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Global Warming: Climate Change
 

Global Warming: Climate Change

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    Global Warming: Climate Change Global Warming: Climate Change Presentation Transcript

    • GLOBALWARMINGANDCLIMATECHANGE:CHALLENGEFORSURVIVAL A Lecture of DENR during the RCDC Meeting (2011) Dagupan City
    • Our precious planet Saving the environment could be this century’s biggest challenge Source: Time Magazine, 1997 PAGASA/DOST
    • What is global warming? Global warming refers to the increase in the earth’s mean temperature as a result of enhanced greenhouse effect. collective picture of a warming world Strong temperature increase since 1975 (unprecedented) global average air temperature increased by 0.74°C from 1906 to 2005
    • What are the manifestations/signals of global warming in the local scale? • In the Philippines, there are already trends of increasing number of hot days and warm nights, but decreasing number of cold days and cool nights. Both maximum and minimum temperatures are generally getting warmer. • Other extreme weather/climate events like intense rains have been seen to be more frequent.
    • What are the manifestations/signals of global warming in the local scale? A substantial amount of coral reefs in the country have been found to have been affected by bleaching during events of warmer sea surface temperatures. Bleaching of the coral reefs is associated with the loss of symbiotic algae and/or their pigments, and the death of the corals if the warming of the sea surface temperatures are prolonged.
    • • Even the rainforests of the seas – the coral reefs, are taking the brunt of the warming atmosphere • Some 30% of coral reefs are already irreparably damaged (mainly due to rising sea surface temperatures)
    • Did you know that . . .  Global warming could lead to freakish weather patterns such as unexpected drought, typhoons, and sudden snowstorms.  Early springs, melting ice and rising sea levels have all been blamed on climate change.
    • What is happening??? • IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Findings – Global average surface temperature increased by 0.74°C (1960-2005) which is higher than the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of 0.6°C (1901-2000) – Global average sea level rose due to increase in the global average surface temperature at an average rate of 1.8 mm per year over 1961 to 2003 or a total of 0.17m for the 21st century – The increasing concentration of Green House Gases in the atmosphere caused by human activities will further trigger a continuing increase of global temperature or global warming.
    • RAPID INCREASE IN EMISSION OF GREENHOUSE GASSES LARGELY CONTRIBUTED TO GLOBAL WARMING • Carbon Dioxide has increased by 30% • Methane has increased by 145% • Nitrous Oxide has increased by 15% INCREASE in 200 Years 20th Century Global Warming 1990’s = Warmest Decade 1998 = Warmest Year Since 1861
    • What is climate change? Climate change is a “change in climate which is attributed directly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.” - (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC])
    • To be able to understand climate change is to understand first the concept of the ‘greenhouse effect’.
    • So what are the greenhouse gases? • Carbon dioxide • Methane • Nitrous Oxide • Ozone • Water Vapor These are naturally found in the atmosphere and they trap heat close to the Earth’s surface. But by burning of fossil fuels to sustain our modern lifestyle, we increase their levels very fast.
    • Importance of the Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) These are the naturally occurring gases that keep the Earth comfortably warm enough for plants and animals to live in at an average temperature of 15oC. Produced by natural processes: a. water cycle b. growth and death of plants and animals c. decaying of wood and other biodegradable materials d. volcanic activities
    • CARBON DIOXIDE METHANE NITROUS OXIDE - Bacterial Breakdown of Nitrogen in Soils and Ocean
    • Human activities can also cause climate change. Scientists now agree that most of the global warming today have been caused by human activities.
    • Human activities that lead to the increase in concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) include:  Worldwide deforestation  Increasing industrial activity  Motor vehicle emission  Waste management practices  Intensive agriculture
    • Methane - Decomposition of Garbage and Agricultural Waste Materials, Leaks in Coal Mining and Natural Gas Production Accounts for 20% of additional greenhouse effects
    • KLIMA Waste as a source of GHG emissions • Decaying solid waste in landfills emits methane
    • KLIMA Waste as a source of GHG emissions  Decomposing waste in water can also emit methane
    • Nitrous Oxide: • Bacterial Breakdown of Nitrogen in Soils and Oceans • Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Pesticides in Agriculture • Biomass Burning • Combustion Process Vehicles • Acid Production
    • CARBON DIOXIDE - Burning of Fossil Fuels (Oil, Coal) by Powerplants, Industries and Vehicles
    • How do greenhouse gases influence climate change? The higher the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere particularly carbon dioxide, the stronger the greenhouse effect.
    • Increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) as a result of human activities [Enhanced greenhouse effect] Increase in global surface temperature Climate Change Sea Level Rise Extreme changes in weather patterns
    • Source: National Geographic Magazine (2004) PAGASA/DOST
    • ).
    • CO2 Concentration in Ice Core Samples and Projections for Next 100 Years 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 Years Before Present (B.P. -- 1950) CO2Concentration(ppmv) Vostok Record IPCC IS92a Scenario Law Dome Record Mauna Loa Record Current (2001) Projected (2100) 0100,000200,000300,000400,000 CO2Concentration(ppmv) (BP 1950) Projected (2100) Current (2001) Scientific evidences: For 420,000 years the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has remained within tight bounds Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2001
    • KLIMA 150 100 50 0 Thousands of Years ago Temperaturechange(oC) Carbondioxide(ppmv) Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Temperature Change
    • Source: National Geographic Magazine (2004) PAGASA/DOST RISE IN TEMPERATURE • Accelerate melting of glacier • Increase in sea level • Shrinking of sea ice
    • • Increased coastal flooding • Enhanced coastal erosion • Salt-water intrusion Possible Impacts • Impacts of storm surge magnified Sea Level Rise
    • Sea level rise 3D modeling and visualization tools are used for vulnerability assessment, exact location and quantification of areas which are susceptible to floods due to rise in sea level. Study area: Northern part of Navotas, Metro Manila
    • • ACCELERATE MELTING OF GLACIERS Increase of Sea Level Inundation/ Flooding of Low Lying Areas and Small Islands
    • Source: National Geographic Magazine (2004) PAGASA/DOST
    • Mt.Kilimanjaro, Tanzania 1993 2000 IUCN Thinning of Arctic sea-ice, retreat of non-polar glacier & snow cover 20 th century changes in climate and biophysical system (already observed)
    • Source: National Geographic Magazine (2004) PAGASA/DOST
    • Reduce ability of Ecosystem to Absorb Greenhouse Gasses
    • Typhoon Ondoy with international name of Ketsana: • Entered the Philippines September 26, 2009 • Dumped 344 mm. or 13.4 inches of rainfall in just six hours equivalent to a months worth of rainfall in the country • 377 dead • 308 injured • 37 missing
    • Children, women and the elderly are the most vulnerable during times of natural calamities
    • Typhoon Pepeng (International Name:Parma) Last October 9, 2009with maximum sustained winds of 130 kph and gustiness of 160 kph wrecked havoc in Pangasinan, Tarlac, Benguet Province, Ilocos Region, Baguio, Mountain Province and Cordillera Region. • Official death toll: 198 people and 46 missing • Typhoon Pepeng dumped one of the heaviest rains recorded, heavier than the rain water dumped by Typhoon Ondoy • Caused landslides, destroyed infrastructures and wide spread flooding throughout Northern Luzon.
    • Floodwaters caused by rains brought by Typhoon Parma submerge houses in Carmen, Pangasinan, northern Philippines in this photo released by the Philippine Coast Guard October 9, 2009. A week of relentless rains in the northern Philippines have put dozens of towns and villages under water, with more than 100 people drowned or killed by landslides, officials said on Friday.
    • Residents are stranded on a roof as floodwaters caused by rains brought by Typhoon Parma submerge houses in Carmen, Pangasinan, northern Philippines in this photo released by the Philippine Coast Guard October 9, 2009. A week of relentless rains in the northern Philippines have put dozens of towns and villages under water, with more than 100 people drowned or killed by landslides, officials said on Friday.
    • People mill around a shopping mall to retrieve washed away goods after it was flooded in the town of Rosales, Pangasinan province north of Manila on October 9, 2009. The death toll from two weeks of unprecedented storms across the northern Philippines soared past 540 on October after landslides consumed homes and neck-deep floods inundated towns.
