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Livestock and Land
 

Livestock and Land

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This Thematic Paper is part of a Toolkit for Project Design (Livestock Thematic Papers: Tools for Project Design) which reflects IFAD’s commitment to developing a sustainable livestock sector in ...

This Thematic Paper is part of a Toolkit for Project Design (Livestock Thematic Papers: Tools for Project Design) which reflects IFAD’s commitment to developing a sustainable livestock sector in which poor farmers and herders might have higher incomes, and better access to assets, services, technologies and markets.

The paper indents to be a practical tool for development practitioners, project designers and policymakers to define appropriate livestock development interventions. It also provides recommendations on critical issues for rural development and also possible responses and actions to encourage the socio-economic empowerment of poor livestock keepers.

[ Originally posted on http://www.cop-ppld.net/cop_knowledge_base ]

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    Livestock and Land Livestock and Land Document Transcript

    • LivestockThematic PapersTools for project design Livestock and land Equitable and secure access to land is a critical factor for the rural poor, especially livestock owners, who depend on agriculture and animal-related activities for their livelihood. Having secure access to land for agriculture and pastoral activities reduces their vulnerability and enhances their opportunities to invest in land for agriculture and livestock activities. Indeed, it contributes to the development of more equitable relations among sedentary groups (farmers) and nomadic and semi-nomadic communities (livestock owners and pastoralists). Fostering investments in sustainable livestock development as well as in equitable and secure access to land for rural poverty reduction is recognized by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)1 as a key goal to be achieved through its projects and programmes. This thematic paper is based on the assumption that secure investments in livestock infrastructure and assets can be encouraged by ensuring equitable and secure access to land, and that this approach will help reduce rural poverty. To this end, it will identify experiences and lessons learned regarding livestock and land-related issues, drawing on experiences from IFAD development projects and programmes all over the world, with a special focus on Africa. It will examine the following interrelated issues: livestock and access to land, access to reliable sources of water, encroachment, land degradation, grazing and mobility. Case studies based on IFAD experience and related to the above-mentioned dimensions will be analysed to illustrate linkages between current theoretical approaches and activities in the field. Although one specific case study will be presented in each paragraph, all provide information and examples relevant to the other issues addressed in the paper. For the sake of clarity, each will be inserted in a specific section to highlight one particular issue. The paper will end by drawing general lessons and conclusions on the importance of taking into account equitable and secure access to land together with livestock activities in agricultural and rural development interventions. 1 See IFAD Strategic Framework 2007-2010 and IFAD policy “Promoting Equitable Access to Land and Tenure Security for Rural Poverty Reduction”.
    • Livestock and land element to resource management, including Land tenure and the different group decision-making for determining uses of land access and use and management of Access to land and land tenure security are at resources in common areas. In such the heart of all rural societies and agricultural contexts, group identity plays a significant economies. Land tenure comprises the rules role in managing access to land and and norms governing how, when and where resources. Indeed, the right to access people access land and other natural common property is based on forms of resources. These rules and norms can be group membership, in particular ethnicity, administered by statutory (formal) and village affiliation and residency. customary (informal) systems. In this section, the two systems will be described briefly to For these reasons, customary systems may not highlight existing linkages with livestock- be recognized by state and legal authorities, related activities.2 and there may be problems related to the (a) Statutory laws3 refer to legislation and other adequate representation of the interests of all legal instruments promulgated by official relevant community members. authorities. The term is used to denote law However, evidence shows that it is possible as made by the State, in contrast to for non-group members to negotiate access to customary law, which derives from the resources although, in some cases, outsiders customary institutions specific to are excluded from accessing common property particular contexts and circumstances.4 In under all circumstances. Secure investments in statutory systems, access to and use of livestock infrastructure and assets can be natural resources are governed formally by encouraged by ensuring land tenure security. the State and any dispute deriving from IFAD experience shows that land tenure conflicting interests by various categories systems have influenced investment in of stakeholders (pastoralists, farmers, croplands: