IFAD       BIOGAS SUPPORT MISSION                    Rwanda     Consultant:   Gerard HendriksenNovember 2011i
Table of Contents1.     Background...........................................................................................
1. BackgroundIntroductionKWAMP is an agricultural investment project implemented by MINAGRI, co-financedby IFAD, WFP and t...
2. National Domestic Biogas Programme in Rwanda2.1 BackgroundMININFRA with technical assistance from SNV, the Netherlands ...
 After one year the guaranty period of 12 months       Poor performing contractors are initially requested to improve the...
there have been negotiations to increase this amount for farmers who want biggersystems.Once the bank loan is approved, th...
mission. NDBP has sent its senior technician who introduced a simple modificationwhich seems to address the problem as dis...
This issue has been discussed in the project Steering Committee but was not furtherdeveloped due to a lack of resources. T...
The Chinese FGDs were the first digesters constructed in the district as mentioned earlierin the report. Unfortunately alm...
Table 4: Kirehe Districts Performance Plan 2011/12Objective                        Increased access and use of alternative...
At the moment no other credit facilities, apart from BPR, are available to householdswho want to construct a biogas digest...
till the number of animals increase. Some will have bigger herds and thereforedecreasing the number of households that are...
In view of the expertise currently available in the NDBP and the progress made so far(albeit much slower than was planned)...
4) Training of new biogas companies and technicians through the NDBP and SNV   regular programs. This should also include ...
___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11   13
ANNEXESAnnex 1: Documentation consulted1.   IMIHIGO Kirehe district 2011-122.   KWAMP working Document 4, 20083.   Monogra...
Annex 2: Persons consulted during the mission  Name             Position         Name               email                 ...
Annex 3: ToR Biogas Field Technician1        Specific dutiesBiogas Field Technician will work in the Kirehe Districts and ...
The duration of the contract shall initially be for a period of 24 months (with a 6 monthprobation period) and will be ren...
Annex 4 : Bill of Quantities and average costs of biogas digester of 6 mtr3                                               ...
2,000    5,000 2.18   Hosepipe Nipple                                      pcs       5.0   2,000    10,000 2.19   Hosepipe...
Annex 5      Photographs of digester constructions                                              Chinese fibre             ...
Masonry type                                     digester      Built at location      using stones, sand      and cement. ...
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IFAD Biogas support Mission in Rwanda


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This report describes the IFAD National Domestic Biogas Program which has introduced and disseminated domestic biogas in Rwanda since 2007.

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IFAD Biogas support Mission in Rwanda

  1. 1. IFAD BIOGAS SUPPORT MISSION Rwanda Consultant: Gerard HendriksenNovember 2011i
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Background........................................................................................................................................... 12. National Domestic Biogas Programme in Rwanda.......................................................................... 2 2.1 Background ....................................................................................................................................... 2 2.2 NDBP Activities................................................................................................................................. 2 2.3 Construction of digesters................................................................................................................... 33. Kirehe district ....................................................................................................................................... 6 3.1 Number of digesters constructed ....................................................................................................... 6 3.2 District performance plan ................................................................................................................. 7 3.3 Construction companies .................................................................................................................... 8 3.4 Banque Populaire of Rwanda ........................................................................................................... 8 3.5 Awareness and promotion ................................................................................................................. 94. KWAMP support to Biogas ................................................................................................................ 95. Way forward ....................................................................................................................................... 116. Estimated budget................................................................................................................................ 12List of tablesTable 1: Targets and number of digesters constructed in 2010 and 2011Table 2: Overall status of the programTable 3: Digesters Constructed in Kirehe district per sector.Table 4: Kirehe Districts Performance PlanTable 5: Number of cattle in Kirehe district per sector.Table 6: Targets for new digesters per yearTable 7: Estimated budget for biogas sectorAnnexesAnnex 1: Documentation consultedAnnex 2: Persons consulted during the missionAnnex 3: ToR Biogas Field TechnicianAnnex 4: Bill of Quantities and average costs of biogas digester of 6 mtr3 AnnexAnnex 5: Photographs of Chinese and masonry digesters___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 i