    • Rescuers search for possible survivors after a landslide caused by rains brought by Typhoon Parma in Baguio City, north of Manila October 9, 2009. A week of relentless rains in the northern Philippines have put dozens of towns and villages under water, with more than 100 people drowned or killed by landslides, officials said on Friday.
    • Iron sheet roofing lie on the ground after being damaged by strong winds during Typhoon Parma in Cagayan Valley, northern Philippines in this October 3, 2009 video grab. Typhoon Parma slammed into the northeastern tip of the Philippines on Saturday, tearing roofs off houses and uprooting trees, but there were no immediate reports of casualties
    • Inundated vehicles by floodwaters brought on by typhoon Parma are seen on a highway in Rosales Pangasinan north of Manila October 9, 2009. A week of relentless rains in the northern Philippines have put dozens of towns and villages under water, with more than 100 people drowned or killed by landslides, officials said on Friday.
    • Occurrences of droughts have become more widespread throughout the entire world due to global warming • As the earth’s surface temperature increases due to global warming, moisture evaporation have become more intense causing the soil to become much much drier leading eventually to drought.
    • The Philippines has not been spared of the weather-related disturbances and disasters. The past typhoons have been unusually heavy and have brought devastation to our country and our people.
    • Landslides in Benguet Province during the onslaught of typhoon pepenr. Rescuers dig up the 10 persons who were reportedly buried alive after their houses collapsed at the height of typhoon ‘Pepeng’ on Friday. But the retrieval operation was stopped due to the extent of damage in the area. (Photo by RIZALDY COMANDA)
    • Landslide caused by Typhoon Lupit in Cordillera Autonomous Region on October 21, 2009
    • CALAMITIES AND DISASTERS: - VARIABILITY IN TEMPERATURE > DEVASTATIONS AND HIGH LOSS OF LIVES AND PROPERTIES
    • HEALTH RISKS: • VARIABILITY IN TEMPERATURE > HEATWAVES &EXTREME COLD FRONTS • HIGH RISK FOR THE OLD, THE SICK, CHILDREN AND THE POOR • ECOSYSTEMS ARE DESTROYED
    • Climate-related health risks • Direct impacts through cold or heat stress • Indirect impacts through communicable and non-communicable diseases (particularly coronary and respiratory)
    • Climate-related health risks –WHO identified 14 climate-sensitive communicable diseases (malaria, cholera, dengue, etc.)
    • Climate-related health risks –Link between atmospheric air quality, airborne particulate matter, aggravated cardiac and respiratory diseases (bronchitis, asthma and emphysema) and various forms of heart disease. (Connor, 2007)
    • VARIABILITY IN TEMPERATURE • DISRUPT CYCLE OF PLANTING AND HARVESTING • DISRUPTS FEEDING HABITS, MIGRATION AND REPRODUCTIVE PATTERN OF ANIMALS • DEVASTATIONS FROM EL NINO AND LA NINA  LOW PRODUCTIVITY AND FOOD SHORTAGE  LOSS OF INCOME OF POOR FARMERS AND FISHERMEN
    • VARIABILITY IN TEMPERATURE > EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS CALAMITIES AND DISASTERS
    • • Typhoons and Floods The Philippines is located in the typhoon belt. An average of 20 typhoons visit the country every year and incidents of flooding are higher in the country than anywhere else. Source: PAGASA
    • LANDSLIDES MUD FLOWS
    • 32,400 Kilometers, Longest Coastline
    • Impacts: Water resources • Decreased/increased water availability (soil erosion) • Increased drought risk (including land degradation) • Poor quality of water (algal blooms, etc.)