following a comparison of tenants) is also regulated by national laws. rangeland management options in various (b) Customary systems are context-specific and countries, it was shown that, in rangelands, diverse. They tend to balance individual and existing property rights systems were failing to group rights and generally have a collective provide an appropriate balance between Case study 1: Development of Integrated Crop-Livestock Production Systems in Low Rainfall Areas of Mashreq and Maghreb – IFAD Grant 385 In most countries with low-rainfall areas in the Mashreq and Maghreb regions, traditional local institutions governing access to grazing lands have been disrupted, resulting in a system of open access, with no regulatory mechanism to control the extent and intensity of grazing. In these areas, small ruminants represent a source of income for farmers and nomadic or semi-nomadic herders. The goal of the research programme was to develop productive and sustainable production systems based on small ruminants within the framework of existing property rights. To this end, a preliminary study on local property rights has been conducted on the following aspects: evaluation of property rights, identification of links between property rights, resource use and productivity; comparative analysis of institutions in rangeland management; assessment of community water property rights and land property rights; and institutional options in rangeland improvement. Although in some communities there may be conflicting interests and objectives (e.g. between crop and livestock farmers regarding the use of marginal communal land, as in Iraq) in Morocco this has not been the case. Here it has been easier to introduce the community approach in the barley livestock system areas, where land is privately owned, than in the rangeland-livestock system, where it is owned and used on a customary basis. 2 See also case studies 1, 4 and 6. 3 The International Institute for Environment and Development, Land Tenure Lexicon, available on: www.iied.org/pubs/display.php?l=919&n=363&o=7411IIED&w=NR . 4 IFAD Learning Note No. 3.7: Land Tenure.2
    • individual and community interests in the scarce water resources are common, especiallycontrol and management of common pastures. in arid areas, both within and between With reference to the use of land and communities. In these areas, livestock ownerslivestock, the following three key issues will are often seen as a potential danger for twobe addressed: access to reliable sources of reasons: (i) they could take possession ofwater, encroachment and land degradation. water points for their own livestock and (ii)Needless to say, these are all closely animals journeying to water points couldinterrelated as they look at the same issue destroy local vegetation and cause soilfrom different perspectives. However, for the degradation (see case study 2).sake of clarity here, each has been analysed in In an attempt to settle water conflicts,a separate paragraph. governments are often asked to intervene in order to provide and regulate access to andLimited access to reliable sources of water5 control over sources of water.Water-related tensions occur when resources IFAD experience shows that waterare scarce and access is limited. Water use by resources management increasingly requiresthe livestock sector is not limited to drinking compromise and broad consensus if solutionswater, since water is also required for feed to problems are to be properly formulatedproduction and processing byproducts. and effectively implemented.Livestock drink 20-50 litres per tropical Indeed, the nature of global water securitylivestock unit per day, although drinking and has also been affected by climate change,service water volumes vary greatly by species which has led to changes in rainfall patterns;and breed, ambient temperature, water quality increased frequency and severity of flood andand water content of feed, animal activity, droughts; changes in growing seasons and inpregnancy and lactation (International Water water quality and quantity; and impact onManagement Institute). animal genetic breeds. In this context, Limited access to reliable water sources development interventions could supportcan create tensions and lead to conflicts as local communities in mitigating the effects ofthe competing demands of private, climate change and provide both farmers andagricultural and industrial uses for water pastoralists’ groups with effective tools to dealincrease pressure on resources. Conflicts over with emerging challenges together.7 Case study 2: Gash Sustainable Livelihoods Regeneration Project in Sudan6 – IFAD In The Sudan, interventions to increase access to reliable sources of water and to capture flood waters have had positive effects on both pastoralists and farmers. In the GSLRP, a holistic approach has been implemented in order to sustainably address the ongoing issues of land and water governance. Approximately 40,000 tenants have access to irrigated land and more than 50 hafirs [water reservoirs] are being rehabilitated, taking into consideration hygienic outlets for livestock water use as well as domestic water use. The local animal resources administration estimates that about 30 per cent of project area herds have benefited from the water containment reconstruction. Activities contributed to shortening the long journey to water points in many cases; herds in the project area were not benefiting from high-yielding pasture because of water shortages. Nomads previously grazed their animals around the limited water points, resulting in tremendous overgrazing and soil erosion (about 30 per cent of these problems were solved as a result of the project). Throughout the intervention by the Government of The Sudan, ongoing disputes on the use of water sources between local communities have been settled and GSLRP will be included in the country’s land reform agenda as a successful pilot initiative in the land and water governance reform programme.5 For further details, see InnoWat publication Water and livestock for rural livelihoods available onwww.ifad.org/english/water/innowat/topic/Topic_2web.pdf6 For further details visit: www.ifad.org/english/operations/pn/sdn/i630sd/index.htm7 For further details, see IFAD thematic paper on livestock and climate change. 3