  3. 3. 1. BackgroundIntroductionKWAMP is an agricultural investment project implemented by MINAGRI, co-financedby IFAD, WFP and the Government of Rwanda. It became effective on 30 April 2009,and is due for completion in June 2016. Its overall objective is the development ofsustainable profitable small-scale commercial agriculture in Kirehe District. The totalcost of the project is estimated at USD 49.3 million. The current IFAD grantcommitment amounts to USD 26.77 million. It operates in Kirehe district and aims atreaching 22 500 direct and 10 000 indirect beneficiaries.One of KWAMP’s outputs focuses on increased efficiency in livestock production andincludes the use of biogas to reduce consumption of fire wood. The project’s logframecalls for the installation and operation of 1500 digesters in the district. So farKWAMP’s activities in biogas have hardly started. Instead biogas was introduced in theKirehe district through the national biogas program implemented by the energy sectorof the Ministry of Infrastructure.IFAD is planning a Project for Pro-poor Uplifting of the Service Economy(PROPULSE) that would build on achievements in the agricultural and livestock sectorsto link Rwanda’s rural economy to its overall growth. It would focus on strengtheningrural economic activities, especially private services including input and output marketsand rural finance.Terms of ReferenceThe consultant was requested to refine the plans by KWAMP to support the introductionof household biogas digesters in Kirehe dictrict, which is also a prospective area of thePROPULSE program. Specific responsibilities include: 1. Review the progress of the SNV biogas programme; 2. Review the concrete biogas plans by KWAMP; 3. Prepare a model investment plan for a small-scale biogas digester; 4. Propose a practical support arrangement for KWAMP to determine eligible households for participating, the support provided consistent with other national programmes, the roles and responsibilities for the district and the project staff, M&E arrangements, training requirements, and the role of a possible service provider; and 5. Prepare the draft Terms of Reference for a possible service provider.Report overviewChapter 2 of the report describes the National Domestic Biogas Program which hasintroduced and disseminated domestic biogas since 2007. Chapter 3 focuses on thesituation in Kirehe district while chapter 4 highlights the biogas objectives and that wereprogrammed in the KWAMP program. The way forward has been described in chapter5 and the report concludes with an estimated budget for the planned activities to supportthe development of the market for biogas.___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 1
  4. 4. 2. National Domestic Biogas Programme in Rwanda2.1 BackgroundMININFRA with technical assistance from SNV, the Netherlands DevelopmentOrganisation and funding from GTZ started the National Domestic Biogas Program(NDBP). SNV has long experience in Nepal and other Asian countries with biogasand an important reason for choosing Rwanda as the first country Africa, was thehigh number of households owning 2 -3 dairy cows under zero grazing conditions.The initial target of the project was 15,000 digesters by 2011 but this figure proved fartoo high for the program. At this point in time less than 2000 digesters have beencompleted.The NDBP is implemented through MININFRA Energy Sector and SNV is providingtechnical assistance. Up till mid 2011 the program was based in the Ministry’s officesbut after the restructuring and the establishment of EWASA (Energy, Water andSanitation Agency), all development projects moved to a new location in Remera.The program has been funded by the GIZ which has since 2008 supported the programcosts and 75% of the subsidy paid the farmers. The Government provides the remaining25% of the subsidy. The current support of GIZ is being negotiated but in the meantimethe Government has fully integrated the program in the Ministry’s annual planning andthe MTEF and funding is secured for the financial year 2011/12 and expected to becontinuing thereafter.NDBP has 22 staff employed by EWASA, 16 of them field staff placed in districts(although currently only 11 positions are filled). The technicians are equipped with amotor cycle for transport to facilitate the visits the farmers, attend promotion activitiesand carry out quality control of digesters constructed by the private contractors.2.2 NDBP ActivitiesThe main activities of the program can be summarised as follows: 1) Promotion to create awareness through  workshops and meetings with local authorities  mass media campaigns (radio, TV, print, billboards, posters etc  NGOs such as LWF, Heifer, EADD, Vi-Life as well as the BPR. 2) Training focussing on contractors, masons, plumbers. NDBP works together with technical colleges in Kigali and the regions to support these trainings. In total over 300 masons and plumbers have attended these theoretical and practical programs (although not all have stayed in the biogas business thereafter). By 2011 the program had over 50 companies who are active in the market. In each district there is at least one active company which is officially accredited by the program. . 3) Training of farmers and users through the contractor as part of his contract and following the completion of each digester. The program retains the final payment for 12 months.. 4) Quality control of the biogas construction in the field by the field technicians. At least three visits are planned as follows:  When the construction of the dome (and masonry works) is completed  When the plumbing is completed and the stove is functioning___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 2
