The Bessemer Process, a cheaper, more Herbert Spencer used efficient process for Social Dariwnism to making steel, was explain the evolution of developed. The new human society by natural production process selection. His ideas fueled the industrial stemmed from Charles revolution further and Darwin’s theory of caused major urban biological evolution as development. published in his book On the Origin of Species. 1850 1857 1859 Calvert Vaux and Fredrick Law Olmstead , planners of urban parks, drew up a plan for Greensward. The plan was selected to become central park in NYC. It improved the beauty and serenity of the city.http://tinyurl.com/b6jtgj3 http://tinyurl.com/adnaqba
The Patrons of The Credit Mobilier Hasbandry, formed by was a construction Oliver Hudson Kelley, company formed by the was an organization for owners of the Union farmers , later known as Pacific Railroad. They the Grange. It was a During 1862, several thousand African used it to fraudulently social and educational Americans moved from the post- skim off railroad profits group that attempted to reconstruction South to Kansas. They for themselves. combat the power of the were referred to as exodusters. railroads. 1862 1864 1867 The Cheyenne returned to Colorado’s The Homestead Act, a US Sand Creek Reserve, with the law, was enacted in 1862. It assumption that they were under US provided 160 acres in the government protection. On west to homesteaders, November 29th, 1864, 15o Cheyenne anyone who was head of people, mostly women and children, the household and would were killed by militia colonel John cultivate the land for five Covington. The event is often years. Record numbers of referred to as the Sand Creek settlers claimed private Massacre. property in the area.http://tinyurl.com/b79hoap http://tinyurl.com/bpgvc26
The Standard Oil Company of Ohio was In 1870, Jacob Riis established by John D left Denmark for the Rockefeller. By 1870, it United States. He processed two to three pointed out the percent of the country’s unclean and crude oil. Within a overcrowded decade, it controlled 90 dumbbell percent of the refining tenements. business. 1869 1870 1871 Under the direction of Boss The Transcontinental Tweed, the Tweed Ring lasted Railroad was completed in Thomas Nast, a political from 1869 to 1871. The group of 1869. It stretched from the cartoonist, helped corrupt politicians took on a Atlantic to Pacific coasts of arouse public outrage project to construct the NY the US. The completion of against Tammany County Courthouse. It cost the track was in Hall’s graft, finally taxpayers 13 million dollars, but Promontory, Utah, were breaking the Tweed should’ve only been 3 million Central Pacific and Union Ring. dollars. Pacific Railroads connected.http://tinyurl.com/bggqma2 http://tinyurl.com/d34f8df
Montgomery Ward and Sears Roebuck brought retail George Armstrong merchandise to small towns Custer reported that the with the mail-order catalog. Black Hills, in the great Ward’s catalog was launched in plains of western South 1872 and caused the Post Office Dakota. His claim caused a to introduce a rural free delivery gold rush and two Sioux system to bring packages to chiefs to appeal again to every home. government officials in Washington. 1872 1873 1874 Andrew Carnegie entered the steel industry in 1873. By 1899, the Carnegie Steel Company manufactured more steel than all the factories in Great Britain. http://tinyurl.com/c5svtdhhttp://tinyurl.com/bjwhhv8 http://tinyurl.com/d59ooj9
Thomas Alva Edison created the world’s first research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. He perfected the incandescent light bulb and a system to produce and distribute electrical power there. 1876 Bimetallism was a monetary system in which Alexander Graham Bell the government would and Thomas Watson give citizens either gold or unveiled the telephone silver in exchange for in 1876. The invention paper currency or checks. opened the way for a worldwide communications network.http://tinyurl.com/cs7jpqz http://tinyurl.com/aqzja3h
Jim Crow Laws were laws enacted by southern state and local The Southern Alliance governments was the largest alliance. It to separate included white southern blacks and farmers who accepted the whites. separation of organizations. 1877 Some of the Nez Perce people Gilded Age, refused to leave their ancestral by Charles land in the Pacific Northwest Dudley and and move to the Indian Mark reservation in Idaho. However, Twain, they were forcibly removed, mocks the causing the Nez Perce war with greed and the US government. self indulgence of his characters.http://tinyurl.com/az6wrhp http://tinyurl.com/chu9rfp
George Pullman built a In 1883, Joseph Pulitzer factory for manufacturing bought the New York World. sleepers and other It included large Sunday railroad cars on the editions, comics, sports Illinois prairie. He also coverage, and women’s news. built a nearby town for his He emphasized “sin, sex, and employees, providing for sensation” in his paper. all their basic needs. 1880 1881 1883 Booker T Washington The first settlement house was created in was the leader of the 1876 in Chicago. It was a community center Tuskegee Normal and providing assistance to residence, mostly Industrial Institute. He immigrants, in a slum neighborhood. believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society.http://tinyurl.com/bn249rr http://tinyurl.com/audog82