    • Case study 3: Integrated management of pastoral land and the pastoral units approach in Senegal – IFAD Extensive livestock farming as practised in the Ferlo region is based on herd mobility and the exploitation of natural resources that are being degraded year by year as a result of climatic fluctuations and the herders’ lack of organization. Herders have long suffered from the absence of a discussion and coordination framework, a situation that has led to an overly individualistic spirit. The collaborative approach developed for the management of pastoral land consists of seeking synergies between the IFAD-financed investment project in Senegal, PRODAM, and herders and actors involved in natural resource management. The approach is based on the study of local people’s practices in pastoral natural resource use and implementation of a participatory management model involving all the actors concerned: herders, local communities, technical experts and government authorities. It is based on the following principles: - Ensuring protection of existing natural resources and rehabilitation of degraded areas to increase their productivity; - Making local people effectively responsible for implementing programmes drawn up with them, and involving them in sustainable natural resource management. Inparticular, a number of initiatives have been implemented, including: - Construction or rehabilitation of wells and associated structures; - Construction of firebreaks; - Establishment of pastoral management plans; - Organization of herders and creation of management committees for infrastructure installed; - Implementation of a major programme of capacity-building (literacy, training), support and advice; and - Establishment of a pastoral unit umbrella organization. This approach could be replicated in all areas with collaborative management of pastoral land to improve people’s living conditions, since it is based on traditional practices with regard to the use of natural resources. To ensure success, all management documents, including digital maps, have been translated into the national language and are accessible to herding communities. Encroachment involving different land users (see case studies The term refers to situations in which the use 3, 6 and 7) can reduce conflicts among of rangeland or pastureland for crop farming pastoralists and sedentary communities. In is favoured, at the expense of pastoralism. In this context, pastoralist organizations play a such contexts, farming areas have encroached leading role in advocating for pastoralists’ on pastoralists’ lands. land rights, particularly in building the The rural poor may rely on livestock to capacities of pastoralists to organize improve their diet and food security, earn themselves and to represent their own cash for basic requirements or investments, interests at local, national and regional levels. and accumulate animals as savings for To this end, the following two different emergencies and/or as symbols of wealth. categories of pastoralist organizations could Although livestock is often the most be clearly identified: important income generator for farm families, • Pastoralist organizations: different types encroachment leads to crop cultivation being of herders’ organizations operating at the preferred to pasture. This may cause conflicts local and national levels, ranging from to emerge among farmers and herders. The committees to associations and focus should be placed on the entire federations. They carry out various integrated farming system: food and cash interrelated functions and often have a crops, livestock and value-added processing. primary aim of defending and securing Participatory development approaches pastoralists’ land rights.8 8 For further details on IFAD’s experience with pastoralist organizations, see: www.ifad.org/lrkm/theme/po.htm4
    • Case study 4: Gash Barka Livestock and Agricultural Development Project in Eritrea – IFAD The Gash Barka project area covers 27 per cent of the country’s total land area and supports investments in livestock and crop production enterprises, benefiting a total of 16,000 households. The main stakeholders in Gash Barka include pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, army ex-combatants, investors and elites, returnees and immigrants from the highlands. In these areas, the encroachment of commercial farming into areas formerly used for grazing creates problems for pastoralists who increasingly find their traditional grazing areas diminished and their access to dry season water points along the riverbeds blocked by newly cultivated land. The situation is chronic along the Barka river to the west of Akordat, where banana plantations have proliferated in recent years. There is no precedent for registering grazing land for range management, though this may be legally possible and could be one way of formalizing land use patterns in certain areas.