  5. 5.  After one year the guaranty period of 12 months Poor performing contractors are initially requested to improve their records and correct their mistakes. If they do not comply, they are removed from the program 5) Provision of subsidy; for each completed digester that complies with the standards of the program, an investment subsidy is paid of Rwf 300,000 (this is about 35% of the average investment costs) 6) Collaboration with the Banque Populaire du Rwanda (BPR): a special credit line ahs been developed with the BPR which can give up top Rwf 300,000 loan for a digester constructed under the program. 7) Monitoring of the progress and maintaining of a national data base of the units completed and under construction.2.3 Construction of digesters2.3.1 Construction costs, government subsidy and bank creditConstruction costsThe NDBP promotes a biogas digester constructed out of locally available materials,stones, gravel, sand, cement and the necessary hardware. Sizes vary from 4 – 12 m3depending on the number of cows and the household requirements. The most popularmodel remains the digester of the 6 mtr3 which normally fits a family with 2 -3 cows and4 – 6 members. Annex 4 provides a typical bill of quantity and the estimated costs of a 6m3 digester. The actual construction costs of the digester depends on the location thecosts of the materials and labour and is usually between Rwf 700,00 and 900,000. Overthe last year, the program is testing different options to further reduce the costs whilemaintaining a minimum quality. However, costs remain relatively high as compared toother countries in the region. The price of cement is an important factor as it is the singlebiggest item in the construction. SNV is currently testing the use of InterlockingStabilised Soil Bricks in different countries in Africa as a possibility to reduce theconsumption of cement and reduce the overall costs by 20 – 25%.SubsidyNDBP provides an investment subsidy of Rwf 300,000 for each digester that isconstructed by a trained and accredited contractor and meets the quality standards. Thesubsidy is equal for all digester size as it is expected that households that are opting forlarger digesters, will have the extra means to pay for the extra costs themselves.The subsidy is disbursed to the contractors in 3 trances depending on the advance madeduring construction. Before any payments are made, the farmer and the field technicianhave to approve the claim. The subsidy is paid either through the Ministry’s account (ansince mid this year through EWASA) or paid by the Banque Populaire (BPR) on behalfof the program for those households which have been provided with a loan.Bank CreditIn May 2009, MININFRA signed an Agreement with BPR setting out thecollaboration between Ministry and the Bank in the provision of biogas credit tohouseholds. Farmers applying for the loan are screened by the program to see if theymeet the technical conditions (such as number of animals, stable, location, availabilityof the building materials such as sand, stones etc) and by BPR to check their creditworthiness. The maximum bank loan is Rwf 300,000 for any size of digester although___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 3
  6. 6. there have been negotiations to increase this amount for farmers who want biggersystems.Once the bank loan is approved, the BPR disburses both the Government subsidy(which is held in a special account at the bank on behalf of MINIFRA) as well as thecredit, to the contractor’s account according to the progress of the work. Normally thisis done in 4 steps: a. Rwf 300,000 at the start of the contract b. Rwf 150,000 after completion of the dome c. Rwf 135,000 after completing the installation d. Rwf 15,000 guarantee money that will be paid after one yearThe field technicians of NDBP are responsible for inspecting the works and signingthe completion forms at each step before the bank will proceed with payments.Carbon creditsFollowing the experience of SNV in Asia countries, the Rwandan National DomesticBiogas has been working on a program to take advantage of the reduction in carbonemissions. A proposal was developed together for HIVOS (Humanist Institute forDevelopment Cooperation) from the Netherlands which has been supporting biogasprograms in Asia and Africa since many years. HIVOS offered to buy the carbonemissions through the voluntary market for a period of 10 years for the first 2000completed digesters. A first validation survey was carried out in 2009. The Contractwith HIVOS is unfortunately not yet finalised and is currently scrutinised by theRwandan Development Board.2.3.2 Progress of National Domestic Biogas ProgramPilot PhaseMININFRA funded the construction of pilot biogas digesters in 2007 /8 of 100 digestersafter the completion of the first training in four districts close to Kigali. For thesedigesters, farmers’ contribution was only about Rwf 200,000 while the remaining costswere supported by the Ministry. These pilot digesters were constructed in four districtssurrounding Kigali city to facilitate close supervision..Fibre glass programDuring the pilot phase, MININFRA decided in 2007 to test prefabricated Fibre GlassDigesters (FGD) made in China. The expectations were to reduce the construction timeand to minimize quality assurance issues. MININFRA imported 100 FGDs of 6 mtr3each early 2008 and these came together with all the necessary tools and accessoriesfrom China where the technology