Zooming in:
Studying family engagement with
media at large and small scales
Lori Takeuchi & Briana Pressey | The Joan Ganz...
•  How are families with young children using media together?
–  Large-scale national survey of parents
–  Case studies of...
A brief history of coviewing
BACKGROUND
3
A brief history of coviewing
•  Kids who watch educational TV with their parents are more likely to learn
than those who w...
BACKGROUND
Need to rethink coviewing for modern times
Media is changing
•  Shrinking size (portability)
•  Multiple delive...
Joint media engagement (the new coviewing)
“Joint media engagement refers to spontaneous and designed
experiences of peopl...
The studies
•  National survey of parents: To what extent is JME occurring in families
with young children across the U.S....
THE PARENT SURVEY
8
Purpose
•  Measure how much of children’s screen media use is “educational” by
platform and by age
–  Defined educational ...
Purpose
•  Measure how much of children’s screen media use is “educational” by
platform and by age
–  Defined educational ...
Methods
•  Sample size: 1,577 parents children ages 2 through 10-years-old
•  Oversamples of African-American (290) and La...
1. Joint media engagement by device
PARENT SURVEY
In a typical day: TV Mobile Computer Video games All
% of children who c...
2. Joint media engagement by partner
•  Parents spend more time using media with younger children than older
–  65% of 2–4...
2. Joint media engagement by partner
•  Siblings are children’s most common JME partner
•  No differences in percentage of...
3. Joint media engagement with grandparents
•  Multigenerational families are more likely among Latinos (10.3%) than
among...
4. Purposes of using media together
•  Which of the following are reasons you use media together with your
child when you ...
5. What parents consider “educational media”
•  “Here is a list of popular TV shows as well as some electronic games. If
y...
Available for free download from www.joanganzcooneycenter.org
18
PARENT SURVEY
THE CASE STUDIES
19
•  Breadth and depth are necessary to inform the work of producers,
educators, and others interested in enhancing family l...
CASE STUDIES
Research questions and conceptual frameworks
•  How do cultural, historical, and individual factors shape tec...
CASE STUDIES
Methods
Setting
•  Urban community center serving primarily low-income population
•  55% of families are Hisp...
CASE STUDIES
Participants
Family
Focal child age
and gender Ethnicity
Language(s)
spoken at home Marital situation
Sibling...
What drives joint media engagement?
1.  Spatial arrangements of household (Horst 2008; Takeuchi, 2011)
2.  Child’s desire ...
Purposes of using media together
•  Which of the following are reasons you use media together with your
child when you do?...
CASE STUDIES
The Almeida Family
26
27
CASE STUDIES
Purposes of using media together
•  Which of the following are reasons you use media together with your
child when you do?...
Findings
•  Children’s desire to connect with parents and siblings: Challenges the
idea that new media devices isolate chi...
Thank you!
www.joanganzcooneycenter.org
30
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Zooming in: Studying family engagement with media at large and small scales

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Lori Takeuchi and Briana Pressey presented "Zooming in: Studying family engagement with media at large and small scales" at the "Learning With Technology: Different Perspectives From Low-Income Families" panel at the AERA Annual Meeting in April 2014. In this presentation, they shared findings from two complementary studies aimed at understanding how families with young children are using media together. Both studies are part of the Families and Media Project, a multi-institution consortium that is being funded by the Bezos Family and Heising-Simons Foundations.

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Zooming in: Studying family engagement with media at large and small scales

  1. 1. Zooming in: Studying family engagement with media at large and small scales Lori Takeuchi & Briana Pressey | The Joan Ganz Cooney Center @ Sesame Workshop | AERA 2014 1
  2. 2. •  How are families with young children using media together? –  Large-scale national survey of parents –  Case studies of families with young children •  The Families and Media Project OVERVIEW 2
  3. 3. A brief history of coviewing BACKGROUND 3
  4. 4. A brief history of coviewing •  Kids who watch educational TV with their parents are more likely to learn than those who watch alone (Ball & Bogatz, 1970; Bogatz & Ball, 1971; Salomon, 1977) •  Specific coviewing “moves” by parent account for learning (Reiser, Tessmer, and Phelps, 1984; Reiser, Williamson, & Suzuki, 1988) •  Informed design of Sesame Street segments and parental outreach BACKGROUND 4
  5. 5. BACKGROUND Need to rethink coviewing for modern times Media is changing •  Shrinking size (portability) •  Multiple delivery platforms •  Convergence •  Connectivity •  Author-ability Families are changing (Bianchi, 2011) •  More mothers in the workplace •  More parents work double-shifts •  More single-parent households •  Higher rates of poverty •  More ESL households 5
