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An Overview of Livestock Sub-sector in Kenya
An Overview of Livestock Sub-sector in Kenya
An Overview of Livestock Sub-sector in Kenya
An Overview of Livestock Sub-sector in Kenya
An Overview of Livestock Sub-sector in Kenya
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An Overview of Livestock Sub-sector in Kenya

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The conceptual document was redacted to support the “Learning Route on Innovative Livestock Marketing from Northern to Eastern Africa”, a training and capacity building project implemented by IFAD and …

The conceptual document was redacted to support the “Learning Route on Innovative Livestock Marketing from Northern to Eastern Africa”, a training and capacity building project implemented by IFAD and the PROCASUR Corporation.

The systematized journey was held during 12 days between February and March 2012 in Kenya.

The document aims at providing livestock practitioners and participants to the Learning Route with an overview on the livestock sector in Kenya, highlighting the main opportunities and innovations present in the country for pastoral producers to improve market access.

[ Originally posted on http://www.cop-ppld.net/cop_knowledge_base ]

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  • 1. An Overview of LivestockSub-sector in KenyaPerspectives, Opportunities and Innovations forMarket Access for Pastoral Producers 1
  • 2. Acronyms and AbbreviationsASAL Arid and Semi Arid LandsASCU Agricultural Sector Coordination UnitCKDAP Central Kenya Dry Areas ProgrammeDLP Department of Livestock ProductionDVS Department of Veterinary ServicesGDP Gross Domestic ProductIPAR Institute of Policy Analysis and ResearchKMC Kenya Meat CommissionPATTEC Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign ProgrammeSRA Strategy for Revitalizing Agriculture 2
  • 3. Table of ContentsAcronyms and Abbreviations........................................................................................................2  1.0 Introduction .............................................................................................................................4  2.0 Overview of the livestock sub-sector in Kenya ......................................................................5   Figure 1: Pastoralist livestock and meat value chain .........................................................................6  3.0 Livestock Production ..............................................................................................................7  4.0 Livestock consumption ...........................................................................................................7   4.1 Beef...........................................................................................................................................7   4.2 Dairy .........................................................................................................................................7   4.3 Sheep and goats.........................................................................................................................8   4.4 Camels ......................................................................................................................................8  5.0 Producer and trader for developing the sub-sector................................................................9   5.1 Producer options .......................................................................................................................9   5.2 Trader options...........................................................................................................................9  6.0 Strategic issues affecting the sub-sector ............................................................................. 10  7.0 Barriers to livestock production and marketing .................................................................. 11  8.0 Market macro-trends providing opportunities for change ................................................... 11  9.0 Pastoralist innovations in the livestock market chain........................................................ 12   Figure 2: Pastoralist livestock and meat value chain – proposed and on going innovations.............14  10.0 References............................................................................................................................ 15   3
  • 4. 1.0 IntroductionThe importance of the livestock sub sector is positioned at Kenya’s Vision 2030. Vision 2030 specificallyaims at planning and implementation of 4-5 Disease Free Zones and livestock processing facilities toenable Kenyan meat, hides and skins to meet international marketing standards. It foresees this leading tomore domestic processing of these products for regional and international markets. The vision alsohighlights the following specific strategies aimed at addressing the needs of the sector- transforming keyinstitutions in agriculture and livestock to promote household and private sector agriculturalgrowth; and increasing productivity of crops and livestock.Livestock production and marketing is a sub-sector of the main agricultural sector in Kenya. Theagricultural sector in Kenya is characterized by a complex structure of institutions and policies.Structurally, the sector is characterized by several ministries, parastatals and several programmes. Theministries are the top organs in agriculture policy formulation and implementation. The agriculturerelated ministries include; the Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Livestock