    • Impacts: Water resources • Increased water demand • Domestic water supply problems • Impact on power generation
    • Impacts: Agriculture (forestry) • Damage to crops/crop failure • Reduced yields in warmer environment • Food security threatened / Malnutrition
    • Impacts: Agriculture (forestry) • Increased outbreaks of pests and diseases • Increased risk of forest fires • Increased shift of species
    • Impacts: Human society and national economy • Disruption of settlements and attendant needs of humans • Potential for increased migration • Pressures on urban infrastructures • Reduced GDP
    • – Birds species in the United Kingdom are laying eggs nine days earlier, while others have fled north or to higher altitudes (cooler climes) Hundreds of animals and plants are responding to climate change by jumping their biological clocks
    • Climate change Impact to animal species Shrinking sea ice – May induce decline of Krill population and could result in less food supply to seabirds, whales, seals PAGASA/DOST
    • Climate change Impact to animal species
    • • Warming trend nighttime temperature and cloud cover • 2/3 of 110 known species of harlequins (frogs) have vanished • Subtle change ideal for chytrid disease that kills the frogs (fungus flourish in wet season turning lethal at 17°C to 25°C • Disease was the bullet that killed frogs but CLIMATE was the trigger Source: The Bulletin with Newsweek, Oct. 2006 Climate change Impact to animal species
    • Trouble beyond tropics • Certain species migrating further north of their habitat – ex: Edith’s checkerspot
    • • CONCERN OVERCLIMATE CHANGE MANIFESTEDTHE PAST 30 YEARS • 1ST WORLD CLIMATE CONFERENCE IN 1979: • EXPLORED RELATION BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES • GOVERNMENTS CAUTIONED AGAINST ACTIVITIES AFFECTING CLIMATE CHANGE
    • • INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) ESTABLISHED BY UNITED NATIONS IN 1988: • PROVIDE SCIENTIFIC PROOF OF CLIMATE CHANGE • ASSESS ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT • FORMULATE RESPONSE STRATEGIES 1990 – IPCC SCIENTIFCALLY CONFIRMED EXISTENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE
    • • UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE (UNFCCC) SIGNED BY 154 HEADS OF STATES/REPRESENTATIVES IN RIO DE JANEIRO IN 1992: • ENTERED INTO FORCE IN MARCH 1994 • AGREEMENT TO STABILIZE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS • DEVELOPED COUNTRIES COMMITTED TO REDUCE THEIR GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TO 1990 LEVEL BY YEAR 2000. • MANDATED ALL MEMBERS TO HAVE INVENTORY OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND DEVELOP STRATEGIES/PROGRAMS TO ADAPT TO AND MITIGATE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
    •  KYOTO PROTOCOL ADOPTED BY 10,000 DELEGATES IN KYOTO, JAPAN -- ENTERED INTO FORCE In FEBRUARY 2004 PRESENTLY, 169 COUNTRIES HAVE RATIFIED THE PROTOCOL -- PROVIDE FOR CLEARER AND BIGGER TARGET OF 5% REDUCTION IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS BY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES BY 2012 -- NO REDUCTION REQUIREMENT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    • • Provided flexibility to developed countries in meeting their emission reductions. • Established the Clean Development Mechanism or CDM, • Allows Developed Countries to Offset their Greenhouse Gas Emission by buying Equivalent amount from projects intended to absorb Greenhouse Gasses • Majority of Projects are in Developing Countries
    • Carbon trading benefits the developed countries by helping them comply with the emission reductions without affecting their domestic production levels and, at the same time, benefit the developing countries in terms of investments in CDM projects, promote the use of cleaner technologies in energy and industry and provide jobs and income to communities undertaking the projects. 513 PROJECTS REGISTERED WITH CDM EXECUTIVE BOARD TO GENERATE 740 MILLION TONS OF CARBON DIOXIDE EQUIVALENT
    • THE COPENHAGEN ACCORD This is an appeal made by France and Ethiopia, representing Africa to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) to adopt an ambitious agreement on December 18, 2009 limiting the increase of temperature to 2 degrees celsius above pre-industrial levels as recommended by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ensuing that vulnerable countries will receive adequate financing to face the challenge. The agreement will be applicable immediately and will be translated into legal international agreement by 2010. President Sarkozy and Mr Zenawi, Prime Minister of Ethiopia
    • France and Ethiopia, representing Africa call for: 1. The halving of global emission by 2050 compared to the 1990 level. a. Developed countries reduce their carbon dioxide emission by 80% by 2050 and adopt coherent and comparable mid-term objectives. b. Advanced developing countries adopt ambitious low carbon growth plans and actions aimed at yielding a significant deviation of carbon dioxide emission compared to “business as usual” scenarios and the recommendations made by the IPCC.