• Initiatives to support pastoralists’ adequate plant nutrition, timely planting and organizations: multi-stakeholder proper plant densities, as well as sufficient associations supporting local and national moisture and protection against insects, pests pastoralist associations, promoting and plant and animal diseases. Multiple debates and exchanges on the main cropping systems integrating cereals and root challenges faced by pastoralists, and tuber crops with grain legumes advocating for land rights and providing (groundnuts, cowpeas, pigeon peas, soybeans, training to pastoralists on specific issues dry beans and chickpeas) and with livestock- (e.g. ensuring land rights to nomadic related investment activities are necessary to pastoralists by training paralegal define a sustainable development strategy. pastoralists as in the example of the In such contexts, an integrated Mbororo Social and Cultural development approach is needed that Development Association in Cameroon9). combines increases in crop production and investments in animal-related activities: theIndeed, participatory approaches make a first can provide feed and forage for expandedpositive contribution to the development of livestock operations for milk, egg, meat andland improvement practices, particularly other enterprises that can substantiallyinvestments in livestock and water increase smallholder incomes.infrastructure. In these circumstances, IFAD experience shows that a holisticcollaborative management approaches are approach that includes investments inneeded to enhance the natural resource while cropping and farming systems together withavoiding conflicts on its use: soil investments in livestock and rangeconservation, water harvesting and drip management practices leads to sustainableirrigation, rotations with legume crops and development and avoids conflicts aroundnitrogen-fixing tree species and mixed crop- access to natural resources. Moreover, in anlivestock systems should be combined.10 attempt to reduce risks and the overall IFAD experience shows that focusing vulnerability of the rural poor, developmentinvestments on only one type of activity - strategies should take into account bothfarming systems, cropping or livestock farmers’ and livestock breeders’ needs,activities, inevitably leads to conflicts among avoiding the current trend of farming areasland users with adverse effects on the encroaching on pastoralists’ lands.management of natural resources, foodsecurity and income generation for all Land degradation and livestockcommunity members. Optimal yield and Land degradation leads to soil erosion, anproductivity cannot be achieved without insidious degradation process that can quickly9 For further information, see case study 8 at www.landcoalition.org/pdf/08_CSD_16_CP.pdf10 For further details, see IFAD thematic paper on integrated livestock/crop farming systems. 5
    • lead to a downward spiral in vegetation cover, pastures; (ii) use of soil conservation methods especially with the warmer and drier and silvopastoralism together with controlled conditions expected in the future. Causes of livestock exclusion from sensitive areas; and soil infertility include a shortage of manure, (iii) payment schemes for environmental tillage practices, continuously cropping the services in livestock-based land use to help same land, limited crop rotation, reduce and reverse land degradation. indiscriminate cutting of trees, burning of crop Indeed, the high spatial variability of soil residues and bush fires. depth and bulk density are relatively easy to Various types of land degradation can map with aerial photographs and satellite occur as a result of water and wind erosion, imagery, and therefore appropriate training can chemical and physical deterioration or a quickly provide the skills necessary to identify combination thereof (Food and Agriculture critical variables. In an attempt to ensure Organization of the United Nations – FAO, sustainable impact and active involvement by Land and Water Digital Media Series No. local populations, training is needed to enable 2011). The most common causes of land the rural poor to develop such practices. degradation are deforestation, overgrazing, agricultural activities (improper agricultural Grazing management), overexploitation of vegetation Since livestock is the major user of primary and industrial activities (mainly pollution). production in arid and semi-arid regions, land Among them, pastoralism is often degradation has commonly been attributed to considered to be the main cause; there is a grazing. However, the degradation of land and common belief that grazing inevitably causes plant cover as a result of unsustainable grazing losses in soil fertility. Losses in soil fertility are pressures is often a consequence of complex often presumed to be related to herd size, so interactions between climate change; that bigger herds are thought to cause the most inappropriate resource management practices, damage to land. However, the World Initiative policies and regulations; lack of enforcement for Sustainable Pastoralism (WISP)12 underlines and political dominance of groups or the role of pastoralism as an environmentally individuals (IFAD, 1998). The shift to important practice that makes a positive sustainable alternatives