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Global Hunger - Food Security Initiative (Feed the Future)

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Presentation from the Livestock Inter-Agency Donor Group (IADG) Meeting 2010. 4-5 May 2010 Italy, Rome IFAD Headquarters. …

Presentation from the Livestock Inter-Agency Donor Group (IADG) Meeting 2010. 4-5 May 2010 Italy, Rome IFAD Headquarters.

The event involved approximately 45 representatives from the international partner agencies to discuss critical needs for livestock development and research issues for the coming decade.

[ Originally posted on http://www.cop-ppld.net/cop_knowledge_base ]

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  • 1. Global Hunger - Food Security Initiative (Feed the Future) Research Priorities by USAID & USDA Whole of Government Approach to Initiative
  • 2. OVERALL OBJECTIVE of GHFSIIdentify opportunities to impact agriculturalproduction to: • Increase incomes • Reduce poverty • Decrease under-nutrition (children <5yrs)
  • 3. OVERALL OBJECTIVE of GHFSI • Without increasing climate change • With minimal environmental damage • With involvement of women (‘cross-cutting themes’)
  • 4. RESEARCH MANDATEDefine problem-focused agricultural researchthat: •Has a global impact (>individual countries) •But can be complemented by national & regional investments in the target countries
  • 5. Prevalence Sub-national poverty ca. 2005 ($1.25/day) NumberSource: Stan Wood et al. (IFPRI) 2009.
  • 6. Sectors relevant to food security
  • 7. Which domains to include?Biological -- Need to be able to produce enough food to feed 9 billion BUT Social -- Will children <5yrs have access to the most nutritious food: intrahousehold & community food distribution? Changa’a (moonshine)Economic -- Is the food sold to improve living victim conditions or buy non-nutritious things? Policy -- Affect of women’s education on child nutrition
  • 8. Sectors relevant to food security Food from: Cultivated Naturally resourced _______________________________ ______________________Land Animals Crops Aquatic Agroforestry Fisheries Forests_________ ________ __________ __________ ____________ __________Ruminants, Cereal, Aquaculture Living fences, Fish, shellfish Insects,swine, fruit, fish, livestock feed, fruit,poultry vegetables aquatic soil fertility plants, plants enhancement game meat Biological Research, Management & Policy Policy & Management + SYSTEMS RESEARCH: BIOPHYSICAL SYSTEMS & SOCIAL SYSTEMS
  • 9. 6 Concept Notes• Terrestrial animals (ruminants, swine & poultry)• Aquatic animals (aquaculture & fisheriers)• Cereal & vegetatively-propagated crops• Legumes• Biophysical systems: water, soil, crops, animals, conservation ag, IPM etc• Social systems: economic, social, policy, governance
  • 10. HOW DO YOU PRIORITIZE THE ‘CONSTRAINTS’WITHIN A SECTOR TO SET A ‘GLOBAL’RESEARCHAGENDA?
  • 11. Top-down or Bottom-up? Scientists = supply-driven Scientists Is the articulated Will it be employed? problem researchable or should it be addressed by Is it relevant? a different sector? (To a scientist with a Balance neededhammer, all problems Is the request to treat look like nails) symptoms rather than solve the problem? (Building a better iron- lung will not solve pulmonary disease ) User/farmer Farmer = demand-driven
  • 12. Intuitively appealing to draw on knowledgeof the farmer, but limitations are:• Tend to be near-term outputs and less appreciation for long-term goals• Research likely to be local• Will benefit the farmer but not necessarily the consumer with price reduction & increased nutrition• As geographic area increases, difficulty in getting comprehensive and unbiased view increases
  • 13. Alternative methods to set prioritiesamong constraints• Scoring – Aggregated: Assign value & weight to the dimensions of the problem (e.g., output, geographical distribution, women’s income) – Subjective: rating (1-10) based on expert judgment• Congruence – Allocate resources proportionately to the importance of the problem• Benefit : cost approach – How much it costs/yr for research; – How much is being lost/yr without a solution; – Economic surplus analysis adjustment for market changes from productivity improvements
  • 14. METHOD TO ESTABLISH PRIORITIES• PRIORITY-SETTING LITERATURE• CONSULTATION WITH EXPERTS INFORMALLY• WORKSHOPS OF EXPERTS• INVENTORY OF CURRENTLY-FUNDED PROJECTS
  • 15. INVENTORY OF EXISTING PROJECTS USDA ARS Intramural USDA NIFA Extramural Grants USAID Biotechnology Contracts CGIAR projects USAID CRSP Grants NSF Grants Foundations (Gates, etc)
  • 16. Livestock (cattle) researchable constraints• Infectious diseases constellation• Feed and fodder• Improved genetics for increased production coupled with disease resistance East coast fever (theileriosis)
  • 17. Cattle infectious diseases (problems in intensiveand extensive systems; wildlife-livestock) Zoonotic diseases that affect production in SSA: – Tb – Rift Valley Fever – African trypanosomiasis – Brucellosis Nonzoonotic diseases that affect production: o CBPP o East Coast Fever – theileriosis o Foot and mouth disease
  • 18. Example of entry points for livestock production An example of a constraint in the livestock sector is Trypanosomiasis in cattle in Africa which has multiple entry points that fall largely within the production domain ENTRY POINT “RESEARCH” APPROACH TIME LINE RISK FOR SUCCESS* POLICY Raise cattle in tsetse-free Infrastructure issue – no short Low closed facility researchable issue HUSBANDRY Dip cattle in arcaracide Develop less toxic dips ? ? ENVIRONMENT Introduce sterile male Determine environmental Short Low flies impact of tsetse loss MANAGEMENT Vale traps for tsetse Develop more sustainable Short Low traps BREEDING Nat’ly resistant breeds Improve through better Medium Medium to high improved for productivity feeds and cross-breeding for phenotypic stability TRANSGENICS Make resistant cattle with Insert boutique resistance Medium Medium to high trans-genes for tryp gene into cattle resistance PROPHYLAXIS Generate vaccine Cellular and molecular Long high biology
  • 19. VACCINES• While value of livestock life is not equivalent to human life, it is just as expensive to produce a vaccine• It is not enough to know some portion of the mammalian immune system, need to understand it all• Similarities among vertebrate immune systems, but need tools and knowledge to study for each animal• Some disease may not be ‘vaccinatable’ but need to identify natural resistance genes for breeding or transgenics