The National Farmers’ Alliance Samuel Gompers led included many who sympathized the Cigar Markers’ with farmers. They sent lecturers International Union from town to town to educate to join with other craft people about the topics of lower unions in 1886. interest rates on loans and government control over railroads and banks. 1886 On May 4th, people gathered in Chicago’s The Colored Farmers’ Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. Alliance was formed by a In the Haymarket Affair, the public began to white Baptist missionary, turn against the labor movement. R M Humphrey. It prompted cooperative buying and selling. They had to meet mostly in secret to avoid racially motivated violence at the hands of angry landowners and suppliers.http://tinyurl.com/bh7ygwj http://tinyurl.com/cpzzo33
The Interstate Commerce Commission was a five member group. They worked to reestablish the right of the federal government to supervise railroad activities. The group formed due to the passing of the Interstate Commerce Act. 1887 1888 In 1888, GeorgeDawes Act was Eastman introducedpassed by Congress in his Kodak camera. It1887. It aimed to prompted manyAmericanize the Americans to becomeNative Americans. It amateurbroke up reservations photographers andand gave some of the created theland individual Native photojournalism field.Americans. http://tinyurl.com/ceaests
On December 28th, 1890, the 7th Cavalry rounded up 350 starved Sioux and took them to a camp at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. Soldiers demanded that the Native Americans give up their Alarmed at the tactics of the weapons and shots were fired. In the industrialists, critics began to Battle of Wounded Knee, the Cavalry call them robber barons. It was killed about 300, mostly unarmed, Native a derogatory term used for Americans. businessmen who made immense amounts of money. 1890 A Paiute prophet promised the poor Sioux that if they preformed the Ghost Dance ritual their land would be restored. This alarmed military leaders who issued the The Sherman Antitrust Act made it arrest of Sitting Bull. illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between the states of with other countries. The Government feared that expanding corporations would stifle free competition.http://tinyurl.com/clum43b http://tinyurl.com/ctsggs6
Populism was a political On July 2nd, 1892, a populist party movement demanding that convention in Omaha, Nebraska people have a greater voice in demanded reforms to lift the government and seeking to burden of debt on farmers and advance the interests of farmers other workers. Their Omaha and laborers. Platform gave the people a greater voice in their government. 1892 On March 9th, 1892, three African American businessmen, friends of Ida B Wells, were illegally executed without trial. Many other groups were discriminated against politically and violently.http://tinyurl.com/cczeyug
William Randolph Hearst purchased the New York Morning Due to the panic of 1893, the Journal in 1895. He sought to Pullman Company laid off over outdo the Pulitzer by filling it 3000 employees and cut wages by with exaggerated tales of up to 50%. Many took home less personal scandal, cruelty, than 6 dollars a week. The hypnotism, and an imaginary Pullman Strike turned violent conquest to Mars. and federal troops were sent in. 1894 1895 Eugene v Debs felt unions should include all laborers, skilled and unskilled, in a specific industry. He formed the American Railway Union, which won a strike for higher wages in 1894. The group added to the momentum of the union organizing.http://tinyurl.com/bubbdn4 http://tinyurl.com/ahtbzc6
The supreme court case of Plessy vs. Ferguson tested the constitutionality of segregation. The court William Jennings ruled that the separation Bryan gave his Cross of races in public of Gold Speech in his accommodations was 1896 presidential legal and didn’t violate campaign for the the 14th amendment. democratic party. 1896 1899 William McKinley was The Vaudeville theatre was called “an nominated by the republican American invention” by Edwin Milton. party as their presidential It offered something to attract candidate in 1896, to state their everyone. firm commitment to the gold standard. He overall won the election for president.http://tinyurl.com/an4e62c http://tinyurl.com/begygcy http://tinyurl.com/bjlbv28
Starting in W E B Dubois was the first African 1910, around American to receive a doctorate 50000 Chinese from Harvard. He founded the immigrants Niagara Movement and insisted entered the US blacks should seek a liberal arts through Angel education so the African American Island in the community could have educated San Francisco leaders. Bay. 1903 1905 1907 1910 On December 17th, 1903, in Kitty Hawk, NC, Orville and Ellis Island, Wilbur Wright preformed located on the their first successful flight. upper bay just off They opened the way for the New Jersey further advances in the coast, had a record development of the airplane. number of immigrants processed in 1907/http://tinyurl.com/ayn9xuu http://tinyurl.com/a28py4l
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