ideally involves giving contribution to land conservation. Recent more control to indigenous people or to those studies13 show that where pastoral mobility with traditional rights. and local decision-making institutions are Pastoralists often graze their animals on constrained, land degradation often occurs, as land that is owned by the State, but whose well as losses in biodiversity. On the other use is actually governed by complex hand, where pastoral mobility is protected and interactions between customary institutions customary institutions still function, land and rules and national laws. In this context, degradation is avoided and sustainable land tenure laws and traditional rules become development is maintained. important to protect pastoralists’ rights when IFAD experience shows that soil erosion is pastoral land is sought by outsiders for higher in contexts of inappropriate policies pasture or other uses.15 In arid regions, land and inadequate livestock management. and water rights must be dealt with together, Accordingly, FAO (2006) produced a report in as pastoralists may have to compete with collaboration with the multi-institutional farmers growing crops or urban dwellers. Livestock, Environment and Development A huge variety of grazing styles exists, ranging (LEAD) Initiative14 suggesting the three from simply releasing animals from an overnight following remedies: (i) controlling access and corral or shed to wander freely in communal removing obstacles to mobility on common pastures (e.g. Tunisia-El Jaffara) to transporting 11 Full document available at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/agll/docs/landdegradationassessment.doc 12 This is a global initiative that supports the empowerment of pastoralists to sustainably manage dryland resources. It is a catalytic partnership that promotes pastoralism as an effective and efficient land use and production system for the drylands of the world. 13 See: www.iucn.org/wisp/ 14 LEAD is a multi-institutional initiative of FAO formed to promote ecologically sustainable livestock production systems. Further info: www.virtualcentre.org/ 15 See also section on encroachment herein.6
    • Case study 5: Leasehold Forestry and Livestock Programme in Nepal – IFAD The overall goal of the project is to achieve a sustained reduction in poverty among the 44,300 poor households that are allocated leasehold forestry plots in the 22 districts, through increased forest products and livestock yields. The programme involves leasing degraded forest land to local households under 40-year renewable leases, providing them with secure tenure and the confidence to develop and improve the land by investing in livestock and rangeland infrastructure. Two expected outcomes are: (i) increasing land productivity and soil fertility and (ii) developing innovative risk management strategies through alternative income-generation activities and drought strategies. To this end, land tenure rights have been extended to local leasehold forestry groups by providing each group with certificates indicating the portion of allocated land. Once land ownership has been ensured, the following set of six activities has been carried out to achieve the above-mentioned objectives: (i) distribution of a package of vegetable seed and soil conservation materials (e.g. set of gabion boxes); (ii) allocation of vegetable seeds including beans, chillies, cucumber, snake gourds and others; (iii) orientation training for forest guards; (iv) land development and conflict management training for livestock and forestry staff; (v) production and delivery of leasehold forestry calendars to enable groups to effectively plan their activities (rangeland activities, meetings, and savings and credit payments); and (vi) training in animal health at the district level. Indeed, forage availability even during the dry season has been guaranteed as well as increased green cover on leasehold plots. Conflict management training courses have been provided to rangers and livestock technicians. Participants rehabilitate the land by banning grazing and by stall-feeding their livestock. They also use and sell forest products such as timber, fuel wood and fodder. The leases have given poor rural people long-term land tenure security and provided incentives to regenerate, protect and manage degraded forest areas under their use, while offering them consistent benefits in terms of improved livelihoods. As of today, environmental degradation has been reversed at most sites in the project area. Ground cover increased from 32 per cent to 50 per cent after a single growing season, eventually reaching 100 per cent coverage.animals to rented pastures many kilometres for land degradation, based on thefrom the owner’s farm, or long-distance assumption of a positive correlation betweenseasonal migrations to summer pastures. land degradation and so-called overgrazing.17 However, they all involve the following The term refers to the almost universalthree main elements (Thornes, 2007): tendency to blame poor pastoral(a) An origin: this could be a farm, an communities for causing erosion by overnight pasture or even a village: a ”overgrazing” as a result of ”overstocking” place where the livestock usually spend (Thornes, 2007). The concept is then related the night; to the definition of ”carrying capacity”,(b) A route to the grazing grounds: such supposedly to provide a safe stocking rate routes often form a complex network beyond which catastrophic erosion will supplied with forage field or water points; always occurs. Poor communities are these were created by royal decree in penalized for exceeding the carrying capacity. Spain and Italy.16 It is commonly stated that any removal of(c) A common grazing area: shared by several vegetation by whatever means results in an communities (e.g. paddock). increase in soil erosion, and that when plant cover falls below 30 per cent erosion hasRegardless of their grazing style, pastoralists catastrophic consequences. However,are commonly considered to be responsible overgrazing depends largely on socio-16 Often identifiable on Google Earth by the severity of erosion near staging posts. There is even aEuropean Society of green lanes and in England and Scotland some are many centuries old.17 Scoones, 1996. 7
