a Family Poultry development towards the achievement of the UN Millennium Development GoalsAntonio Rota 7th International Poultry Show and SeminarIFAD Senior Technical Adviser Dhaka, 25-27 March, 2011Livestock and Farming Systems Photo Prof. Dr. Gouranga Ch. Chanda
a International Fund for Agriculture Development - IFADEnabling therural poor to overcome poverty
a IFAD at workFrom 1979 to 2009:• 860 projects in 117 countries• Supported 371 million rural poor• Total IFAD disbursement: USD 11,9 billion• USD 808.4 million in 33 new projects in 2010
a Smallholder farming500 million smallholder farmsworldwide supporting around2 billion people. They:– Farm 80% of the farmland in Asia and Africa– Produce 80% of the food consumed in the developing world– Feed 1/3 of the global population– Women are increasingly the farmers of the developing world, producing between 45% and 80% of household food
a Food Security and Production• The world’s population is projected to grow from 6.8 billion to 9.1 billion by 2050• Agriculture production in the developing countries would need to almost double
a Factors determining rural poverty Lack of political representation for rural poor Lack of Risk and assets, land vulnerability and water Lack of access to financial Conflicts and services & Crises technology Lack of skills Inappropriate and weak government organizations Poor policies integration with local, regional & international markets
a Fighting poverty• Fighting poverty has become a priority• 189 World Leaders committed themselves to address poverty in 2000• Millennium Development Goals
a Role of livestockWorldwide there is evidenceof a direct linkage betweenimprovement of livestockproduction and povertyreduction
a Livestock Sector• The livestock sector is essential to the livelihoods of about 1 billion of the world’s poorest people• It accounts for 30% of the agricultural GDP in developing countries• It grows faster than most other agricultural sub-sectors (WB, 2009)
a Consumption of livestock products in developing countries
a Small Livestock (SL)Poultry, rabbits, guinea pigs, sheep, goats,pigs… are the animals of the poorest. Why?: – Even landless can keep them (sometime they are their only asset) – Reproduce fast – Efficiently transform roughages, shrubs, kitchen waste… into highly valuable food – Produce manure which is often the only input for crop production – No need for big starting capitals – Easily sold or bartered – Highly mobile in case of crisis/disaster – Socio-cultural value
a Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)• Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger• Achieve universal primary education• Promote gender equality and empower women• Reduce child mortality• Improve maternal health• Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases• Ensure environmental sustainability• Develop a global partnership for development
IFAD Projects with rural poultrya development component Project with a Rural Poultry Project with a Rural Poultry Development Development component – on component – completed going
MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty a and hungerTARGET• Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than 1 USD a day• Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people• Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
a Living with $ 1.25 a day Source: World Bank 2009
MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty a and hungerSmall Livestock:• Contribute to human nutrition providing food with high quality macro and micronutrients• Generate small income and provide the potential to ‘bank’ savings, which enhances the capacity to cope with shocks and reduces economic vulnerability• In times of crises (i.e. drought, flooding, conflicts), play an important role as ‘mobile’ food asset
MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and a hunger (nutrition)• Poverty leads to a human diet that is lacking in diversity: – Low in vitamin A, vitamin B-12, riboflavin, calcium, iron and zinc – Causes anemia, poor growth, rickets, impaired cognitive performance, blindness, neuromuscular deficits, and in the worst cases death. – Foods of animal origin are particularly rich sources of all six of these nutrients, and relatively small amounts of these foods can improve the quality of the total diet substantially (Murphy and Allen, 2003). Data from Dr. Frands Dolberg• 40-50% of eggs and poultry produced is self-consumed.
MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty anda hunger (nutrition)Poultry used for poverty alleviation helps increase equity of consumption of other (animal) products: Bangladesh. Food item Increase in consumption by factor: Eggs 2.5 Chicken meat 2.4 Fish 1.2 Meat (beef and goat) 2.0 Milk 3.0 Grain 1.2 Data from Dr. Frands Dolberg
MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty anda hunger (impact)Impact of the Village Poultry ProgrammeAfghanistan:• Profitability 91.0 %• Interest to keep Poultry 95.7%• Family egg consumption 88.9%• Chicken meat consumption 67.7%• Egg selling 87.5%Data from FAO, 2006
MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty anda hunger (impact)Afghanistan Traditional Poultry Improved PoultryFlock size 2.5 hens (max. 5.7 hens) 15.4 hensAvg. eggs per year 125 eggs (max. 309 eggs) 2410 eggs (max. 2830 eggs)Avg. income per month 12-13 USD (max. 30 USD) 144 USD (max. 250 USD) from eggsAvg. income per month 10-12 USD n.a. from chickenAvg. income per month n.a. 23-40 USD per monthfor Women PoultryGroup Leaderproviding services (i.e.vaccination)
MDG 1. Eradicate extreme poverty anda hunger (impact)Comparison of profitability of different rural poultry enterprisesBangladesh: BCR: Benefit Cost Ratio Components Gross Gross Cash Net Gross BCR BCR Return cost cost Return margin (Full (Cash cost) Cost) Chick Rearer 100260.45 65923.58 62313.36 34336.87 37947.09 1.51 1.60 Key Rearer 22097.25 5770.42 4568.21 16326.83 17529.04 3.86 5.99 Model Breeder 81315.00 73678.23 65130.73 7636.77 16184.43 1.11 1.24 Mini Hatchery 33956.41 15957.37 13606.74 17999.04 20349.67 2.08 2.43 Poultry Worker 4329.99 1396.08 527.88 2933.94 3802.14 3.09 8.41 Data from Dr. Meherunnesa Chowdhury Sumy (Taka per year) Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
MDG 2. Achieve universal primarya education• Inability of families to meet the costs of schooling is often the main reason why children cannot attend school or drop out at an early stage• Selling SL and their products provides one of the few possibilities for poor households to generate cash income to meet yearly school fees• Children with access to quality food (proteins and vitamins) have better health and take full advantage of the education they receive
MDG 3. Promote gender equality and a empower women• Women are the main caretakers of SL – especially where animals are kept near the house.• They are often responsible for processing livestock products• The ownership of SL gives them control over this asset and contributes to their empowerment• Keeping SL enhances their status/self- esteem at household and community level• Incremental increases in household income controlled by women have a demonstrated multiplier effect in enhancing family well-being• The increase of daily burdens by keeping poultry is negligible.