has been used for a number of years. In addition, teamof Chinese experts came to Rwanda for 2 months to train technicians and to install thefirst 10 units in Kirehe district which was the area selected by the Ministry. In total 76digesters were completed and all these were installed in Kirehe and neighbouring Ngomadistrict.A comparative study has been carried out in Sept 2009 and it was found that the FGDswere performing well but that their overall costs and construction time did not favour thecontinuation of the import of pre fabricated digesters. Since then the program has fullyfocused on the construction of the masonry type of digesters the so-called modified GCCmodels. Unfortunalty, at a later stage in 2010/11, the fibre glass digesters started toshow problems and most were reported no longer functioning during the time of the___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 4
  7. 7. mission. NDBP has sent its senior technician who introduced a simple modificationwhich seems to address the problem as discussed in the next chapter of this report.Number of digesters completedThe NDBP is now operating in all 30 districts in the country although there are widedifferences in the uptake of the technology. Progress in construction has been muchslower than was anticipated in the original project document which asked for 15,000digesters within a period of 4 years. The table 1 below shows the construction targetsand the realisations on a monthly basis for the past two years. These data are provided bythe program and entered on the website http://sites.google.com/site/biogas4all/homewhich shows the performance of the other 8 African countries where SNV is nowimplementing a biogas program. Among those, Kenya is the leader with a target of 2,200digesters for 2011 and it is likely to exceed this figure by end of the year.The monthly production figures in Rwanda show big variations over the year. Thevariations maybe attributed to seasonal influences as well as organisational issues.Table 1: Targets and number of digesters constructed in 2010 and 2011 Total April May Mar Sept July Aug Nov Jun Feb Dec Jan Oct Year 2010 Target 25 35 40 47 48 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 1035 Completed 57 44 13 37 48 60 82 83 52 43 45 63 627 target Year 2011 Target 65 80 80 90 100 105 105 105 110 120 120 120 1200 Completed 33 50 81 65 82 84 79 80 43 73 670Table 2: Overall status of the program Information Status up to September 2011 Number of biogas installations 1, 592 installed in the country Of which: Number of Chinese 76 digesters Bank loans provided by BPR 328 Numbers of biogas installations 45 under construction Program working in 22 districts2.3.3 Decentralisation of activitiesOver the past years there have been discussions within the NDBP team on how toinvolve other partners in the program and how further involve the districts in line withthe District Performance Plans.___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 5
  8. 8. This issue has been discussed in the project Steering Committee but was not furtherdeveloped due to a lack of resources. The districts do include domestic biogas in theirannual performance plans and the mayors of the districts signed a performancecontract with the President of the Republic. In the year 2009/10 the total target was1,139 in all the 30 districts but only 586 were recorded as completed in the contracts.For the year 2010/11, the mayors seem to have been more cautious and they have set amuch lower target of 544 digesters. A number of districts have not even mentionedbiogas in their annual contract.Although the program increased the number of field technicians from 5 to 16 inOctober last year, this is still not enough to cover every district. Ideally each districtwould have its own technician for the biogas program responsible to the districtauthorities while NDBP would play a coordinating and advisory role. A pilotapproach will be needed to ensure that the right experience is available before rollingout a selected approach. Kirehe district might offer such an opportunity with supportof the KWAMP program.3. Kirehe district3.1 Number of digesters constructedAs mentioned above the construction of biogas digesters in Kirehe started as early as2008 with the installation of Chinese, prefabricated fibre glass digesters. In total 56 unitswere installed in Kirehe district and this process was completed by 2009. Since then theprogram has focussed on the construction of the masonry type digesters (the so calledmodified GCC) which are used in all other SNV programs.Table 3: Digesters Constructed in Kirehe district per sector. masonry digesters Chinese Sector demo BPR LWF Own subt Total FGD digesters loans subsidy finance total Gahara 5 2 2 7 Gatore 6 1 9 10 16 Kigarama 9 1 10 10 Kigina 4 1 5 1 7 11 Kirehe 19 1 1 20 Mahama 1 10 11 11 Mpanga 2 0 2 Musaza 1 1 1 3 3 Mushikira 1 1 1 Mushikiri 9 1 3 4 13 Nasho 10 1 1 11 Ngarama 1 1 1 Nyamugali 1 2 3 3 Nyamugari 2 1 4 1 6 8 Nyarubuye 1 1 1 Total 57 10 31 14 6 61 118___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 6