    • Case study 6: IFAD Project for the Promotion of Local Initiative for Development in Aguié, Niger, with a land tenure component coordinated by the ILC Secretariat in the Village of Dan Saga PPILDA is an IFAD-funded project approved in 2002 with the aim of improving standards by promoting local initiatives while emphasizing sustainable uses of the natural resource base. The project set out to train local people grouped in committees to carry out a detailed census of all villagers and their assets through full villager involvement. Villagers are asked to define their activities, map their land and develop their own definitions and classifications of poverty. In the department of Aguié where PPILDA is active, the village of Dan Saga has been selected to conduct a specific pilot activity for solving land-related issues and conflicts. The objective of this pilot activity, coordinated and supported by the ILC, is to test and analyse a methodology for securing land rights at the village level, and to test a mechanism that is sustainable and can be replicated on a larger scale in the framework of existing land policy in the Niger (Code Rural). Working towards the specific objectives of securing the beneficiaries’ productive capital and learning about the true land tenure situation in the village, the PPILDA team, in partnership with local government, traditional authorities and representatives of the beneficiaries, have achieved the following: - A complete participatory territorial mapping and cadastre of the Dan Saga village (1,271 fields in total). The mapping also included thematic maps by sex, surface area, ethnic group, use, and types of land acquisition and transactions. The maps clearly define the location and boundaries of pastoral areas such as livestock corridors, pastoral wells and grazing areas. Their clarity helps to solve and prevent conflicts between farmers and herders. - Issuance of 1,271 land titles to 879 villagers, including 135 women. - Training of animators in the village to conduct surveying and territorial mapping and to inform people of their legal rights in relation to land. Local committees meet regularly to update records by documenting the participation of each individual in project activities. The information gathered is then entered into large registers that list, among other things, the villagers’ names, status, household composition, the amount of land they cultivate, the livestock they own, and how they rank themselves in terms of poverty. The result is an exhaustive record of all the inhabitants of 22 villages in the Maradi region in southern Niger, a total of 27,000 people. economic circumstances as well as biophysical organizations recognized under national laws causes. Since it is a very dynamic concept, and the possibility of recognizing the what is considered overgrazing one year may authority of traditional leadership. not be the next year, or even in the same season. Recent investigations (Thornes, 2007) Mobility of historical circumstances reveal other Pastoral and agro-pastoral communities differ interesting points: blaming overgrazing from other rural groups because of the central without an in-depth analysis of the specific importance of livestock products and income context could lead to a misidentification of in their livelihoods. Unlike breeders or the true cause of land degradation. livestock-keeping farmers, pastoral herds Based on the above-mentioned move through places according to the season; assumptions, pastoralists are often also, they feed on natural forage rather than marginalized. Laws become more and more cultivated fodder and pasturage.18 important to provide them with a legal basis Pastoral production systems, and to access and control their lands and natural particularly food security and livelihoods, are resources. However, laws and tenure systems under serious threat from various man-made are often complex and may differ among the and natural risks (B. Yemane, 2003), such as adjacent countries through which pastoralists the following: move during the year. Two key related issues • Expansion of sedentary agriculture; to be addressed are the types of local • Expansion of agricultural projects;8
