HPU NCS2200 Water resources part ii


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HPU NCS220 Earth Science for elementary education majors Summer 2014 online class water resources lecture 2

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HPU NCS2200 Water resources part ii

  1. 1. Water Resources part II
  2. 2. USING DAMS AND RESERVOIRS TO SUPPLY MORE WATER • Large dams and reservoirs can produce cheap electricity, reduce downstream flooding, and provide year-round water for irrigating cropland, but they also displace people and disrupt aquatic systems.
  3. 3. Water Needs in West • Dams are used to create reservoirs for water diversion for western states
  4. 4. Dams and Diversion • Dams disrupt ecosystems above and below the dam • Less water flows through river system  Less water available for use downstream • Floods the area behind the dam  Disrupts biota and human settlements • Sediment builds up behind the dam • Lack of sediment downstream creates erosion
  5. 5. Fig. 14-13a, p. 317 Provides water for year-round irrigation of cropland Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and displaces people Large losses of water through evaporation Provides water for drinking Downstream cropland and estuaries are deprived of nutrient-rich silt Reservoir is useful for recreation and fishing Risk of failure and devastating downstream flooding Can produce cheap electricity (hydropower) Downstream flooding is reduced Migration and spawning of some fish are disrupted
  6. 6. Issues with Diversion • Natural river channels reduced or enclosed • Diversion of water eliminates viability of town • Water dries up before the river reaches the sea through Mexico
  7. 7. Issues with Irrigation • Irrigation causes  Salinization of soil – as water evaporates leaves salt behind
  8. 8. DESALTING SEAWATER, SEEDING CLOUDS, AND TOWING ICEBERGS AND GIANT BAGGIES • Removing salt from seawater by current methods is expensive and produces large amounts of salty wastewater that must be disposed of safely. – Distillation: heating saltwater until it evaporates, leaves behind water in solid form. – Reverse osmosis: uses high pressure to force saltwater through a membrane filter.
  9. 9. DESALTING SEAWATER, SEEDING CLOUDS, AND TOWING ICEBERGS AND GIANT BAGGIES • Seeding clouds with tiny particles of chemicals to increase rainfall towing icebergs or huge bags filled with freshwater to dry coastal areas have all been proposed but are unlikely to provide significant amounts of freshwater.
  10. 10. INCREASING WATER SUPPLIES BY WASTING LESS WATER • We waste about two-thirds of the water we use, but we could cut this waste to 15%. – 65-70% of the water people use throughout the world is lost through evaporation, leaks, and other losses. – Water is underpriced through government subsidies. – The lack of government subsidies for improving the efficiency of water use contributes to water waste.
  11. 11. INCREASING WATER SUPPLIES BY WASTING LESS WATER • Sixty percent of the world’s irrigation water is currently wasted, but improved irrigation techniques could cut this waste to 5-20%. • Center-pivot, low pressure sprinklers sprays water directly onto crop. – It allows 80% of water to reach crop. – Has reduced depletion of Ogallala aquifer in Texas High Plains by 30%.
  12. 12. Fig. 14-18, p. 325 Center pivot Drip irrigation Gravity flow (efficiency 60% and 80% with surge valves) Above- or below- ground pipes or tubes deliver water to individual plant roots. Water usually comes from an aqueduct system or a nearby river. (efficiency 90–95%) (efficiency 80%–95%) Water usually pumped from underground and sprayed from mobile boom with sprinklers.
  13. 13. Fig. 14-19, p. 326 Solutions Reducing Irrigation Water Waste • Line canals bringing water to irrigation ditches • Level fields with lasers • Irrigate at night to reduce evaporation • Monitor soil moisture to add water only when necessary • Polyculture • Organic farming • Don't grow water-thirsty crops in dry areas • Grow water-efficient crops using drought resistant and salt-tolerant crop varieties • Irrigate with treated urban waste water • Import water-intensive crops and meat
  14. 14. Solutions: Getting More Water for Irrigation in Developing Countries – The Low-Tech Approach • Many poor farmers in developing countries use low-tech methods to pump groundwater and make more efficient use of rainfall. Figure 14-20
  15. 15. Fig. 14-21, p. 327 Solutions Reducing Water Waste • Redesign manufacturing processes • Repair leaking underground pipes • Landscape yards with plants that require little water • Use drip irrigation • Fix water leaks • Use water meters • Raise water prices • Use waterless composting toilets • Require water conservation in water- short cities • Use water-saving toilets, showerheads, and front loading clothes washers • Collect and reuse household water to irrigate lawns and nonedible plants • Purify and reuse water for houses, apartments, and office buildings • Don't waste energy
  16. 16. Fig. 14-25, p. 333 What Can You Do? Water Use and Waste • Use water-saving toilets, showerheads, and faucet aerators. • Shower instead of taking baths, and take short showers. • Stop water leaks. • Turn off sink faucets while brushing teeth, shaving, or washing. • Flush toilets only when necessary. • Wash only full loads of clothes or use the lowest water-level for smaller loads. • Use recycled (gray) water for lawn, gardens, house plants, car washing. • Wash a car from a bucket of soapy water, and use the hose for rinsing only. • If you use a commercial car wash, try to find one that recycles its water. • Replace your lawn with native plants that need little if any watering and decorative gravel or rocks. • Water lawns and gardens in the early morning or evening. • Sweep or blow off driveways instead of hosing off with water. • Use drip irrigation and mulch for gardens and flowerbeds.