  9. 9. The Chinese FGDs were the first digesters constructed in the district as mentioned earlierin the report. Unfortunately almost all the FGDs are now out of order for technicalreasons. Recently, the senior NDBP biogas technician has modified the digester of onehousehold in Gatore (Celestine Bugingo) costing Rwf 60,000. This seems to have solvedthe problem and the farmer was very happy with the digester’s performance when theconsultant visited the place.For demonstration purposes the program later constructed 10 masonry type digesters inhouseholds of model farmers. The NDBP supported the construction with Rwf 600,000subsidy instead of the usual Rwf 225000. NDBP also worked together with LutheranWorld Federation which supported the construction of 100 digesters in selectedhouseholds. In those cases, LWF contributed another Rwf 200,000 per digester as extrasubsidy on top of the Rwf 300,000 paid by NDBP. In Kirehe, 14 households profitedfrom this arrangement. By this time, these programs with extra subsidy are no longeravailable.The table shows the big differences between the different secteurs with Mpanga,Musaza, Ngarama, Nyamugali and Nyarubuye have 3 or less digesters. It is notimmediately clear why there is such a big variation between the sectors. This could bedue to the numbers of dairy cows, less awareness or other factors which need furtherinvestigation.Kirehe district has a large number of bank loans compared to other districts. Taking intoaccount that during the construction of the Chinese fibre glass digesters, no bank creditwas available, this means that over 50% of the new customers have managed to obtain acredit which about double the national figure. It has been mentioned that this has beendue to the very active contractors, who have assisted potential customers to access thebank credit and the support of the field technician who was responsible for bothe Kireheand Ngoma districts. Unfortunately in August this year, the field technician resignedfrom the National Program as he went for further studies. Since then there has been notdirect support from the program in Kirehe and this might partly explain the very lowconstruction figures over the last months. From July this year, only 8 digesters have beencompleted.3.2 District performance planThe districts performance plan (Imihigo) for Kirehe district for 2011/12, item no 23mentions as objective “Increased access and use of alternative energy” . The details areshown below in the table below___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 7
  10. 10. Table 4: Kirehe Districts Performance Plan 2011/12Objective Increased access and use of alternative(Item 23 of Imihigo) energyOutput Biogas plants established increased to 180 units for climate change mitigationIndicator Number of new biogas plants establishedBaseline 85 biogas plants in use.Target 180 households with biogas and 3 secondary schoolsResponsible In charge of environment and waterCosts (Rwf) Rwf 21,600,000Source of funds District/ KWAMPAccording to the records of the district, only 8 new digesters have been completedsince the beginning of July 2011. The table above seems to indicate that for thisfinancial year 95 new digesters need to be constructed although in the discussion withthe district authorities, the figure of 180 NEW digesters was mentioned. Whatever, thetarget, it clear that this will not be met if the rate of construction remains the same asover the last 5 months (about 1 per month). Instead the rate should increase to 15 – 20per month.Already the district has held some meetings together with the coordinator of NDBP. Alist of 200 interested farmers compiled by the district authorities (prepared by theOfficer in charge of Environment and Water) was suppose to be communicated before21st October but so far has not been received. U3.3 Construction companiesTwo construction companies are currently active in the Kirehh district. a) RENTECH contact Joseph 0788 406 248 and b) CEE, Abdul Karim, 0788 469661Unfortunately the consultant did not manage to meet those two companies and telephoneconversations were not possible because of the language barriers. However, it isunderstood that the companies have performed very well over the past years and thattheir capacity is not the bottleneck at the moment. Even when real demand wouldincrease dramatically over the coming months, NDBP can encourage contractors fromneighbouring Ngoma district to come in and help fill the gap. At the same time newcontractors and their staff from Kirehe can be included in the regular training programsby NDBP.3.4 Banque Populaire of RwandaThe consultant visited the BPR office in Kirehe and also met the branch manager (mrGatete). The bank accountant showed records for 38 customers that are supported by theBPR . This is higher than the records of BPR loans (31 in number) shown in the NDBPdatabase. The reason could be that the BPR in some cases pays the subsidy on behalf ofthe Ministry as was agreed in the MoU between the two parties. The subsidy amount ofRwf 300,000 is paid in three tranches of Rwf 150,000 and of Rwf 135,000. Theremaining Rwf 15,000 is security money and held for at least one year.___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 8
  11. 11. At the moment no other credit facilities, apart from BPR, are available to householdswho want to construct a biogas digester. However, the district and the program mightwant to explore the interest and possibilities of other MFIs such as Vision Finance(supported by the World Vision and operating from 9 offices in the country, soon to beexpanded to 17 offices) and the Umurenge SACCOs which are supported by thedistricts.3.5 Awareness and promotionDespite all the national awareness campaigns by the NDBP that have been conducted forabout 3 years on radio, TV, bill boards as well as meetings with district authorities andother stakeholders, many in the district claim that, surprisingly, many farmers are stillnot aware of biogas. The consultant was not in a position to verify this claim but clearlyit is an issue that needs attention.The consultant visited the CCI (Centre of Innovation and Communication) in Gatorewhich has been in operation for 6 months now. CCI has the objective to inform farmerson new technologies. However, the consultant did not find any reference to biogas in thedisplay boards or anywhere else in the CCI. This seems a missed opportunity