    • • Expansion of wildlife parks inside residences or spend the night at a rangeland; considerable distance from their homes with• Emergence and expansion of agro- all or part of their herds. pastoralism; Sedentary communities often believe that• Encroachment of unwanted plant species; such mobility is evidence of disorganized and lives because of the innate incompetence of• Conflicts over rangeland resources. herders; hence the need to impose policies to settle them down, often in unsuitable places.Climate change, particularly rising Herders are viewed as people who escapetemperatures and increasing rainfall government administration, as potentialvariability, is affecting different regions, threats to security and as tax evaders, so thatlocations and population groups.19 national policies have been implemented in This paragraph analyses the rationale of an attempt to sedentarize nomadic andmobility for pastoralists and the effects of transhumant populations. Nomads have beenclimate change on pastoralists. encouraged to settle near towns and centres to Rationale for mobility:20 By keeping track give them access to basic services such asof resources, pastoralists are able to make health and education. These policies,optimal use of available resources and match combined with uncontrolled waterlivestock numbers to pastures each year. This development, have led to degradation aroundreduces the risks of overgrazing and land their settlements and exacerbated the effectsdegradation, which are associated mainly with of drought. In other cases, pastoralists havesedentary forms of livestock-rearing. been driven towards establishing and Mobility patterns range from purely developing reciprocal and interdependentnomadic (opportunistic, no fixed base), relations with sedentary communities in orderthrough various forms of transhumance (set to benefit from local facilities. In all thesemigratory routes on a seasonal basis) and cases, the main challenge is to providelevels of agro-pastoralism (attachment to sustainable services to a society that isseasonal crop production) to more sedentary constantly on the move.patterns (ranching). Each demands a different Throughout Africa, governments arekind of involvement by household and herd currently investing in land titling activities inmembers. Mobility enables herders to raise the belief that these programmes can provideseveral livestock species at once (cattle, sheep, higher security levels to achieve higher levels ofgoats), thereby making optimal use of the production and protect resources fromrange of pastures available (grasslands, destruction. Mobility is also constrained withinshrubs, trees). each state by district boundaries, game parks, Based on this assumption, mobility21 and nature reserves and/or quarantine zones.seasonal movements are essential for IFAD experience in East Africa shows thatpastoralists as rainfall and temperature result a key issue underpinning livestock andin marked spatial and temporal variations in rangelands development plans is thegrazing resources. Freedom of mobility over conflicting interaction between nomadic andlarge tracts of land is essential to pastoralist sedentary groups (often between agro-production.22 Agro-pastoralists occupy areas pastoralists and crop farmers) with differentwhere the human population is moderately development needs and strategies. IFAD’sdense and their livestock normally spend the approach focuses on involving all land users,night in the vicinity of the household’s pastoralists and farmers, in planning apermanent residence. On the other hand, common comprehensive rangeland strategy.pastoralists occupy areas with low human As highlighted in the specific case of thedensity and will either frequently move their United Republic of Tanzania, the provision of18 Mobile livelihoods, patchy resources and shifting rights: approaching pastoral territories (ILC, 2007).19 www.ifad.org/climate/ and www.ipcc.ch .20 Hesse, C and Thébaud, B. (2006) Will Pastoral Legislation Disempower Pastoralists in the Sahel?and IFAD thematic paper on livestock (DRAFT).21 The Dana Declaration on Mobile Peoples, 2002 www.iucn.org/themes/ceesp/dana.htm.22 World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism http://www.iucn.org/. 9
    • Case study 7: Agricultural Sector Development Programme Livestock: Support for Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Development in the United Republic of Tanzania – IFAD The programme area is characterized by inadequate public reforms and insufficient capacity among service providers to respond to the needs of rural people, both pastoralists and sedentary communities. Among livestock keepers, pastoralists account for about 20 per cent, namely the Maasai and the Mangate, while the other 80 per cent are agro-pastoralists combining crop farming with livestock. The programme area is characterized by conflicts between pastoralists and sedentary communities over access to grazing land and livestock water resources, due to unsustainable use and inadequate management of rangelands. Locally-based dispute resolution procedures and improved management and use of land and natural resources are needed to settle disputes among competing interest groups, in particular for rangelands and livestock water resources. Women on both the mainland and the islands gain access to land through marriage and can inherit under Islamic law for themselves or on behalf of their children under customary law. One of the project objectives is to link improved land tenure security to sustainable land management by supporting: (i) the registration of village land; (ii) conflict resolution between competing land users, in particular pastoralists and sedentary communities; and (iii) the development of village land-use management plans that include the recognition of usage rights and responsibilities of pastoralists from outside of the village area, including their rights of way and access to pastures and water. Building on existing customary practices, participatory methodologies will be adopted. International and