LIVESTOCK AND THE PUBLIC GOOD NEXUS            Jimmy W. Smith              World Bank            IADG Annual Meeting      ...
Ways to think about the Public Good nexusThe status quoIncreasing the Public Good contributions
Thinking about Public Goods –Based onEconomic PrinciplesPure Public Goods share two qualities:Nonexcludability --which mea...
High                                RivalryCommon Pool GoodsCommunal rangelands                         Private GoodsWater...
SOME EXAMPLES -- PUBLIC GOOD, ROLE & RESPONSIBILITY                               Funding        Responsibility           ...
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger  At least 50 % of income, food and  arable farming inputs for 700 million  poor, even...
Reduce Child Mortality  Critical cash to pay health expenses  Essential mineral and vitamin source  to supplement poor bas...
Ensure environmental sustainability  Organic Fertilizer for about half  total nutrient needs  Traction for about one-third...
Early 1980sOfficial development assistance(ODA): 17%World Bank lending: 30%                                 World Bank len...
Challenges                 AGRICULTURE       OFFICIAL                                 DEVELOPMENTWORLD POOR               ...
Investment at the national level is limited:  Only 3 countries had PRSPs with detailed strategy and budget for livestock  ...
Increasing the Public Good       Contributions
Poverty Reduction   Global extreme poverty 2002, $1.08 a day   Global extreme poverty 2002, $1.08 a day                   ...
Important user of natural resources:           Mitigating the effects of livestock                                        ...
Agriculture’s share in growth 1990-2005                                                    Three Worlds of Agriculture    ...
20
Operation Flood in India   Cooperative movement now with about 130,000 member   coops, serving 14 million farmers, includi...
Support research for “technologies for the poor”   Develop remedies to “livestock diseases of the poor”   Develop alternat...
Public health:   Six major zoonotic disease scares over last decade with economic   losses over US $ 200 billion (direct a...
Building on the HPAI efforts to promote the “One Health” concept: At the internationallevel seek to promote:        Perman...
Prevent and control the ‘lingering’ zoonotic diseaseswhih mostly affect the poorFurther strengthen veterinary public healt...
Livestock sector is major contributor to greenhouse gas emission, importanteroder of bio-diversity; cause of land degradat...
Continue to work on payment for environmental services:   Use PES to reduce deforestation of hunid tropical forest;   Shif...
THANK YOU
Livestock and the Public Good Nexus
Livestock and the Public Good Nexus
Livestock and the Public Good Nexus
Livestock and the Public Good Nexus
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Livestock and the Public Good Nexus

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Presentation from the Livestock Inter-Agency Donor Group (IADG) Meeting 2010.

4-5 May 2010 Italy, Rome IFAD Headquarters



The event involved approximately 45 representatives from the international partner agencies to discuss critical needs for livestock development and research issues for the coming decade.

[ Originally posted on http://www.cop-ppld.net/cop_knowledge_base ]

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Transcript of "Livestock and the Public Good Nexus"

