0-14 YEARS: 44.3%
• male 4,829,272/female 4,773,209
15-64 YEARS: 52.8%
• male 5,605,227/female 5,842,679
65 YEARS AND OVER: 2.9%
• male 257,119/
female 361,772 (2009 est.)
• Poverty headcount ratio at national
poverty line (% of population)
• Life expectancy at birth, total (years)
• Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages
15 and above)
services: 46.5% (2012 est.)
GNI Per capita: US$510
GDP: US$14.59 billion (2012)
Mozambican cooperatives were a classic
case of cooperative development under
We started a long process of change
• The National Cooperative
(NCBA), through its CLUSA international
program, has been working in Mozambique since
1995, when the socialist era ended.
• At that point in time, “cooperative” was a
pejorative term associated with government
control, so NCBA had to strategically devise another
way to promote working together, collective
marketing, and group business entities.
• Associations soon became a way for a group
to incorporate and work toward a common
• But the legal framework did not provide
space for associations and other groups to
market and sell their crops legally as a
Understanding the differences
cooperatives, associations , and
business enterprises, their
different assumptions, concepts
and roles, has been a long and
participative discovery from
bottom to top.
FROM SMALL TO LARGE, ADDING VALUE
We started with a small but highly
interested group of people concerned
about the need for change and
involved in the co-op movement.
We started studying in a informal
way, seated where ever possible, first
with CLARITY concepts and then
internet research on good practices.
We found fantastic stories about new
approaches to cooperatives from
around the world.
FOLK DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION & DEMOCRACY
• Study circles are very suitable for civil society.
• Democracy is very much emphasized these days in the
world of international development cooperation. Adult
education is not. When democratic development is supported
by donor countries, the emphasis is on democratic
infrastructure, while little is done to increase the possibilities
of ordinary citizens to become well-informed and active in the
process of building democracy at the local level. No real
democracy can be established without democratic citizens.
• In a participative methodology participants take an active
part in the study process.
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDY CIRCLES
1. Participation is voluntary.
2. There is typically open access to study circles – one does not have to
have any qualifications to participate.
3. There are limited number of persons in a circle, normally somewhere
between 5 - 10 persons.
4. Persons of different ages are mixed in the circles.
5. Study circles often meet 3 hours once a week
6. Study circles are organized by the participants, i.e. they choose the
topic, leader, etc.
7. A circle can be led by a leader, who does not have to be an expert – in
fact it may be one of the participants. On the other hand, experts often
act as leaders.
8. Participants should have an equal share of the conversation. The
atmosphere should be informal.
9. Study circles can be linked to various political, religious and social
interests and perspectives.
10. There are typically no examinations.
11. The ability to listen and recognize to the contributions of others is
fundamental in the study circle philosophy.
• BRAZILIANS INVITED TO
COME TO TELL THEIR
• DIRECTLY ENGAGE WITH
POLICYMAKERS AT ALL
INSTEAD OF TALKING ABOUT THE
NEGATIVE PAST AND THE MISTAKES
We started to disseminate successful
cooperative stories from around the
world to demonstrate that other
countries – even ones with a similar
history of colonialism or socialism –
can and are creating an enabling
environment for the successful and
democratic functioning of
• We recruited one Mozambican
lawyer and two foreign lawyers to
review the first draft cooperative
law we had in mind. Once the draft
was finished, we started one year of
public debates and discussions.
• In this process, the lawyers were
our supporters and facilitators. They
were part of the whole process.
• Through discussions at all levels we
improved the proposed new
cooperative law. Everybody could
contribute and feel we respected
Political parties, banks, companies
• Through absolute dedication to
dialogue and inclusion of all parts of
society, from civil society to those in
economic and political power and
intellectual opinionleaders, from
North to South, from the supporters to
opponents, from all economic sectors
including banks, private sector
business, political parties and so on...
• Listening to and understanding our
oponents was a means to clarify
doubts and educate, and a way to
bring greater consensus on the draft
• The development process must be
organic and follow the course desired
by the Mozambicans themselves.
ADVOCACY STRATEGY CHANGES
In the field
In trade shows
In the media
• Mobilizing key groups around the
benefits of cooperatives
• Focus on target audiences and
promote the process as a
domestic one as much as
possible, with only the
necessary and consensual
• Partnerships, alliances and
coalitions are key to making
connections and having an
organic advocacy program.
MEDIA STRATEGY / MAKING A NATIONAL CAMPAIGN
Linking the former President with Co-ops
• Using all
page bottom section
PROMOTING COOPERATIVE PRODUCTS
Partnerships, alliances, and
coalitions are key to making the
connections and having an
organic advocacy program.
Showing the power of cooperatives
• Work with people and not for
This is absolutely crucial
Engaging decision makers
Promote awareness of the cooperative
model and new regulations among
Demonstrate dynamism within the
cooperative sector in order to
strengthen the notion of cooperatives
as a wide-reaching, sustainable
economic model of development.
Increase credibility and legitimacy of
the cooperative model.
Link cooperatives and associations and
their goods/services with external
markets, supporting government
agencies and potential funders.
Final delivery to parliament
Approved by unanimity and acclamation
CONSENSUS VERSION OF
DELIVERED TO PARLIAMENT
“On behalf of this parliament, I would like to thank NCBA
and the civil society group for their civic initiative and for
the way they have conducted this process. For the first
time, together we have created a law which came from
civil society. This proves that together we can build and
develop our country.”
Drª Verónica Nataniel Macamo Dlhovo
The President of the Assembly
of the Republic of Mozambique
April 30, 2009
FROM A STUDY CIRCLE TO A CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATION
THE CONSTITUTION OF A FORMAL ENTITY
• We started our process with few
coalition partners, mainly from the
• We worked together as an informal
task force team.
• Following a strategy of inclusion
and wide vision, step by step, as a
result of our initiatives we brought
together more and more
organisations from different
economic sectors and regions.
for Modern Cooperative
Promotion ( AMPCM )
• Now we are a legal entity
promoting the new cooperative law
and model through the
Mozambican Association for
Modern Cooperative Promotion
(AMPCM) and in the long term to
turn it into a National Cooperative