborative Rehearsal: Meaning is added to the material to be remembered.
    - This leads to more permanent memory and promotes transfer of information into LTM.
  • 88. Why do we forget?
    Some memory loss is due to fading or decay of memories over time (Curve of Forgetting)
    Other memory loss is caused by interference
    There are two main types of memory interference:
    Proactive Interference
    Retroactive Interference
  • 89. Proactive Interference:
    Situation in which previously learned (old) information
    hinders the recall of information learned more recently
    (new information)
    For example: You move into a new house but find
    yourself still using your old address and phone number
    Example 2: In January many people continue to write
    the previous year’s date
  • 90. 2. Retroactive Interference:
    - Situation when information learned more recently
    (new information) hinders the recall of information
    learned previously (old information)
    - Models of memory suggests that when a memory is
    recalled from LTM and enters our consciousness, it may
    be combined with new information that have been
    received, creating a new memory.
    - If this new modified memory is properly rehearsed it
    may be transferred back to LTM for permanent storage
  • 91. Bollywood Movie Trailer
    26 Right
    What word was written under the diamond at the end of the trailer?
    2 Wrong
    6 Right
    What mode of Transportation was used to weave between cars
    22 Wrong
  • 92. Bollywood Movie Trailer
    4 Right
    What colour was the first helicopter?
    24 Wrong
    How old was the last woman / girl in the trailer?
    Woman Avg =24
    Girl Avg = 18
    Was anyone wearing a watch?
    19 Right
    9 Wrong
  • 93. 10 Techniques for Improving Memory:
    Influential Factors:
    1.Number of study sessions:
    - Generally the greater the number of sessions the better the learning and memory
    2. Distribution of Study Sessions:
    - Sessions should be spread out. Spaced practice is more effective than massed practice
    3. Meaningfulness of Material:
    - If you attach meaning you will learn better and remember longer
  • 94. 4. Similarity of items:
    - a group of items of the same general type will be learned better than a group of dissimilar items
    5. Serial Positioning:
    - Items at the beginning and end of a study session or list will be learned better than items in the middle of the study session or list
    6. Mnemonic Devices:
    - When you are not able to attach authentic meaning to information, creating associations to help you remember the material will increase memory
  • 95. 7. Imagery:
    - Creating mental images or pictures in your mind enhances recognition and recall of information
    8. Grouping or Chunking:
    - grouping similar items together into categories helps to remember them better
    9. Coding:
    - Creating special codes to help learn material that lack relevance
    10. Exercise regularly – Both mind and body
  • 96. Memory Champ!
    What was his technique?
    Walk a path several times
    Then hang a memory on each significant part of the path.
    We are going to do that.
  • 97. Here is the Task
    Walk a path in the school.
    Classes are in session so you need to be silent.
    As you walk the path create 10 anchors.
    These could be rooms or teachers.
    It should be some place where you have a memory.
    Walk the path 4 times! Memorize the order of your anchors.
    Attach a memory technique on an anchor.
    Try to have meaning to the association
    Ex. Maybe Serial Positioning could be associated with the Foods’ Lab (Cereal -> food, get it?)
  • 98. Memory Reconstruction Article:
    Question #5 Will be discussed / presented and Handed
    in by group:
    Leader – Leads discussion / makes sure everyone has contributed ideas
    Recorder – Writes down group’s answers / thoughts
    Focuser – Redirects the group back to the task at hand when they get off task
    Time Keeper – reminds group of time remaining so that task gets complete
    Reporter – Shares key points of the groups discussion with the whole class
  • 99. Different Types of LTM
    3 Major types of LTM:
    Procedural
    Memory for making responses and performing skilled actions.
  • 100. Different LTMs
    Semantic
    Memory for general knowledge.
    7-2 = ?
    Alberta shares a border with BC
    Big cities tend to be rather impersonal
    Tip-Of-The-Tongue phenomenon. We will test your semantic memory.
    Write down your answers to each of the following questions.
  • 101. Sematic LTM
    Which ocean is adjacent to California?
    Which type of engine is used to power an automobile?
    What do bears do in the winter?
    What are 2 Manitoban lakes?
    What is the capital of Saskatchewon?
    Who was Canada’s first Prime Minister?
    Where will the 2019 Olympics be held?
  • 102. Semantic LTM (TOT)
    Name the province each of the following cities are in:
    Edmonton
    Dauphin
    Wistler
    Ottawa
    Medicine Hat
    Fort Nelson
    Fort Francis
    Abbotsford
    FlinFlon
    Moncton
    St. John’s
    Peterborough
    A
    M
    B
    O
    S
    B
    O
    B
    M
    N
    N
    O
  • 103. Episodic Memory
    Personal experiences.
    Also Called Flashbulb!
    Think of a comera Take a picture and it will stay in memory.