national technical assistance will be employed to develop methods, and capacity will be built at district and village levels. At village level, the project will support village land committees (for land administration) and village land councils (for dispute resolution), and will ensure participation by all land users (in particular marginalized groups such as pastoralists, small-scale livestock holders and women). The approach will be piloted in 96 villages on the mainland and 38 villages on the islands. Information on land policy and associated law will be disseminated within districts and villages. charkos dams could be considered as a rangelands are also characterized by species possible sustainable solution in order to diversity to optimize different range resources manage emerging disputes over grazing lands and properly conserve the ecosystem. More and water. attention ought to be paid to indigenous Changing climate patterns will have environmental knowledge, which contributes significant consequences for many to conserving biodiversity and preserving pastoralists, increasing resource variability species and habitats. This makes pastoralism while reshaping overall availability. essential to the ecological health of dryland Accordingly, mitigation and adaptation23 environments. strategies are promoted by governments and They have played and continue to play an development institutions with the aim of important role in maintaining the rich range alleviating the effect of climate change. In this of biodiversity of pastoral lands. context, pastoralists and local communities may play a key role thanks to their in-depth knowledge of the complex ecological Conclusions dynamics of their surroundings: they are often This paper has argued that a holistic approach the best detectors of environmental change. focused on the cross-cutting issues related to They own a diverse array of indigenous equitable and secure access to land and livestock, selected on the basis of survival and livestock is key to promoting sustainable productivity and well adapted to the agricultural development strategies. surrounding climatic conditions. Their Conclusions drawn from IFAD experience, 23 www.ipcc.ch. Working Group II Report: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability and Working Group III Report: Mitigation of Climate Change.10
    • presented here through a selected number of order to increase access to reliable sources ofinterrelated case studies, are of practical natural resources with positive effects on bothrelevance to actors at international, regional pastoralists and farmers.and local levels aiming to foster agricultural In closing, the following strategic issuesand rural development with reference to both need to be addressed and taken into accountfarming and pastoral systems. over time in sustainable rural development One key issue highlighted in this paper is interventions:that land tenure security and investments in • Analysis of trade-offs between supportinglivestock-related assets are not mutually agricultural practices to enhance localexclusive. Investments in livestock productivity and absolute productioninfrastructure can be encouraged by ensuring levels including livestock-related activities,secure access to land and vice versa. equity and equality of access. IFAD experience24 shows that conflicts • Ensuring equitable land access tobetween nomadic or semi-nomadic and nomadic, semi-nomadic and sedentarysedentary communities could be avoided communities, including women, youththrough the implementation of participatory and indigenous people.approaches involving all interest groups. • Promoting the participation of Pastoralists often live in marginalized pastoralists and ensuring the inclusion ofareas with low potential for crop cultivation their views in land policy decisions atdue to variable rainfall conditions, dry land appropriate local, national andand highly variable temperatures. Accordingly, international forums through pastoralists’they have developed endogenous adaptation organizations.strategies to conduct their activities while • Linking land reform with rural povertymaintaining ecological balance. Current reduction- failure to address these issuesdevelopment strategies can build on undermines the impact of othertraditional knowledge in order to achieve investments in other areas, especially thesustainable impact. livestock and rangeland sector. Finding a balance among pastures, livestock • Scaling up participatory methodologiesand crops is a key issue to be addressed in for securing land rights in order to avoidevery sustainable development programme. possible conflicts among land users isInvestments in livestock infrastructure and essential. Linking land tenure security toagricultural activities can be promoted by participatory methodologies for land useensuring equitable and secure access to land. planning and sustainable landAs demonstrated by IFAD experience,25 it is management is a key approach for scalingpossible to develop comprehensive strategies in up greater land tenure security.AcknowledgmentsThis paper has benefited from inputs and materials provided by: Barbara Codispoti (ILC), Michael Taylor (ILC) andProf. John Thornes. Responsibility for its arguments remains entirely with the authors, and the views expressed do notnecessarily reflect the position of the International Fund for Agricultural Development.24 See case studies 1, 3, 4 and 6.25 See case studies 2 and 5. 11
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