HPU NCS2200 Air pollution Lecture


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HPU NCS2200 Earth Science for elementary Education majors summer 2014 online class Air pollution lecture part 1

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HPU NCS2200 Air pollution Lecture

  1. 1. Air and Air Pollution G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 12th Edition Chapter 17 Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College
  2. 2. Key Concepts  Types and sources of outdoor air pollution  Types, formation, and effects of smog  Sources and effects of acid deposition  Effects of air pollution  Prevention and control of air pollution
  3. 3. Outdoor Air Pollution  Primary pollutants  Secondary pollutants Primary Pollutants Secondary Pollutants Sources Natural Stationary CO CO2 SO2 NO NO2 Most hydrocarbons Most suspended particles SO3 HNO3 H2SO4 H2O2 O3 PANs Most and saltsNO3 – Mobile SO4 2– Fig. 17.4, p. 422 See Table 17-1 p. 421 See Table 17-2 p. 422 Sources: Natural Mobile Stationary
  4. 4. Natural Pollutants • Dust and other suspended particles from soil • Sulfur oxides and particulate matter from volcanoes • Carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides and particulates from forest fires • Hydrocarbons and pollens from plants • Methane and hydrogen sulfide from decaying plants • Salts from the ocean
  5. 5. Primary Pollutants • Produce direct harm to environment and organisms – Sulfur Oxides (SOx) – Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) – Carbon Monoxide (CO) – Particulates (Rocks) – Volatile Organic compounds (VOCs) – Lead SOx, NOx, VOCs and Rocks, COoperate to lead to pollution.
  6. 6. Air Pollution
  7. 7. Sources of Primary Pollutants • Burning Fossil Fuels – Electrical Power • Sulfur and Nitrogen Oxides – Transportation • Carbon monoxide • VOCs • Nitrogen Oxides • Industrial Chemicals – Cleaners, solvents, paints • VOCs, CO and SOx • Construction/Agriculture – particulates
  8. 8. Criteria Pollutants • Pollutants monitored by EPA – Ozone – VOCs – Sulfur Oxides – Nitrogen Oxides – Carbon Monoxide – Particulate Matter
  9. 9. Secondary Pollutants • Created by a reaction between one or more primary pollutants –Tropospheric Ozone –Photochemical smog –Industrial Smog –Acid precipitation
  10. 10. How Tropospheric Ozone is formed
  11. 11. Photochemical Smog  Brown-air smog  Photochemical reaction Any reaction activated by light  Photochemical oxidants NO2, O3 and PANs Solar radiation Ultraviolet radiation NO Nitric oxide Photochemical smog H2O Water NO2 Nitrogen dioxide Hydrocarbons O2 Molecular oxygen HNO3 Nitric acid PANs Peroxyacyl nitrates Aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde) O3 Ozone O Atomic oxygen Fig. 17.5, p. 424
  12. 12. Industrial Smog (Gray-Air Smog) • Created by the burning of coal which creates – CO2 and CO and particulates • Coal burning also releases sulfur – S+O2  SO2 which reacts with oxygen • SO2 + O2  SO3 – Sulfur trioxide reacts with water • SO3 + H2O  H2SO4 – Sulfuric acid reacts with ammonia particles creating ammonium sulfate which gives the smog its gray appearance
  13. 13. Factors Influencing formation of photochemical smog • Local climate and topography • Population density • Amount of industry • Fuels used in industry, heating and transportation • Low air flow • High temperatures
  14. 14. Temperature Inversions • Subsidence temperature inversion Warmer air Inversion layer Cool layer MountainMountain Valley Decreasing temperature Increasingaltitude Fig. 17.9, p. 427 Radiation Temperature Inversion occurs at night when air At the surface cools faster than air above it. Typically dissipates in the morning as the sun rises and warms the air.
  15. 15. Smog City Simulation • http://www.smogcity.com/ • Run the simulation – Change the variables one at a time to see how they influence the Air Quality Index – Change two variables at a time to see how they interact to create smog