    Here are some of mine:
    May 25th 2002 4:03PM
    35 cm of Snowfall Nov. 15th 2005
    Nov 26th 2007
    The death of Michael Jackson
    Sep 11th 2001
  • 104. Eye Witness Testimony
    Height from: 5’3 - 6’3
    Weight from: 150 – 220 lbs
    Age From: 17 - 37 years old
    Shirt: Yellow, Green, White, Plaid
    Pant Style: Khaki, Cargo, Dress, Slacks
    Pant Colour: Cream, Tan, Beige, Dark, Black, Brown, Green
    Hair Style: Short, Spiky, Curly, Straight
    Hair Colour: Black, Dark Brown, Light Brown, Brown, Blonde
    Mole
    Black Briefcase
    White Necklace
    Non-Athletic
    Had a knife
    “Looked like a white Boughen”
    5’10
    175 lbs
    Brown Hair
    Yellow Shirt
    Greenish Grey Dress Pants
    Glasses
    21 years old
  • 105. Déja Vu
    French for “Already Seen”
    There are 40 theories
    70% of population stated to have experienced it
    Most in ages 15 – 25
    result from an overlap between the neurological systems responsible for STM and those responsible for LTM. The events would be stored into memory before the conscious part of the brain even receives the information and processes it.
    Disorders
    Eye seeing faster than the other eye.
  • 106. Eye- Witness Testimony
    • One of the most intriguing applications of the “encoding specificity hypothesis” has been in the area of eye witness testimony
    • 107. Such testimony often play an important part in jury trials
    • 108. Listen to story.
    • 109. What cues were present when the accident was present?
    • 110. What cues were present when the statement was made?
    • 111. Is it possible for the drivers of the 2 cars to modify the memories of the eye witness as they discussed the accident?
    When you retrieve a memory from LTM it is placed in STM. New information can then me added to the memory.
  • 112. Encoding Specificity Hypothesis
    The” states that the effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of the cues present when the memory was encoded.
  • 113. More Examples of Stat-Dependent Learning
  • 114. Eyewitness Continued…
    • The possibility that eyewitness reports may be inaccurate has stimulated a large amount of psychological research
    • 115. Psychologists have found that when a memory is retrieved from LTM, it appears to be placed in STM for processing
    • 116. While in STM it is possible to add new information to a memory and then re-encode the modified memory
    • 117. The next time you retrieve the new memory, your report may not correspond exactly to what actually happened because the new memory now contains the additional information
    • 118. This effect was tested in several experimentsconducted by Elizabeth Loftus
  • Elizabeth Loftus – Memory Research
    • American psychologist
    • 119. Focus of her work was on human memory and how it can be changed by facts, ideas, suggestions and other forms of post-event information
    • 120. Her interest in memory began with one of her first studies The Lost in the Mall experiment.
    • 121. Discovered what she termed as “False Memory Syndrome”
    • 122. Discovered the “Misinformation Effect:
    • 123. a memory bias that occurs when misinformation affects people's reports of their own memory.
  • Her Research:
    Famous Car Accident Reconstruction Experiment:
    Experiment:
    • Two groups of people watched a series of slides that showed a collision between a red sports car and another automobile
    • 124. One groups saw the red sports car approach a stop sign at the intersection, the second group saw the sports car approach a yield sign at the intersection
    • 125. After the slide presentation was complete the participant were asked a series of questions about what they had seen.
  • 126.
    • For half of the participants in each group the questions were consistent with what they had seen
    • 127. For the participants in each group, the questions were inconsistent with what really happened – if they had seen a stop sign, the question referred to a yield sign, etc.
    • 128. Finally, all participants were shown both pairs of slides and asked to pick the one they had actually seen.
    The results were startling:
  • 129.
    • 75% of individuals who were asked consistent questions after seeing the slides correctly picked the slide that they had seen
    • 130. Only 40% of the participants asked the inconsistent questions were able to select the slide they had actually seen.
    • 131. The experiment proved that questioning had altered their memory of the incident
    • 132. Loftus repeated a similar experiment, called the CrashExperiment and found similar results.
    • 133. Recently Loftus had found similar findings in what became known as the “Bugs Bunny” experiment
  • In addition to demonstrating the memory –altering
    effects of questioning. Loftus did many other
    controversial experiments involving the accuracy of eye
    witness testimonies.
    Her findings all concluded three important things:
    1. Participants have trouble distinguishing
    between individuals of other races
    2. Violence interferes with memory retrieval
    3. The degree of confidence of an eye witness is not related to the accuracy of the memory.
  • 134. Unit 5: Thinking, Language, Intelligence, and the Brain
  • 135. Think about it:
    • Q1: What does it mean to have the ability to think? That is, what is thinking?
    • 136. Q2: What does it mean to be intelligent?
    • 137. Q3: What are the characteristics of an intelligent person?
    • 138. Q4:Is intelligence a result of your genes (nature) or you environment (nurture)?
    • 139. Q5:Can a person learn intelligence?