Development, Ministry ofFisheries Development and the Ministry of Cooperative Development and Marketing. Closely related arethe Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Ministry of Land, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmentand Ministry of Regional Development. These ministries have different organizational structures but attimes have conflicting roles.Therefore, the agriculture sector in Kenya has faced a number of challenges emanating from conflictingpolicies and sub-optimal organizational and regulatory frameworks. Although these organizationscould be necessary for development, they impact negatively on the development of the sector as they arefinanced from the exchequer. They are also subject to political manipulation and corruption practiceswhich does not auger well for development.Established in April 2008, the Ministry of Livestock Development (MoLD) was split from formerMinistry of Livestock and Fisheries Development. The mandate of the ministry is “to promote, regulateand facilitate livestock production for socio-economic development and industrialization”. Thedepartments in the ministry include the Department of Veterinary Services (DVS) and the Department ofLivestock Production (DLP). In addition, the ministry has a number of special programmes that include;NALEP, the ASAL Based Livestock and Rural Livelihoods Support Project, Central Kenya Dry AreasProgramme (CKDAP), Smallholder Dairy Commercialisation Programme, the Pan-African Tsetse andTrypanosomosis Eradication Campaign Programme (PATTEC), the Pan-African Control of Epizootics(PACE), the Kenya Agricultural Productivity Project (KAPP) and the South Nyanza CommunityDevelopment Project.Pastoral communities occupy the Area and Semi Arid Lands (ASALS) that occupy 80% of thetotal land area of Kenya. It extends from the border of Tanzania to the south and the Ethiopian andSudanese borders to the north, Somali to the east and Uganda to the north western front. In the country,pastoralists population is estimated at 25% with a livelihood predominantly defined as keeping cattle,sheep, goats and camels. Over 50% of the livestock population is based in the ASALs- which are themajor meat producing regions in Kenya with a slaughter of 1.6 million tropical livestock units per year. 4
  • 5. Sustainable livestock production is yet to be achieved in the ASALs owing to inadequate institutionalframework and unsupportive government policies, economic marginalisation, conflicts and poorgovernance. As a general trend pastoral livelihoods are caught in a downward poverty spiral, characterizedby declining food intake, poor education and health services, degraded and disappearing grasslands andwater sources for their herds, and little to no access to commercial market systems. Barriers to marketentry are multi-factorial, diffuse, complex and difficult to define, analyse and overcome.The cost of ignoring and marginalizing pastoralist production is famine, conflict, political unrest andenvironmental degradation. The main drivers of this decline are generally recognized as being broadlyassociated with social, economic and political marginalization of pastoralist populations. Thismarginalization is brought about by policymakers’ misunderstanding and lack of recognition ofpastoralist contribution and potential, characterized by under-investment and inappropriatepolicies, all of which undermines pastoralists continued adaptation to modern conditions. This canusefully be described as a structural trap for system degradation. Working out of this trap will require adegree of structural change2.0 Overview of the livestock sub-sector in KenyaRecent statistics point that the livestock sub-sector in Kenya accounts for approximately 10% of theNational Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This is 30% of the agricultural GDP. It employs about 50% ofthe national agricultural workforce and about 90% of the ASAL workforce. 95% of ASAL householdincome comes from this sub-sector. This is despite the fact that the sector receives only 1 % of the totalannual budget allocation.The livestock resource base is estimated at 60 million units comprising of 29 million indigenous andexotic chicken, 10 million beef cattle, 3 million dairy and dairy crosses, 9 million goats, 7 million sheep,0.8 mi camels, 0.52 mi donkeys and 0.3 million pigs. (Strategy for Revitalizing Agriculture (SRA) 2003)Kenya is broadly self-sufficient in most livestock products but is a net importer of red meat mostlyinform of on-the-hoof animals trekked across the porous boundaries of neighbouring countries- Somalia,Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda and Tanzania.Livestock supply in Kenya results from a complex set of interactions between Kenya and its neighboursand the traditional Middle East market and their respective livestock populations, demand and marketprices. Kenya is part of a regional market where livestock flow according to markets and pricedifferentials in a liberalized system throughout the region as a whole and where Nairobi represents afocus of demand for the regionSupply of red-meat from domestic cattle, shoats and camels falls short of demand, and is almostpermanently augmented by a traditional livestock trade drawn in from neighbouring countries, especiallySomalia, Tanzania, Sudan and Ethiopia in varying quantities according to demand, which maintains asupply/demand balance, at a relatively constant price.The figure below illustrates the value chain from a pastoralists perspective. 5

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