  6. 6. Joint media engagement (the new coviewing) “Joint media engagement refers to spontaneous and designed experiences of people using media together. JME can happen anywhere and at any time when there are multiple people interacting together with media. Modes of JME include viewing, playing, searching, reading, contributing, and creating, with either digital or traditional media. JME can support learning by providing resources for making sense and making meaning in a particular situation, as well as for future situations.” (Stevens & Penuel, 2010) BACKGROUND 6
  7. 7. The studies •  National survey of parents: To what extent is JME occurring in families with young children across the U.S.? Who is using media together? •  Case studies: How might particular family characteristics and circumstances shape how parents and children engage around media? BACKGROUND 7
  8. 8. THE PARENT SURVEY 8
  9. 9. Purpose •  Measure how much of children’s screen media use is “educational” by platform and by age –  Defined educational as “content that is good for your child’s learning or growth, or that teaches some type of lesson, such as an academic or social skill.” •  Explore which platforms parents think are effective •  Discover which subjects parents think children are learning about through media •  Measure how much children are using media with parents and others •  Document patterns of reading and e-reading PARENT SURVEY 9
  10. 10. Purpose •  Measure how much of children’s screen media use is “educational” by platform and by age –  Defined educational as “content that is good for your child’s learning or growth, or that teaches some type of lesson, such as an academic or social skill.” •  Explore which platforms parents think are effective •  Discover which subjects parents think children are learning about through media •  Measure how much children are using media with parents and others •  Document patterns of reading and e-reading •  Research led by Vicky Rideout, analyses conducted by June Lee, and GfK administered online survey PARENT SURVEY 10
  11. 11. Methods •  Sample size: 1,577 parents children ages 2 through 10-years-old •  Oversamples of African-American (290) and Latino parents (682) •  Online probability-based survey •  Panel recruited through address-based sampling and random digit dialing •  Those without Internet connection were given one as well as laptop PARENT SURVEY 11
  12. 12. 1. Joint media engagement by device PARENT SURVEY In a typical day: TV Mobile Computer Video games All % of children who co- engage with a parent 52% 9% 7% 7% 58% % of child time with device spent co-engaging 55% 29% 26% 25% Average time spent co- engaging 49 minutes 3 minutes 3 minutes 3 minutes 59 minutes 12
  13. 13. 2. Joint media engagement by partner •  Parents spend more time using media with younger children than older –  65% of 2–4-year-olds’ TV time is spent coviewing, compared to 51% among 5–10-year-olds •  No differences in proportion of parent-child JME time based on ethnicity, income, or parent education EXCEPT on mobile devices: PARENT SURVEY 43% 25% 21% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Latino White Black Proportion of children’s mobile media time in joint engagement Consistent  with  Pew  Hispanic  Center   findings  (Lopez,  Gonzalez-­‐Barrera,  &  Pa=en,   2013):   •  LaDnos  own  smartphones  and  go   online  from  a  mobile  device  at  similar   or  higher  rates  than  Blacks  and  Whites   •  Rate  of  cellphone-­‐only  households  is   higher  among  LaDnos  (47%)  than  Black   (38%)  or  White  (30%)  Americans.   13
  14. 14. 2. Joint media engagement by partner •  Siblings are children’s most common JME partner •  No differences in percentage of parents, siblings, or friends who “often” or “sometimes” co-engage based on race, income, or parent education PARENT SURVEY 0.03   0.07   0.07   0.07   0.43   0.48   0.08   0.25   0.25   0.16   0.41   0.31   0.14   0.32   0.32   0.37   0.14   0.13   0.73   0.35   0.33   0.4   0.02   0.07   0%   10%   20%   30%   40%   50%   60%   70%   80%   90%   100%   Nanny/babysi=er   Grandparent   Friend   Other  relaDve   A  parent   Sibling   Oen   SomeDmes   Once  in  a  while   Never   14
  15. 15. 3. Joint media engagement with grandparents •  Multigenerational families are more likely among Latinos (10.3%) than among Blacks (9.5%) or Whites (3.7%) (Pew Research Center, 2011) PARENT SURVEY MORE likely to co-engage with grandparents LESS likely to co-engage with grandparents African-American children Latino children Lower-income children Children whose parents did not attend college 15
  16. 16. 4. Purposes of using media together •  Which of the following are reasons you use media together with your child when you do? Check all that apply. PARENT SURVEY 60%   56%   55%   45%   41%   30%   16%   0%   10%   20%   30%   40%   50%   60%   70%   To  make  sure  s/he   doesn’t  get   exposed  to   inappropriate   content     S/he  asks  me  to     I  enjoy  it     It’s  our  together   Dme   It  helps  him/her   get  more  benefit   from  it     I  happen  to  be  in   the  same  room     To  make  sure  s/he   doesn’t  break  the   equipment     16
