Why should we put pastoralism   back on the agenda ?               Michele Nori     EuropeAID E6 – Quality Support   natur...
ContentsThis presentation aims at answering these questions:• Who are the pastoralists ?• Which dynamics have characterise...
WHO ARE THE PASTORALISTSPastoralist are the communities living on arid lands through  mobile livestock keeping1) LIVESTOCK...
PASTORALISM       supports some 200 million pastoral households          covers 25 percent of the world’s land areaprovide...
Regional zonation of pastoral systems         Zone                      Main animal speciesSub-Saharan Africa     Cattle, ...
Touareg (W Africa) – Kuchi (Iran)              Photos: IFAD
Mongolia – Tibet     Photos: M.Nori & IFAD
Bedouin (Jordan) – Andes          Photos: IFAD
Horn & Mediterranean       Photos: M.Nori & IFAD
HARSH ENVIRONMENTSArid territories (drylands or highlands) with extreme  climatic patterns. Water limiting factor, not  al...
Rainfall index variation in the Sahelian region.                                       source: Yann l’Hôte et Al.(2001)
socio-political marginality - 1          FRONTIER LANDS• Geo-political borders (i.e. mountains or  deserts),• ‘divide et i...
socio-political marginality – 2  (MIS)-CONCEIVED AS UNSUSTAINABLE• Economically unviable –Herskovits’ “cattle complex”, 19...
Pastoral modernization…Pastoral development to be conceived asthe END of mobility and communal land access  (SEDENTARISATI...
Development approaches in pastoral areasPeriod         1950s to 1970s                  1980s to 1990sFocus     technical a...
Current trends – 1            GROWING FOOD INSECURITYThe current large number of reiterated emergency interventions in pas...
THE SILENT HAZARD: droughtReported Death of Natural Hazards globally (1974-2003): 2.066.273 persons                       ...
Current trends – 2      UPSCALING CONFLICT• Poor Governance – Fragile States• Recent trends: where civilizations clash:  D...
Current trends – 3               LOWEST HDI - MDGs• From better off to those ranking amongst the poorest and  most destitu...
Currently HD and MDGs indexes and are at  their lowest in such regions (ex.Kenya)
Failure & NeglectDuring the 1980s and the 1990s a series of reports clearly showed that the pastoral sector   experienced ...
Recent acknowledgements - 1• Effective way of producing food (animal  proteins) on marginal lands• Ensuring livelihoods & ...
Recent acknowledgements - 2• Pastoralism is not an intermediate development  stage but rather the result of a process of  ...
ECONOMIC CONSISTENCY  Contribution of livestock to GDP in SSAfrica           Mauri- Senegal Mali          Burkina Niger   ...
…despite• Other important contributions not-  accounted for, as through informal channels• Only 3 countries’ PRSP indicate...
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSISTENCY• Arid ecosystems functioning at disequilibrium: rangelands  are resilient• Overgrazing not a mai...
In a Climate Change perspective…      as to IPCC: increase in temperature and extreme events,               raising variab...
Reverting cause - effect relationships            room for discussionDesertification: Culprits or victims ?Conflict: Land ...
Operational implicationsCost/benefit analysis- Political long term engagementHigh transaction costs- Importance of communi...
RESHAPING LANDSCAPES             triggers for change•   Population growth•   Livestock Revolution & fair market remunerati...
Livestock Revolution potentials          MARKET                 High Transaction CostsProducing animal proteins in        ...
Thank you for your attention             michele.nori@ec.europa.eu
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Why Should We Put Pastoralism Back on the Agenda?

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Presentation from the Biannual Meeting of the European Union Livestock Development Group (ELIDEV) 6 May 2010 Italy, Rome IFAD Headquarters.

[ Originally posted on http://www.cop-ppld.net/cop_knowledge_base ]

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Why Should We Put Pastoralism Back on the Agenda?

