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HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
HPU NCS2200  Global Climate Change part 2
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HPU NCS2200 Global Climate Change part 2

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HPU NCS2200 earth science for elementary education majors summer 2014 online class global climate change lecture part 2

HPU NCS2200 earth science for elementary education majors summer 2014 online class global climate change lecture part 2

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  • 1. 21.7 Greenhouse Effect: the carbon cycle and global warming • Consequences of global warming – Increased temperatures tend to decrease plant productivity – Parasites and other plant ailment become more prevalent during higher temperatures • Precipitation and soil moisture effects – In a warmer world, precipitation and evaporation should increase
  • 2. 21.7 Greenhouse Effect: the carbon cycle and global warming • Extreme weather events – models indicate more and worse – Data shows this prediction proving out • Changes in biodiversity – in some latitudes, 70% of habitats will be affected – Sensitive or specialist species could die off – E.g.: polar bears are endangered due to lack of pack ice
  • 3. 21.7 Greenhouse Effect: the carbon cycle and global warming • Sea-level changes – sea-level has risen markedly from 1900 to 2000 – water expands when warm – Glacial melting is increasing • Effects on people – Tropical diseases flaring up in new areas – Population stress on food and water supplies as well as other global systems
  • 4. Fig. 21.17, p.546
  • 5. 21.8 Feedback and threshold mechanisms in climate change • Many Earth systems exhibit non-linear responses to change – Albedo effects – melting ice decreases albedo through loss of “white” and changes in vegetation. What snows are left are blocked by brushy growth – Imbalances in rates of plant respiration and photosynthesis. Decay respiration increases when warmer, releasing more CO2 which makes it warmer.
  • 6. Fig. 21.18, p.548
  • 7. 21.8 Feedback and threshold mechanisms in climate change  West Antarctic ice shelf has collapsed in sections. Grounded ice is thinning and lifting in others, and floating ice is breaking up. • As ice floats, seawater creeps beneath causing glacial movement to increase. • Break-up of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet will raise sea level
  • 8. Fig. 21.19, p.549
  • 9. 21.8 Feedback and threshold mechanisms in climate change • Thermohaline circulation – how global warming could cause global cooling – Warmer sea surface temperature could slow or stop vertical currents – This would stop, or re-route the Gulf Stream, which would cool the Earth – Thermohaline currents have decreased 30% from 1988 - 2000
  • 10. Fig. 21.20, p.550
  • 11. Fig. 21.16, p.544
  • 12. Consequences of Global Climate Change • These two websites contain videos discussing the consequences of climate change. The National Geographic is a short 8 minute video. The rockhopper is a series of 1 hour videos produced by BBC. – http://www.rockhopper.tv/search?form=sea rch&q_widget=hot+cities&submit=Search – http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/ player/environment/global-warming- environment/way-forward-climate.html
  • 13. 21.9 The Kyoto treaty on greenhouse warming • Dec. 1997, 160 nations met to discuss global warming – By Feb. 2005 a treaty was ratified by many of them – Creates a global trading market for CO2 emissions – Sets limits and goals to enact – Caps and goals tied to nations’ economies
  • 14. 21.9 The Kyoto treaty on greenhouse warming – The U.S. has never ratified the treaty – Treaty supporters argue: • Wealth not necessarily tied to fuel consumption • Curbing consumption and emissions could help the economy • Models show the longer we wait, the worse it will get • Consider the alternatives: runaway temperature changes, famine, global unrest. • The treaty expires in 2012 – the sequel is looking less than inspired.
  • 15. Fig. 21.21, p.551
  • 16. What’s next ??? • The Durban Conference held in 2011 attempts to develop the follow on protocol to the Kyoto treaty. • Discussions continue from that forum to establish the next steps in addressing climate change. • http://unfccc.int/meetings/durban_nov_2011 /meeting/6245.php

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