  17. 17. 5. What parents consider “educational media” •  “Here is a list of popular TV shows as well as some electronic games. If you are familiar with them, indicate how educational you think they are for children: very, somewhat, not too, or not at all.” –  Average rating of how educational each title is, on a 4 point scale (4=very educational) •  Lower income parents have broader definition of “educational” PARENT SURVEY Show   Family  Income   <  $25K   Family  Income   $25  -­‐  $49K   Family  Income   $50K  -­‐  $99K   Family  Income   >  $100K   Sesame  Street   3.61   3.60   3.47   3.47   Dora  the  Explorer   3.38   3.39   3.08   3.05   Mickey  Mouse  Clubhouse   3.13   3.11   2.84   2.77   SpongeBob  SquarePants   1.67   1.56   1.43   1.28   Angry  Birds   1.69   1.61   1.52   1.40   17
  18. 18. Available for free download from www.joanganzcooneycenter.org 18 PARENT SURVEY
  19. 19. THE CASE STUDIES 19
  20. 20. •  Breadth and depth are necessary to inform the work of producers, educators, and others interested in enhancing family learning and connection through media •  Case studies complement quantitative data by providing insights into why and how particular families use media together •  Featured cases don’t represent all U.S. families, but their stories surface phenomena that warrant investigation in future JME research CASE STUDIES 20
  21. 21. CASE STUDIES Research questions and conceptual frameworks •  How do cultural, historical, and individual factors shape technology/ media use in families? •  How do technology/media shape family interactions and activities? •  What roles do digital media play in family functioning, routines, and learning? Ecological Systems Theory Bronfenbrenner, 1979 Activity Theory Engeström, 2000
  22. 22. CASE STUDIES Methods Setting •  Urban community center serving primarily low-income population •  55% of families are Hispanic and 33% are African-American Data collection •  Interviews with: •  6-to-9-year-old children who attend after-school program (45 m) •  Their parents (45 m) •  Their counselors (25 m) •  Technology inventory questionnaires for parents •  Children’s drawings of their families 22
  23. 23. CASE STUDIES Participants Family Focal child age and gender Ethnicity Language(s) spoken at home Marital situation Siblings, relatives 1 7-year-old Male African-American English Lives with grandparents 4 aunts and uncles 2 8-year-old Male African-American, Puerto Rican English, Spanish Single mother 3 brothers 3 9-year-old Female Taiwanese, Japanese English, Japanese, Chinese Married parents 1 brother 4 6-year-old Female Dominican English Single mother, father incarcerated 3 half sisters 5 6-year-old Female African-American, Cambodian English, Khmer Single mother 1 half sister 6 8-year-old Male African-American English Single mother Only child 7 6-year-old Male Ecuadorian English, Spanish Married 2 brothers, 2 sisters 8 9-year-old Male Puerto Rican English, Spanish Single mother, father passed 1 sister 23
  24. 24. What drives joint media engagement? 1.  Spatial arrangements of household (Horst 2008; Takeuchi, 2011) 2.  Child’s desire to connect around media (Dugan, Stevens, & Mehus, 2010) 3.  Parent’s desire to connect child to heritage/culture CASE STUDIES 24
  25. 25. Purposes of using media together •  Which of the following are reasons you use media together with your child when you do? Check all that apply. CASE STUDIES 60%   56%   55%   45%   41%   30%   16%   0%   10%   20%   30%   40%   50%   60%   70%   To  make  sure  s/he   doesn’t  get   exposed  to   inappropriate   content     S/he  asks  me  to     I  enjoy  it     It’s  our  together   Dme   It  helps  him/her   get  more  benefit   from  it     I  happen  to  be  in   the  same  room     To  make  sure  s/he   doesn’t  break  the   equipment     25
  26. 26. CASE STUDIES The Almeida Family 26
  27. 27. 27 CASE STUDIES
  28. 28. Purposes of using media together •  Which of the following are reasons you use media together with your child when you do? Check all that apply. CASE STUDIES 60%   56%   55%   45%   41%   30%   16%   0%   10%   20%   30%   40%   50%   60%   70%   To  make  sure  s/he   doesn’t  get   exposed  to   inappropriate   content     S/he  asks  me  to     I  enjoy  it     It’s  our  together   Dme   It  helps  him/her   get  more  benefit   from  it     I  happen  to  be  in   the  same  room     To  make  sure  s/he   doesn’t  break  the   equipment     28
  29. 29. Findings •  Children’s desire to connect with parents and siblings: Challenges the idea that new media devices isolate children. •  Culturally themed content (e.g., Dora the Explorer, telenovelas) –  Parents can connect child to heritage and child can spend time with parent –  Both parties equally enjoy –  Media that is “important” to the family as opposed to “educational” –  Ideal content for JME Recommendations •  Create “ideal content” for mobile devices (expanding market across all segments of U.S. population) •  Rethink the value and use of the term “educational” media IMPLICATIONS 29
  30. 30. Thank you! www.joanganzcooneycenter.org 30

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