  1. 1. Why should we put pastoralism back on the agenda ? Michele Nori EuropeAID E6 – Quality Support natural resources – rural development
  2. 2. ContentsThis presentation aims at answering these questions:• Who are the pastoralists ?• Which dynamics have characterised pastoral regions in recent decade ?• How could these be redressed ?• What elements should be considered in such process ?
  3. 3. WHO ARE THE PASTORALISTSPastoralist are the communities living on arid lands through mobile livestock keeping1) LIVESTOCK as the main livelihood source; the vital ‘technology’ that allows translating land resources into valuable products for people.2) MOBILITY as the way to make the best use of marginal natural resources, while enabling their recovery through time.3) FLEXIBLE arrangements regulating access to resources; common property rights, negotiationsPastoralism is an entire way of life, involving ecological, political, economic, technological, cultural and social dimensions.
  4. 4. PASTORALISM supports some 200 million pastoral households covers 25 percent of the world’s land areaprovides for valuable products (protein of milk & meat, fibres) from marginal lands
  5. 5. Regional zonation of pastoral systems Zone Main animal speciesSub-Saharan Africa Cattle, camel, sheep & goatsMediterranean Region Small ruminants (sheep & goats)India Camel, cattle, sheep, goatsCentral Asia Yak, camel, horse, sheep, goatsCircumpolar ReindeerNorth America Sheep, cattleAndes Llama, alpaca
  6. 6. Touareg (W Africa) – Kuchi (Iran) Photos: IFAD
  7. 7. Mongolia – Tibet Photos: M.Nori & IFAD
  8. 8. Bedouin (Jordan) – Andes Photos: IFAD
  9. 9. Horn & Mediterranean Photos: M.Nori & IFAD
  10. 10. HARSH ENVIRONMENTSArid territories (drylands or highlands) with extreme climatic patterns. Water limiting factor, not allowing continuous crop cultivation.3 main characterizing features:- Limitations of overall resource endowment / low average biomass production - limited productivity- Variability of resource distribution through space and time – patchy in time and space- Unpredictability of resource endowment and high degree of risk of extreme climatic events
  11. 11. Rainfall index variation in the Sahelian region. source: Yann l’Hôte et Al.(2001)
  12. 12. socio-political marginality - 1 FRONTIER LANDS• Geo-political borders (i.e. mountains or deserts),• ‘divide et impera’, nations mix and communities divided• Limited representativity• Areas remote from mainstream central state decision making – SAPs• High Transaction Costs• Poor access to services and infrastructure
  13. 13. socio-political marginality – 2 (MIS)-CONCEIVED AS UNSUSTAINABLE• Economically unviable –Herskovits’ “cattle complex”, 1926Poor contributors to local economy• Environmental degradation –Hardin’s “tragedy of the commons”, 1968Culprits for Desertification, UN, 1980sLivestock long Shadow, 2006Backward agricultural system*Economically irrational & irrelevantEnvironmental damaging
  14. 14. Pastoral modernization…Pastoral development to be conceived asthe END of mobility and communal land access (SEDENTARISATION paradigm),And the PRIVATISATION of resources (rangelands, livestock*) meaning the end of pastoralism.• Unfavourable policies (land, food, trade)• Market dynamics (decreasing ToTs)• External appetites for rangelands – land grabs*
  15. 15. Development approaches in pastoral areasPeriod 1950s to 1970s 1980s to 1990sFocus technical aspects of efforts aimed at the livestock readdressing range production system managementActions new breeds, forage grazing reserves, regulating production, feeding ranching, herd sizes, group ranching supplementation, animal land titling, herders’ health / veterinary systems, organizations availability of groundwater
  16. 16. Current trends – 1 GROWING FOOD INSECURITYThe current large number of reiterated emergency interventions in pastoral areas stands as the best indicator of the failure of past development approaches (Humanitarian Food Assistance meeting on 16/6/2009)
  17. 17. THE SILENT HAZARD: droughtReported Death of Natural Hazards globally (1974-2003): 2.066.273 persons Source Hoyois und Guha Sapir (2004); courtesy prof. HG Brauch, UNU-EHS Berlin
  18. 18. Current trends – 2 UPSCALING CONFLICT• Poor Governance – Fragile States• Recent trends: where civilizations clash: Darfur, Kurdistan, Afghanistan, Somalia, SSudan, Middle East, etc…• But also at smaller scale: Ogaden, South Omo, Loliondo, Karamoja, etc…
  19. 19. Current trends – 3 LOWEST HDI - MDGs• From better off to those ranking amongst the poorest and most destitute agriculture peoples in the world (World Bank, 2009)• A number of development syndromes: poverty, desertification, famine, food and social insecurity, migration, conflict and recently insurgency• Most excluded / hardest to reach from primary social services (UNICEF/WHO, 2005)• Regions with deepest endemic poverty, and with the most vulnerable people (CGIAR, 2010)• Not effective integration into state and market dynamics