and caneasily be corrected.The BPR branch manager was of the opinion that the presence of a good field technicianis essential to ensure effective promotion and follow up with the client farmers,contractors, the bank and the national program. He stated that this support was notavailable over the last months (as the field technician of the national program left theservice to go for further studies). The branch manager also suggested that moreawareness creation needs to be carried out through the local authorities through theirregular meetings with the population.Through KWAMP, the NGO Heifer Projects International (HPI) is also running aprogram in Kirehe, “One family, One cow” offering support to improve breeding stock,veterinary services etc. Heifer has about 30 field technicians in the country and 10 arestationed in Kirehe district. The head office claimed that their field staff have littleknowledge of the biogas program, which again looks surprising as Heifer has even beeninvolved when the national biogas program was created. Because of the direct contactthe Heifer technicians have with the livestock farmers, they seem an obvious means toincrease awareness and it was suggested that NDBP will attend the 6 monthly, nationalmeetings of the Heifer staff as well as use the 10 field staff in Kirehe more effectively.4. KWAMP support to BiogasThe KWAMP program design document from 2008 includes a working paper (no 4) onlivestock development. This also includes a proposal on the introduction of biogas andrelevant information is presented below.The table 5 below shows the livestock population in Kirehe district divided over thesectors. There are no details on the number of animal per household or on zero grazing.However, if we assume 3 traditional cows required for a biogas installation, then themaximum number of households would be around 4,000. In reality this will be muchlower as many families only have 1- 2 cows, making investment in biogas unattractive___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 9
  12. 12. till the number of animals increase. Some will have bigger herds and thereforedecreasing the number of households that are technical attractive for biogas.Table 5: Number of cattle in Kirehe district per sector. Secteur Vaches hybrides Vaches Total modernes traditionnelles GAHARA 24 33 594 651 GATORE 6 24 797 827 KIGARAMA 3 17 1159 1179 KIGINA 19 45 923 987 KIREHE 17 36 760 813 MAHAMA 11 20 382 413 MPANGA 23 62 1704 1789 MUSAZA 19 50 1178 1247 MUSHIKIRI 22 120 1757 1899 NASHO 3 79 1095 1177 NYAMUGARI 9 50 794 853 NYARUBUYE 7 28 1017 1052 Total 163 564 12160 12887Source: Monographie du District de Kirehe 2007One of the outputs of KWAMP mentioned in the working paper is access for 2,000households to biogas digesters producing gas for cooking and lighting as well as highquality fertiliser in the form of improved manure. In view of the above figures on thenumber households having cattle in the district and the experience with the technologynationwide, it is unlikely that the target of 2000 digesters in Kirehe will be achieved theend of the KWAMP program in 2016. A figure of 600 – 800 seems attainable providedal conditions are in place. One of the main constraints are the high upfront investmentcosts for biogas (as is common for renewable energy in general) which do not directlytranslate into more income for the family (as a hybrid cow would do) but insteadimprove quality of live and increases convenience.The document further provides details on the proposed activities to ensure theconstruction of biogas digesters. Reference is made to the National Domestic BiogasProgram which started mid 2007 by MINIFRA with technical assistance from SNV andlargely funded by GTZ. The document refers to the experience in China (which is by farthe largest user of small biogas systems in the world) and it proposes the use of Chinesepre fabricated units as well as locally built masonry units. The working papers estimatesthe costs of $250 per unit. The comparative study between FGD and masonry unitscarried out in 2009, estimated the total cost of a FGD including its accessories, transportfrom China to Rwanda, construction materials of pre-treatment tank, and cost ofinstallation at about Rwf 760,000 ($1250) while the masonry unit was calculated to beRwf 623,000 ($1,050)The KWAMP working document proposed a 50% subsidy towards the monetary costsof the biogas construction. However, based on $250 it would be much less than the Rwf300,000 ($500) currently provided by NDBP.___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 10
  13. 13. In view of the expertise currently available in the NDBP and the progress made so far(albeit much slower than was planned), it will be advisable for KWAMP to effectivelyjoin hands with the national program in order to stimulate developments in Kirehedistrict in particular as well as to gain experience for future other IFAD supportedprograms.Improved cookstoves as a complementary effort.Within the overall objective of reducing the consumption of fuel wood, the District andKWAMP may in future also want to consider to strengthen the dissemination ofimproved cookstoves . Again, the CCIs could play an important role in making thembetter known and understood. Improved stoves have a considerable potential to reducethe consumption of fuel wood as well as reduction of indoor air pollution, a mayor causeof premature deaths, especially for women and children. In addition, households canreduce the work load for searching firewood and/or expenses to buy such fuels.Improved stoves are relatively low investments (from $ 5- 50 depending on the type,quality and the size) and are an option for those households who do not have cattle.There are already a number of programs and initiatives in Rwanda, for instance throughEWASA of Ministry of Infrastructure, using a market driven approach for thedissemination of improved cookstoves and these avenues can be further explored. Itwould contribute to the district’s objective of reducing firewood consumption and wouldbe complementary to the biogas program5. Way forwardThe consultant discussed the possible actions in a joint meeting with the DistrictsAuthorities (Vice Major and Executive Secretary) and the coordinator of the NationalDomestic Biogas Program. The following are suggested;1) Modification of the non functioning fibre glass digesters (about 50 in number) which can be repaired at a relatively low costs of Rwf 60,000. The District Authorities will call a meeting of the owners of those digesters, during which staff of the NDBP will explain the suggested modifications, the costs involved and the support to be provided by NDBP through its technicians.2) Immediate recruitment of a biogas field technician (grade A1). He/she will be employed by the district and provided with a motor cycle and other necessary equipment as per standards of NDBP. A draft ToR has been attached in the annexes The field technician can be either a) recruited with the support of the NDBP which has already started the process of recruiting 4 – 5 field staff and this should be completed by end Nov 2011 or b) selected among the 40 or so field staff already available within the district, a person who meets the necessary qualifications. NDBP can help in the selection procedures.3) Increased awareness and promotional activities through direct meetings with farmers, collaborating partners (such as CCI staff, Heifer, ENAS etc), local authorities. The biogas technician will be responsible for setting up such a program. He/she may be assisted by the NDBP. The program will support exchange visits for interested farmers from sectors where there are few digesters, to see operating units in neighbouring areas.___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 11
  14. 14. 4) Training of new biogas companies and technicians through the NDBP and SNV regular programs. This should also include management training: preparing of business plans, marketing, accounting and cash flow management. A first training session for 15 contractors is planned for early December (contact NDBP/SNV) and it would be good if 1 or 2 of the Kirehe companies could participate. The training will include linkages with MFIs.5) Testing of cheaper construction technologies in collaboration with NDBP. The program wants to test the Interlocking Stabilised Soil Blocks which offers the potential of reducing cement consumption. KWAMP can assist NDBP in the provision of limited funds to procure the necessary tools (from Kenya or Uganda) as well as supporting bringing experts from the region as recommended by NDBP/ SNV.It is expected that with the proposed technical support, increased awareness campaignsand the continuous availability of subsidy through the national program, the total numberof new digesters could reach 750 units in the 5 years counting from July 2011. However,this will not be an easy task and requires commitments of al concerned, not in the least ofthe farming households who have to pay the largest share of the investment.Table 6: Targets for new digesters per year Year Target 2011/12 100 2012/13 130 2013/14 150 2014/15 170 2015/16 200 total 7506. Estimated budgetThe table below provides an overview of the costs to support the biogas program for theperiod of January 2012 – June 2014. This is in addition to the subsidies and otheractivities which are provided under the National Domestic Biogas Program.Table 7: Estimated budget for biogas sector Activities to support biogas sector Estimated costs 1 Modification and repair of existing FGDs (costs paid by the farmer, technical support by NDBP) $0 2 Field technician Rwf 300,000 /month including fuel etc, 30 months $13,000 equipment, motorbike, laptop, GPS etc $5,500 3 Promotional activities (to be covered by district budget?) $5,000 4 Company training and support through NDBP and SNV $4,000 5 Testing of interlocking bricks for biogas and water tanks $8,000 Estimated total $37,500___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 12
  15. 15. ___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 13
  16. 16. ANNEXESAnnex 1: Documentation consulted1. IMIHIGO Kirehe district 2011-122. KWAMP working Document 4, 20083. Monographie du District de Kirehe 20074. Comparative study on Performance of Fibre Glass Digesters and Masonry Digesters installed in Rwanda, November 20095. Rwanda SNV_Biogas Implementation Plan final Aug066. Biogas baseline report Nov077. NDBP validation report final_Feb108. Hivos Carbon credit proposal _July09___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 1
  17. 17. Annex 2: Persons consulted during the mission Name Position Name email tel Organisation Tihabyona Vice major Kirehe District tihabyona09@yahoo.fr 0788 469 780 Jean de Dieu economics, Eric Zikama Executive Kirehe District zikameric@yahoo.fr 0788 744 569 Secretary Janvier Project IFAD, gasasira@gmail.com +250 (788) 30 Gasasira Coordinator PAPSTA/KWAM 7522 P André Field KWAMP agabruce@gmail.com 0788 304 392 Ndagijiman Coordinator a Josef Engineer KWAMP, Kirehe njosephkan@gmail.com 0788 601 314 Gatete Branch BPR Kirehe emmagatete@gmail.com 0788 682 682 manager Deo Agronomist ENAS, Kirehe 0788 742 575 Umurerwa program Heifer International umurerwa_sese@yahoo.fr 0788 585 620 Seraphine officer Jost Uwase Manager CCI Gatore, Kirehe cci@kirehe@gmail.com 0788 430 723 Sylvain Environmenta Kirehe District smutabaruka@yahoo.fr 0788 486 390 Mutabaruka l officer Alfred Director ENAS and farmer alfrednkubili@yahoo.fr 0788 300 760 Nkubili Jean Marie Senior Vision Finance jmusangwa@vfcrwanda.c 0788 305 604 Vienney Operations Company om Musangwa Manager Timothy Project NNDBP katimothy@yahoo.co.uk 0788 466 635 Kayumba Coordinator Anaclet Biogas expert SNV Rwanda andahimana@snvworld.or 0788 859 138 Ndahimana g Dominique Private sector SNV Rwanda dowekisa@snvworld.org 0788 301 509 Owekisa and finance___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 2
  18. 18. Annex 3: ToR Biogas Field Technician1 Specific dutiesBiogas Field Technician will work in the Kirehe Districts and its Secteur with the differentstakeholders but in particular with the households and the local contractors and the creditinstitutions.He/she has the following specific tasks:  Assist the district and NDBP’s promotion campaign by contacting interested farmers, contractors and agents of local authorities and advice in the completion of the NDBP forms;  Assist farmers, biogas construction companies, the Banque Populaire du Rwanda and local authorities in the completion of forms from the NDBP to obtain susidy provided by the national program;  Evaluate the technical conditions of household before construction  Monitor the quality of plants under construction and issue completion forms for completed units.  Monitor the after-sales services provided by the biogas companies  Report any defects observed in bio digesters to the district’s authorities and inform NDBP,  Contribute in training sessions for users and technicians  Assist companies and local organizations in conducting users training sessions Collect data on the digesters from the field and provide monthly field reports for the district as well as for the NDBP  Undertake any other task assigned by the Districts Authorities.2 The required profileThe successful candidate must have the following qualifications and/or skills:  Technical educational in civil construction or agricultural subjects A1 (minimum),  at least 2 years relevant working experience (supervision of construction) in rural areas;  good knowledge of the rural sector in Rwanda;  Experience and/or willingness to ride a motorcycle as transport in the rural areas  Good verbal and written communication skills in Kinyarwanda, French and/or English.  Having received training in biogas technology is an added advantage3 Place of workThe field technician will be based in Kirehe district4 Duration of the assignment___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 3
  19. 19. The duration of the contract shall initially be for a period of 24 months (with a 6 monthprobation period) and will be renewable depending on performance and programrequirements.5 Application proceduresInterested candidates should provide the following documents:  an application letter for employment;  a detailed curriculum vitae;  photocopies of degrees and certificates obtained.Closing date/time for application: date xx Month Year at xx.00 hrsAll applications shall be submitted to: Executive Secretary Postal details : xxxx Kirehe district___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 4
  20. 20. Annex 4 : Bill of Quantities and average costs of biogas digester of 6 mtr3 Qty Unit Total Cost Cost SN Items Unit NDBP NDBP NDBP 1 Building materials FRW FRW 3 1.1 Stones m 6.0 12,500 75,000 3 1.2 Gravel 20mm diameter maximum m 2.0 20,000 40,000 3 1.3 Clean coarse sand m 2.0 15,000 30,000 3 1.4 Clean fine sand m 2.0 15,000 30,000 Sub total 1 175,000 2 Cement 2.1 Portland Cement bags 18.0 11,000 198,000 Sub total 2 198,000 3 Hardware materials 2.1 Acrylic emulsion paint kg 2.0 2,000 4,000 2.2 Gas Turret pipe with 1 1/4-1/2 reducer pcs 1.0 7,000 7,000 2.3 Steel rods 8mm pcs 4.0 7,500 30,000 2.4 Binding wire kg 0.5 2,000 1,000 2.5 Galvanized wire kg 0.5 2,000 1,000 2.6 PVC pipe 110 mm, PN 4 pcs 1.0 12,000 12,000 2.7 PVC pipes 20 mm, PN 16 pcs 7.0 2,500 17,500 2.8 PVC elbow 20mm pcs 7.0 500 3,500 2.9 PVC tee 20 mm pcs 4.0 500 2,000 2.10 PVC socket 20 mm pcs 3.0 500 1,500 2.11 PVC Adapter nipple 1/2 pcs 4.0 500 2,000 2.12 PVC Adapter socket 1/2 pcs 1.0 500 500 2.13 Tangit Glue kg 0.25 8,000 2,000 2.14 Galvanized Nipple 1/2 pcs 5.0 500 2,500 2.15 Galvanized Union pcs 1.0 700 700 2.16 Galvanised Plug 1/2 pcs 1.0 500 500 2.17 Gas hose pipe m 2.50___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 5
  21. 21. 2,000 5,000 2.18 Hosepipe Nipple pcs 5.0 2,000 10,000 2.19 Hosepipe clamp pcs 6.0 600 3,600 2.20 Gas valve 1/2 pcs 4 3,500 14,000 2.21 Biogas lamp pcs 1 15,000 15,000 2.22 Biogas stove pcs 1 20,000 20,000 2.23 Pressure gauge pcs 1 7,000 7,000 2.24 Teflon tapes pcs 3 300 900 2.25 Galavanised elbow pcs 2 500 1,000 2.26 Wood screws pcs 10 30 300 2.27 Screw holders 8 mm pcs 10 30 300 2.28 Wall clamps 1/2" pcs 5 500 2,500 2.29 Desulphication device pcs 1 13,000 13,000 Sub total 3 180,300 4 Labour and unexpected cost person- 4.1 Skilled labour day 15 3,500 52,500 person- 4.2 Unskilled labour day 40 1,500 60,000 4.3 Work Supervision lumpsum 1 15,000 15,000 4.4 After-sales services lumpsum 3 2,500 7,500 4.5 Transport supervision days 3 2,500 7,500 4.6 Transport of special materials lumpsum 1 15,000 15,000 4.7 Gross margin for company including 1 year guaranty lumpsum 70,000 Sub total 4 227,500 3 Total cost of a 6 m digester 780,800___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 6
  22. 22. Annex 5 Photographs of digester constructions Chinese fibre glass digester 6 mtr3 Assembled from 4 parts Installation in the ground Covered with top structures___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 7
  23. 23. Masonry type digester Built at location using stones, sand and cement. Built by local masons Digester underground Inlet and overflow shown___________________IFAD biogas report Nov11 8