  1. 1. LIVESTOCK AND THE PUBLIC GOOD NEXUS Jimmy W. Smith World Bank IADG Annual Meeting IFAD, Rome, Italy May 4-5, 2010
  2. 2. Ways to think about the Public Good nexusThe status quoIncreasing the Public Good contributions
  3. 3. Thinking about Public Goods –Based onEconomic PrinciplesPure Public Goods share two qualities:Nonexcludability --which means that whenprovided to one party, the public good isprovided to all.Nonrivalary --which means that theconsumption of the Public Good by one partydoes not reduce the amount available toothers.
  4. 4. High RivalryCommon Pool GoodsCommunal rangelands Private GoodsWater (volume and quality) On-farm production, processing,Air quality (including and distribution (quality standards)protection against climate Most clinical veterinary andchange) breeding servicesAnimal genetic resources and Most input supplies (feed, seed,other sources of biodiversity etc.) High excludability Pure Public Goods Poverty reduction Club Goods Border quarantine Standards and certification Food safety inspection systems Protection against Face-to-face advisory services contagious diseases Collective action in disease (tick Animal health intelligence dips) control Disease data systems
  5. 5. SOME EXAMPLES -- PUBLIC GOOD, ROLE & RESPONSIBILITY Funding Responsibility Oversight For Imp. Pure Public Goods Veterinary health • Border quarantine Public sector Public sector Mainly national Veterinary Services (VS) • Surveillance of Public sector Preferably in Mainly district service, with main contagious subcontract with clear lines to national VS, with diseases private operators international support in developing countries and international coordination among all countries • Early alert and Public sector Preferably in Mainly national VS with response for main subcontract with international support contagious private operators diseases • Vaccination Public/private Mostly private sector Mainly national VS with partnership international support • Vaccine Public/private Mostly private sector National or regional public development partnership institutions • Disease data Public/private Mainly public sector Mainly national VS with systems partnership international support Food safety and human Public/private Preferably in Mainly local, within overall public health partnership subcontract with guidelines of national and, private operators eventually, international buyers Research and Public/private Preferably private with Public/private at corresponding education partnership subcontracts levels
  6. 6. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger At least 50 % of income, food and arable farming inputs for 700 million poor, even in middle income countries: Indonesia: Only 3 percent poultry meat from large farms India: 5.5 percent of national workforce in dairy sectorAchieve universal education Critical cash to pay school feesPromote gender equality Sole source of income and inheritance transfers for women
  7. 7. Reduce Child Mortality Critical cash to pay health expenses Essential mineral and vitamin source to supplement poor basal dietsImprove maternal health Milk to supplement breast feeding and enhance overall maternal healthCombat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Traction to reduce drudgery of labor of weakened farming population Opportunities to combine health services
  8. 8. Ensure environmental sustainability Organic Fertilizer for about half total nutrient needs Traction for about one-third of the world’s total arable land Income to buy inputs for cropsDevelop a global partnership Responding to critical research needs Opportunity for global action on emerging zoonotic diseases Opportunities to act collectively to control GHG from livestock
  9. 9. Early 1980sOfficial development assistance(ODA): 17%World Bank lending: 30% World Bank lending Early 1990s is recovering ….. Official development assistance (ODA): 12% World Bank lending: 15% Early 2000s Official development assistance (ODA): 4% World Bank lending: <10% …but overall ODA has not recovered
  10. 10. Challenges AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENTWORLD POOR 4% ASSISTANCE AGRICULTURE PUBLIC SPENDING (Sub-Saharan Africa) RURAL 4% 75%
  11. 11. Investment at the national level is limited: Only 3 countries had PRSPs with detailed strategy and budget for livestock and poverty reduction None had specified investments under Poverty Reduction Strategy Credits; and Low investment from national budgets (estimated 15-20 percent of Agricultural budget) For example, Mali: Livestock about 35 percent of Ag. GDP but MinAg. budget: 91.6 % arable farming, 3.6 % livestock and 1% for fisheries 14
  12. 12. Increasing the Public Good Contributions
  13. 13. Poverty Reduction Global extreme poverty 2002, $1.08 a day Global extreme poverty 2002, $1.08 a day – 2.5 billion people depend directly on agriculture Global Urban poor 287 mill. South – 800 m smallholders Asia rural 407 mill. – 75% of poor are ruralMENA rural 5 mill. and the majority will be rural to about 2040ECA rural East Asia 5 mill. rural Sub-Saharan 218 mill. Africa rural LAC rural 27 mill. 229 mill.
  14. 14. Important user of natural resources: Mitigating the effects of livestock Mitigating the effects of livestock 70-75% of fresh water resources on the environment on the environment 40% of land area 25-30% of greenhouse gas emissions Mitigating the effects of climate Mitigating the effects of climate change on livestock change on livestock Contributions to Greenhouse Gas Emissions Developing country agriculture & deforestation 21% DevelopingIndustrialized country countries other 64% sources 15% 18
  15. 15. Agriculture’s share in growth 1990-2005 Three Worlds of Agriculture 80% Agriculture based countries Mainly SS-Africa 417 million rural people 20% Urbanized countries Transforming countries Mainly Latin America Mainly Asia, MENA 0 255 million rural people 2.2 billion rural people 0 50% 100% Rural poor/total poor, 2002
  16. 16. 20
  17. 17. Operation Flood in India Cooperative movement now with about 130,000 member coops, serving 14 million farmers, including 3.7 million women processing about 20 million ton milk annuallyPastoral development in East Africa Ethiopian and Kenyan pastoral development projects working for the poorest group of society rated moderately satisfactory or better for outcomes
  18. 18. Support research for “technologies for the poor” Develop remedies to “livestock diseases of the poor” Develop alternative feeds resourcesSupport better integration of smallholders in thevalue chainPromote, where needed, exits from the sector
  19. 19. Public health: Six major zoonotic disease scares over last decade with economic losses over US $ 200 billion (direct and indirect) over the last decade Of 1415 known pathogens, 62 percent of animal origin 1.6 million annual TB fatalities of which 2-15 percent of bovine origin Food borne pathogens important contributor to diarrheal diseases Contribution to obesity and other food related health risks 23
  20. 20. Building on the HPAI efforts to promote the “One Health” concept: At the internationallevel seek to promote: Permanent global Coordination mechanisms Sustainable funding MechanismsAt the national levelseek to promote: Permanent coordination mechanisms Horizontal communication Facility and skill sharing
  21. 21. Prevent and control the ‘lingering’ zoonotic diseaseswhih mostly affect the poorFurther strengthen veterinary public healthservices/mechanisms.
  22. 22. Livestock sector is major contributor to greenhouse gas emission, importanteroder of bio-diversity; cause of land degradation and water pollution Use one quarter of total terrestrial land and one third of total crop land Contribute to 20 percent rangeland degradation Emit 18 percent of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gasses Use 15 percent of global agriculture water Pose a threat to bio-diversity in 306 of the 825 eco-regions Changing climatic effects on feed & water resources, pathogens and disease dynamics 26
  23. 23. Continue to work on payment for environmental services: Use PES to reduce deforestation of hunid tropical forest; Shift pastoralists in arid areas from livestock herders to stewards of the landscapeExpand work on environmental mitigation of intensivelivestock production systems; Promote innovation in livestock waste managementIncrease attention to livestock and Global Climate Change Reducing GHG emission Adapting livestock systems to GCC
  24. 24. THANK YOU
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