  20. 20. Currently HD and MDGs indexes and are at their lowest in such regions (ex.Kenya)
  21. 21. Failure & NeglectDuring the 1980s and the 1990s a series of reports clearly showed that the pastoral sector experienced the greatest concentration of failed development projects in the world.Livelihood conditions worsened, rangelands got degraded: Somewhere something had gone wrongImmediate consequences:1) pastoralists exited the development agenda (20 years ago) - international2) consistent retrenchment of public investments in marginal areas under SAP - national3) undermining of pastoral resource management patterns.Policy frames:1) No policy (no State or neglect)2) Unfavourable (e.g. Ethiopia, Uganda)3) Favourable but not implemented (e.g. Sahelian Pastoral Code)4) Efforts for implementation (e.g. Mongolia, Kenya) The Modernisation through Sedentarisation paradigm shifted to Disaster and Emergency
  22. 22. Recent acknowledgements - 1• Effective way of producing food (animal proteins) on marginal lands• Ensuring livelihoods & food security to most marginalised communities• Contributions with livestock * environmental services (tourism, water, CO2…)
  23. 23. Recent acknowledgements - 2• Pastoralism is not an intermediate development stage but rather the result of a process of specialisation in marginal ecosystems• An effective means of coping with a variable and unpredictable climate• Actually the best possible system to produce while protecting drylands• These contributions are likely to become even more important in a Climate Change perspective.
  24. 24. ECONOMIC CONSISTENCY Contribution of livestock to GDP in SSAfrica Mauri- Senegal Mali Burkina Niger tania Faso% Agric 70 37,3 41,6 25 29.8GDP Chad Sudan Ethiopia Kenya Somalia% Agric. 25 80 35 50 80GDP
  25. 25. …despite• Other important contributions not- accounted for, as through informal channels• Only 3 countries’ PRSP indicate investments in livestock for poverty reduction• Average GoV budget to the sector is far below 3% (Maputo Decl.)• Most of this money going to pig and poultry
  26. 26. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSISTENCY• Arid ecosystems functioning at disequilibrium: rangelands are resilient• Overgrazing not a main problem, rather larger climatic shifts• Environmental degradation higher when mobility is hampered / people settle• Important enviromental services: drylands & mountains management, water, biodiversity (i.e. natural parks)• Extensive livestock production with lower ecological footprint• African and Asian grasslands have vast carbon sequestration potential (FAO, 2009).
  27. 27. In a Climate Change perspective… as to IPCC: increase in temperature and extreme events, raising variability and unpredictability• Groups inhabiting most exposed and fragile ecosystems(i.e. mountainous and drylands)• Potential skills to tackle CChange implicationsItself an adaptive strategy• Many oil resources found in drylandsCompetition and conflict• Important role of properly managed grasslands ascarbon sinks as well as biodiversity stocks
  28. 28. Reverting cause - effect relationships room for discussionDesertification: Culprits or victims ?Conflict: Land encroachment, frontiers, manipulation ?Famines: marginal lands, limited investments, misconceived policies, unfair markets ?CChange: doomed or better equipped*?
  29. 29. Operational implicationsCost/benefit analysis- Political long term engagementHigh transaction costs- Importance of communities active involvementMobile livelihoods- Innovative approaches of service delivery; ICT optionsAccess to resources- Governance mattersExposure to climate vagaries- LRRD and regional approach
  30. 30. RESHAPING LANDSCAPES triggers for change• Population growth• Livestock Revolution & fair market remuneration• Climate Change• Land grabs• CDM and carbon finance mechanisms• Good governance• Political decentralization• Regional dimension• Effective ‘civil society’• Developing ICTs
  31. 31. Livestock Revolution potentials MARKET High Transaction CostsProducing animal proteins in INTEGRATION SPS: health requirements,marginal lands quality standards, WTO / GovAcknowledge environmental barriersexternalities Terms of Trade dynamics GOVERNANCELocal, customary institutions Decentralisation Sub-dividingEmpowering communities PoliticizationReduce TCs ConflictOptions for cross-border moves Regionalisation Limited implementation risksfor grazing and marketing Problems between countriesEx. EC, ECOWAS, IGAD Ex. Soviet Union ENVIRONMENTPositive impact of properly Environmental externalities Academic and politicalmanaged grasslands on: acknowledgementsbiodiversity, water & Co2 High TCs for monitoringsequestrationBetter equipped OR… Climate Change … most doomed ?Risk-Coping strategies Loss of right and landsCarbon-related mechanisms High TCs for monitoring
  32. 32. Thank you for your attention michele.nori@ec.europa.eu

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