URBAN PRESENTED BY SAIF HASAN M. ARCH. 1ST SEM 11510011 IIT ROORKEE
DEFINITIONS1.DEFINITIONS • Open space can be defined as land and water in an urban area that is not covered by cars or buildings, or as any undeveloped land in an2.INTRODUCTION urban area (Gold, 1980).3.THE BENEFITS AND • Tankel (1963) has suggested that open space is not only the land, orOPPORTUNITIES OF OPEN the water on the land in and around urban areas, which is notSPACESa. Social covered by buildings, but is also the space and the light above theb. Health land.c. Environmental • Cranz (1982) argued that open spaces are wide-open areas that cand. Economic be fluid to the extent that the city can flow into the park and the park4. URBAN OPEN SPACES- can flow into the city.SPACES FOR ALLa. Domestic • Open space has also been described from a user’s point of view asb. Neighborhood being an arena that allows for different types of activitiesc. