Building blocks for high quality
education:
Reflections based on Finnish
education
FINLANDIA: Modelo de Excelencia Educati...
Republic Finland
 In northern Europe,
area of 340 000 km2
(9 times bigger than
Extremadura)

 5,4 million people
(5 time...
1. Finnish educational context
Equality
2. National and local level curriculum
3. Assessment and quality assurance
4. Teac...
2. Finnish educational
context

4
Characteristics of Finnish Education
Laukkanen (2008), Niemi et al. (2012), Sahlberg (2011)

1. Common, consistent and lon...
Equality
Special education in Finland is preventing
drop outs
 8.5 % of all students are with special education needs.

1st level
...
32 pupils at 3rd
grade science
class
4 special need
pupils are
integrated to the
“ordinary
classroom”

Teacher 1

Teacher ...
- Learning in a small
collaborative
group of pupils
- Pupils have different
competencies
and “background”
A teacher is supporting
and encouraging a
special need student.
I like this type of
learning. It is really
easy to come here and
express own ideas and
work together.
High-achieving pupils work
as role models for loachieving pupils
(support to the
development of self
efficacy; important i...
... It is not
necessary, a pupil
is ready for
school. Instead a
school should be
ready for a pupil!
2. National and Local Curriculum
World around the school is changing …
Technology

Working
life

Amount of
knowledge and
nature of knowledge
Climate change...
National level and local curricula
& individual variations

 Local municipalities or even schools prepare a local
curricu...
School subjects in comprehensive school
(total number of weekly lessons hours)
Optional
subjects 13

Physical
education , ...
General Aims in the National Level
Core Curriculum

 … learning depends on the learner's previously
constructed knowledge...
3. Assessment and
Quality Assurance in Finland
Comparison of Finnish and outcome based models
Outcome based –model

Finnish ‘input’ –model: an
enhancement-led approach

...
Teachers’ role in assessment

 Teachers are considered as autonomous academic
professionals, who are able to plan, implem...
A new era in quality assurance for education:
From quality control to quality culture
 Some scholar papers on Quality Ass...
Levels in Finnish QA

 National level
 National Core Curriculum
 national assessment/monitoring based on
samples in com...
Evaluation /Quality assurance is for
improvements in Finnish Teacher Education
 The evaluation policy in Finland is enhan...
4. Teaching methods
Teaching methods are ..
- goal-oriented and
- emphasise social interaction
among students and
between students and the tea...
21st century competencies: ways of thinking and working
and, use of tools in different contexts (OECD DeSeCo)
Ways of thin...
Video

35
5. Finnish Teacher Education
Teacher professionalism and professionality
(Müller et al, 2010; TALIS 2008 survey)

All important

 Teacher professional...
Diverse definitions to professionalism
(Hargreaves & Goodson, 1996; Evans, 2008; Urban & Dalli, 2011)

Characteristics of ...
Finnish Teacher Education Development
Programme (2002): The teacher education
programmes should help students to acquire:
...
Study credits
cr = 26 hours of work

Teachers
benefit of the
Structure of the Master’s degree
research orientation
of a se...
Finnish
Structure of the master degree
of a primary teacher: 3 + 2 years

language, PCK

Mathematics, PCK
Bachelor’s level...
The pedagogical studies helps the students …
 to integrate subject knowledge, knowledge about
teaching and learning and s...
Assessment of teachers
Finnish
trends
Qualification

Opposite trends
(an example)

Master degree

Teachers in US apply to ...
6. Discussion
In Education we need …
more ...

less ...

–
–

bureaucracy

decentralisation,
decision making and
assessment at local lev...
Thank you!
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Jornadas: Finlandia, modelo de excelencia educativa

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Building Blocks for High Quality Education: Reflections based on Finnish Education.
Dr. JARI LAVONEN. Professor, Department of Teacher Education, University of Helsinki.

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Jornadas: Finlandia, modelo de excelencia educativa