    • 2. Full transparency of commitments taken by developed countries and of the actions adopted by developing countries. 3. The adoption of a fast start fund of $10 Billion per year covering the next 3 years, 2010, 2011, 2012. It will be dedicated to adaption and mitigation actions including the fight against deforestation. 4. A strong commitment on long term public financing based on developing countries’ needs beyond 2012. 5. The establishment of a World Environment Organization that will ensure the environment’s sustainable development and the fight against climate change.
    • The Philippines is a signatory and have ratified both the United Nations Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol •Bio-Fuels Programs •Ethanol •Jethropa (Initial 375,000 Hectares Allocated for Production) •CoCo-Diesel •Compressed Natural Gas Signed Memorandum of Understanding, with Chinese investor
    • R. A NO. 9637 – BIOFUEL ACT MANDATORY MIXING IN THE FOLLOWING AMOUNT: • 1% BIODIESEL IN PETRODIESEL AND 5% ETHANOL IN GASOLINE FOR THE FIRST 4 YEARS AND IT WILL BE INCREASED TO: • 2% BIODIESEL IN PETRODIESEL AND 1O% ETHANOL IN GASOLINE AFTER 4 YEARS.
    • CAMPAIGN AGAINST VIOLATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS • CAMPAIGN VS. SMOKE BELCHERS: 28,517 VEHICLES TESTED IN EDSA (2007): a. 6,058 VEHICLES OR 21% PASSED b. 22,459 VEHICLES OR 79% FAILED • CAMPAIGN VS. POLLUTING INDUSTRIES: a. 6,690 INSPECTIONS/SAMPLING CONDUCTED: b. 532 NOTICES OF VIOLATION ISSUED PUBLIC UTILITY DRIVERS ASSISTED IN ACQUIRING NEW/CLEANER ENGINES AND VEHICLES
    • WASTE MANAGEMENT: 1,080 OPENDUMPSITES NATIONWIDE: • ASSISTING LGU’S IN WASTE PROPER MANAGEMENT • IDENTIFIED366 POTENTIAL SANITARY LANDFILL NATIONWIDE
    • • SHIFT IN ENERGY MIX FROM FOSSIL FUELS (OIL AND COAL) TO RENEWABLE SOURCES (WATER, WIND, NATURAL GAS, GEOTHERMAL) • PRESENT MIX: FOSSIL FUELS- 58.4% AND RENEWABLE SOURCES- 41.6% • TARGET: FOSSIL FUELS – 49.2% AND RENEWABLE SOURCES- 50.8% BY 2014.
    • • 8 Project from Philippines Accepted by U.N. and Qualified as CDM Projects. Will Prevent Emission of About 253,919 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. Most are waste to Energy Projects. • Philippines Ranks 8th in the World in terms of Number of CDM Projects Accepted by U.N. • 32 CDM Project submitted to DENR, these are waste to energy, renewable energy (wind, geothermal and hydro) Cogeneration and Composting Project
    • • Reforested 85,235 Hectares in 2006 • Planted 845,656 Seedlings during one-day Launching of Green Philippines Highways • More Ambitious Target starting 2007 a. Generate 20 Million Seedlings b. Implement Green Philippines Program
    • YOU CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE • MINIMIZE/DISPENSE WITH ACTIVITIES THAT USE GREENHOUSE GASSES (E.G., CONSERVE USE OF ELECTRICITY) • MORE EFFICIENT PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR BUSINESS USING FUELS. GOOD FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND GOOD FOR PROFITS. • DEVELOP CDM PROJECTS FOR CARBON TRADING • LIMIT USE OF CAR AND ENSURE GOOD RUNNING CONDITION. • JOIN THE GREEN PHILIPPINES PROGRAM. • USE ALTERNATIVE FUELS(BIODIESEL,BIOMASS,ETC.)
    • What can we do about Climate Change?
    • “We can then be sure that we can bequeath to our children our EARTH in much better shape than when we inherited it” “Let it be known that this is our only EARTH” “It is our future and our children’s future” “IT IS OUR CHOICE”