a MDG 4. Reduce child mortality UN MDG Report 2010
a MDG 4. Reduce child mortality• The consumption of even small quantities of milk, milk products, meat and eggs is essential for reducing child mortality and improving healthy child development• Poor households can cover health expenses and purchase medicines with incomes generated from their poultry• However, the close contact between badly managed chicken and children can result zoonotic diseases
a MDG 4. Reduce child mortality FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO REDUCED CHILD MALNUTRITION (Sixty three countries : 1970-96) Womens Education 12% Food Availability19% 43% Access to Safe Drinking Water Womens Status 26%Data from IFPRI L.C.Smith, L.Haddad (1999) through Dr. Frands Dolberg
a MDG 5. Improve maternal health• Consumption of milk, eggs and occasionally meat contribute significantly to the nutritional status of women• Income generation from livestock owned by women can also help to improve maternal health
a MDG 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
a MDG 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
a MDG 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases• In HIV/AIDS affected household, young people (orphans) can better handle SL rather than large animals• Using compatible infrastructures for human and animal health (i.e. cold chain for vaccines) may result in cost savings and better effectiveness
MDG 7. Ensure environmental a sustainability• Rural poultry is environmentally sound• Rural poultry reduces insect pest (ticks!)• Manure from poultry contributes to increase vegetable production
MDG 8. Develop a global partnership a for developmentTargets• Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system.• Address the special needs of the least developed countries
a Projected Net Trade In Meat (thousand MTs) 2015: -1,900 2030: -1,090 European Transition North America Union (15) Countries 2015: -2,950 2030: -4,000 2015: -2,360 Near East / South Asia East 2030: -3,520 North Africa Asia Sub-Saharan Africa 2015: 1,770 2015: -280 2015: -80 2030: 2,770 2030: -740 2030: -410 Latin America Oceania Net Export Net ImportSource: FAO 2002
MDG 8. Develop a global partnershipa for developmentSpecific actions and policiesare required to reducetransaction costs andbarriers to market accesswhich presently hamperpoor (producers andconsumers) to benefit fromglobal livestock trade andgrowing demand forlivestock products
a ConclusionsQUESTION: By keeping SMALL LIVESTOCK is it possiblefor poor resource persons to:Double the daily income of USD 1? YESGenerate employment? YESImprove (child) nutrition? YESImprove (child) health? YESContribute empowering women? YESEnsure environmental sustainability? YESUnfortunately without additional efforts, several of theMDGs are unlikely to be achieved in many countries
a ConclusionsInternational and national institutions, policy and decision makers are still reluctant to supportthe development of the SL sector WHAT DO WE NEED TO MAKE A REAL CHANGE? – Raise the awareness of decision-makers in national governments and donor agencies about the effectiveness of rural poultry as a tool for poverty reduction. – Effective and consistent national pro-poor policies which are crucial to capitalise on the opportunities offered by the increasing demand for livestock products and poverty- focused agendas of several countries; – Livestock farmers institutions which can help to voice their needs and facilitate the provision of services and inputs to the farming communities; – Participatory adaptive research which is needed to identify appropriate technologies/models which are pro-poor, sustainable, economically viable and environmentally sound; – Adapted Extension and Training for capacity building, especially for women; – Market led approach by producers supported by effective/accessible/qualitative services (breeding, veterinary services, credit, processing, marketing, extension/training, etc.) and infrastructures; – Personal commitment from “like minded” people to advocate for pro-poor development to achieve the MDGs through the promotion of the SL sector.
a ConclusionsWhat IFAD is doing to support rural poultry?– Promoting rural poultry as an effective tool for poverty reduction, for food security and gender empowerment.– Strengthening the International Network for Family Poultry Development – INFPD– Funding Investment Projects that improve capacity building at all level; access to credit and market; bio-safety as a mean for reducing the impact of diseases and public health risks.– Supporting research and up-scaling of successful models and technologies (i.e. Mini-hatcheries technology).
a Proposed ActionsIFAD is prepared to work together with national/international institutionscommitted to pro-poor livestock to:Develop a business-like approach to sensitise national policy, decisionmakers and donors about the effectiveness of rural poultry developmentto reduce poverty. This entails: – Identifying rural poultry development projects, models and approaches (i.e. Bangladesh model developed by the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and the Government of Bangladesh) that “work” and characterise their key success factors for up-scaling. – Gathering socio-economic data to demonstrate the return in terms of poverty reduction for each 1 USD invested in poultry production. – Identifying examples of effective national policies enhancing food security and supporting smallholder poultry farmers business. – Developing regional/national project proposals for substantial investments in the rural poultry sector in partnership with the private sector.
a Thank youAntonio Rota (firstname.lastname@example.org)IFAD, Senior Technical AdviserLivestock and Farming SystemsPolicy and Technical Advisory DivisionVia Paolo di Dono 4400142 Rome, ItalyTel. +39 06 5459 2680Fax + 39 06 5459 3680Please join the Community of Practice for Pro-PoorLivestock Developmentwww.cop-ppld.net