  1. 1. Building blocks for high quality education: Reflections based on Finnish education FINLANDIA: Modelo de Excelencia Educativa November 28th 2013 Jornadas Jari Lavonen, Department of Teacher Education, University of Helsinki, Finland Jari.Lavonen@Helsinki.Fi
  2. 2. Republic Finland  In northern Europe, area of 340 000 km2 (9 times bigger than Extremadura)  5,4 million people (5 times bigger than in Extremadura)  Success in - welfare - education 2
  3. 3. 1. Finnish educational context Equality 2. National and local level curriculum 3. Assessment and quality assurance 4. Teaching methods 5. Teacher education 6. Discussion 3
  4. 4. 2. Finnish educational context 4
  5. 5. Characteristics of Finnish Education Laukkanen (2008), Niemi et al. (2012), Sahlberg (2011) 1. Common, consistent and long-term policy - models for teacher & comprehensive education are 40 years old 2. Educational equality - need to mitigate socio/economic backgrounds - education is free (books, meals, health care, …) - well-organised special education (inclusion) and counselling 3. Devolution of decision power to the local level - leadership and management at school level (headmaster) - teachers are responsible for local curriculum and assessment 4. The culture of trust and co-operation are based on professionalism (academic expertise): national level – district – school – families - no inspectors, no national exams (testing) … - no private tutoring or evening schools 5
  6. 6. Equality
  7. 7. Special education in Finland is preventing drop outs  8.5 % of all students are with special education needs. 1st level 2nd level level equality 3rd  Special education need students:  55 % are integrated into normal classes :  30 % are attending special education classes, located in mainstream schools  15 % in special schools  An Individual Education Plan 14
  8. 8. 32 pupils at 3rd grade science class 4 special need pupils are integrated to the “ordinary classroom” Teacher 1 Teacher 2
  9. 9. - Learning in a small collaborative group of pupils - Pupils have different competencies and “background”
  10. 10. A teacher is supporting and encouraging a special need student.
  11. 11. I like this type of learning. It is really easy to come here and express own ideas and work together.
  12. 12. High-achieving pupils work as role models for loachieving pupils (support to the development of self efficacy; important in working life) High-achieving pupils learn skills needed in further studies and in the working life, entrepreneurship
  13. 13. ... It is not necessary, a pupil is ready for school. Instead a school should be ready for a pupil!
  14. 14. 2. National and Local Curriculum
  15. 15. World around the school is changing … Technology Working life Amount of knowledge and nature of knowledge Climate change Natural environment Diversities inside communities Free time Population Economy Living environment Youth culture Diverse learners Finnish school
  16. 16. National level and local curricula & individual variations  Local municipalities or even schools prepare a local curriculum based on the national framework. PISA School Questionnaire: in 97% of the schools, the school principal and teachers feel that they are responsible for curriculum and assessment policy (in OECD countries 77%)  Students have the option of choosing courses or school subjects, especially during the last years of compulsory schooling. 23
  17. 17. School subjects in comprehensive school (total number of weekly lessons hours) Optional subjects 13 Physical education , music , visual arts, craft 56 History , social studies 10 Religion or Ethics 11 Science subjects 31 Mother tongue and literature (Finnish/Swedish) 42 16 Other domestic language 6 (Swedish or Fin) Foreign languages Mathematics 32 Voulntary language 12 24
  18. 18. General Aims in the National Level Core Curriculum  … learning depends on the learner's previously constructed knowledge, motivation, and… … learning is an active and goal-oriented process … collective problem-solving … Learning is situational, … 25
  19. 19. 3. Assessment and Quality Assurance in Finland
  20. 20. Comparison of Finnish and outcome based models Outcome based –model Finnish ‘input’ –model: an enhancement-led approach Aims as Learning outcomes Broad aims for teaching/ learning Important level In assessment National/district level assessment Assessment at the level of school and classroom (teacher) (+) - detail descriptions of learning outcomes at a national level - a learner knows what should be learnt and is active in the learning process - a basis for designing district level test items - co-planning in school and classroom level - focus on process and product - a teacher conducts assessment for enhancing learning processes = assessment for improvements (-) - competitive school culture (rankings) - control of outcomes guides learning “Teaching to the test” - problematic to compare the quality of learning outcomes - selection to further studies could be biased
  21. 21. Teachers’ role in assessment  Teachers are considered as autonomous academic professionals, who are able to plan, implement, and assess teaching and learning  Assessment data (formative and summative) is used for different purposes: - student assessment - for improving teaching and learning - for selecting students to next level -… 28 1.12.2013
  22. 22. A new era in quality assurance for education: From quality control to quality culture  Some scholar papers on Quality Assurance (QA) focus on the role of QA in  mastering changes,  allowing local developers to have ownership (Wolff, 2004; Ehlers, 2009) “In education, we need methods and practices that get deeper into organizations and closer to the teachers and learners.” (Ehlers, 2009; see also Maier, 2009) A shift towards internal, teacher-conducted procedures like alternative and formative forms of assessment (Black & Wiliam, 2003; Inbar-Lourie & Donitsa-Schmidt, 2009) 29 1.12.2013
  23. 23. Levels in Finnish QA  National level  National Core Curriculum  national assessment/monitoring based on samples in comprehensive school  Municipality/city level  municipalities are responsible for monitoring and allocating resources (positive discrimination)  School and teacher level  School- and classroom-based assessment  self-evaluations, cooperation with parents 30 1.12.2013
