HPU NCS2200 Wetlands Lecture

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HPU NCS2200 Earth science for elementary education majors summer 2014 online class wetlands lecture

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HPU NCS2200 Wetlands Lecture

  1. 1. Wetlands
  2. 2. 11.9 Wetlands ► Areas that are:  Wet part of the time  Anaerobic soils  Plants adapted to periodic flooding ► Types of Wetlands  Swamps  Bogs  Marshes  Sloughs  Mudflats  Flood plains  Tundra
  3. 3. Wetland Defined ►A wetland is any area that is inundated (flooded) or saturated for a certain number of days in a row that add up to 7.5% of the growing season in an area. ►Contains:  Water  Hydrophyllic (water loving) plants  Hydric (saturated) soils with low oxygen content
  4. 4. Importance of Wetlands ►Wildlife Habitat ►Flood control ►Sediment filters and erosion control ►Water quality ►Water supply ►Recreation
  5. 5. Types of Wetlands ►Marshes  Tidal ►Salt Water Marsh  Non-tidal ►Vernal Pools ► Fresh Water Marsh  Swamps ► Forested  Bogs ►Pocosin  Fen
  6. 6. Tidal Salt Water Marsh ► Coastal wetland ► Inundated with salt water as tides change ► Salt tolerant plants  Cordgrass  Switchgrass  Glasswort/saltwort
  7. 7. Vernal Pool ► seasonal (yearly) marshes that occur in depressions of land ► covered with ice and water from winter to spring ► dry during the summer and fall. all. ► bottom of the pools are made of bedrock or hard clay which keeps the water from leaking out. ► Creatures may include the spring peeper, eastern spotted newt, green frog, spotted salamanders
  8. 8. Fresh water marsh ► A shallow wetland with few trees and standing water for most of the year ► Not Tidal ► Flocks of wading birds, fish, exotic plants, alligators, and numerous invertabrates
  9. 9. Forested Swamp ► Dominated by trees with few shrubs ► water inflow through streams, rivers, and run- off. ► Trees have shallow root systems to gain exposure to oxygen. ► Common trees include red maple, bald cypress, sweet gum and American elm. ► Wood ducks, gray treefrog, wood frogs, barred owls and pileated woodpeckers live in the forested swamp
  10. 10. Pocosin ► Extremely flat with poor natural drainage ► Thick layers of peat – decomposed organic material ► Shrub vegetation is common, pond pines, loblolly and longleaf pines are also present. ► Fire adapted
  11. 11. Southern Appalachian Bog ► Fed primarily by rainwater ► Acidic ► Vegetation varies from mosses and grasses to trees depending on elevation
  12. 12. Southern Fen ► Fed by surface and/or groundwater ► Water is alkaline (basic) ► Usually inhabited by mosses and grasses ► Can be a stage in succession from lake to woodland
  13. 13. Wetland Destruction ►Human Actions have reduced wetlands to less than half of their land area  Draining for agriculture  Draining for housing/urban development  Draining for mosquito prevention  Pollution due to dumping and runoff
  14. 14. Wetland Protection ► Clean Water Act  Protects wetlands by preventing dredge and fill operations in nations waters including wetlands  Protected under water quality clauses of clean Water Act  National pollutant discharge elimination ► Executive Order 11990  No Net Loss – protects wetlands by requiring restoration or mitigation of wetlands lost by development.

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