  24. 24. Evaluation /Quality assurance is for improvements in Finnish Teacher Education  The evaluation policy in Finland is enhancement-led = evaluation is a tool for improvements  Quality Assurance in Finnish Teacher Education  allows freedom for different actors  is based on a certain level of trust  is based on self-assessment and monitoring  partners/levels take their responsibility seriously  continuous interaction between different partners/levels  students’ evaluations and staff members’ self evaluations is discussed collaboratively 31
  25. 25. 4. Teaching methods
  26. 26. Teaching methods are .. - goal-oriented and - emphasise social interaction among students and between students and the teacher. 33
  27. 27. 21st century competencies: ways of thinking and working and, use of tools in different contexts (OECD DeSeCo) Ways of thinking - Creative and critical thinking - Use of knowledge and information interactively - Learning to learn, use of metacognition Ways of working (teaching and learning) - Communicating, collaborating and networking - Identifying issues … making conclusions = inquiry - Generating ideas, problem-solving and decision making Tools for working (tools for learning) - Literacy: network of concepts, - skills (research skills, skills for generating alternatives) - ICT tools - Moral and ethical code Context for working - Personal (citizenship), social, local, global - Working life, STEM career Attitude needed for working - Willingness to use knowledge (motivation) - Self-efficacy 34
  28. 28. Video 35
  29. 29. 5. Finnish Teacher Education
  30. 30. Teacher professionalism and professionality (Müller et al, 2010; TALIS 2008 survey) All important  Teacher professionalism refers to status of teachers and depends on  cultural and education policy factors at state level or context (accountability policy  trust culture, …)  school level factors (shared leadership, collaboration, school-society-family partnership …)  individual characteristics (teacher knowledge, teaching philosophy, interaction skills, …)  Teacher professionality is built on knowledge, skills and procedures used at work. 38
  31. 31. Diverse definitions to professionalism (Hargreaves & Goodson, 1996; Evans, 2008; Urban & Dalli, 2011) Characteristics of professionality: (Freidson, 2001; Evetts, 2012):  Autonomous role in planning and implementation.  Self-regulation of and -control over the work (selfassessment).  The professional knowledge base (theoretical/ conceptual knowledge base).  Specific professional ideology, incl. shared understanding of professional values and ethics code .  Strong institutionalisation of an occupational group.  Work (activities) is complex and not easy to standardize.  Include social and individual elements 39
  32. 32. Finnish Teacher Education Development Programme (2002): The teacher education programmes should help students to acquire: life-longlearning partnership high quality profesionalism  high-level subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, and knowledge about nature of knowledge,  social skills, like communication skills; skill to cooperate with other teachers,  moral knowledge and skills, like social and moral code of the teaching profession,  knowledge about school as an institute and its connections to the society (school community and partners, local contexts and stakeholders),  skills needed in developing one’s own teaching and the teaching profession.  academic skills, like research skills; skills to use ICT, skills needed in processes of developing a curricula,  …. 41
  33. 33. Study credits cr = 26 hours of work Teachers benefit of the Structure of the Master’s degree research orientation of a secondary teacher: 3 + 2 years, 300 cr make while they the school curriculum, Bachelor’s level (180 cr) Master’s level (120 cr) plan, implement and evaluate 180 teaching and 160 learning Master140 thesis 120 100 80 BSc thesis 60 Ped. thesis 40 Teaching practice 20 0 Major Subject Minor Subject Pedagogical studies Subject knowledge, knowledge about teaching and learning, and school practise are integrated into the students’ own personal Communicationpedagogical and language theory/ studies view 44
  34. 34. Finnish Structure of the master degree of a primary teacher: 3 + 2 years language, PCK Mathematics, PCK Bachelor’s level (180 cr) Master’s level (120 cr) Physics, PCK Chemistry, PCK Biology, PCK Geography, PCK History, PCK Religion/ethics PCK Sports Arts Music Crafts Study credits cr = 26 hours of work 180 160 140 Masterthesis 120 100 80 Teaching practice 60 Pedagogical studies BSc thesis 40 20 0 Major Education or Ed. Psych. Multidisciplinary studies Minor Subject Communication and language studies 45
  35. 35. The pedagogical studies helps the students …  to integrate subject knowledge, knowledge about teaching and learning and school practice into their own personal pedagogical theory/view,  to become aware of the different dimensions of the teacher profession: social, philosophical, psychological, sociological, and historical basis of education,  to be able to reflect on their own personal pedagogical “theory/view” (reflection for, in and on action),  to develop potentials for lifelong professional development. 46
  36. 36. Assessment of teachers Finnish trends Qualification Opposite trends (an example) Master degree Teachers in US apply to the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (use of portfolio, videotaped lesson, …) Standards for No standards teachers Australian professional standards for teachers Assessment (appraisal) Self-assessment External appraisal and writing of and development evaluation sheets (S. Korea) discussions with the headmaster Inspectors No-inspectors Heavy inspection in UK Testing No-national testing Teachers are valued based on their students’ success in national tests 47
  37. 37. 6. Discussion
  38. 38. In Education we need … more ... less ... – – bureaucracy decentralisation, decision making and assessment at local level – standardisation, inspection and national testing trust based responsibility – test based accountability – competition and rankings professionalism equal opportunities for all students (self-evaluations, listening of students and municipality people/ parents voice) collaboration ability (or parents’ money) based students' grouping 53
  39. 39. Thank you!

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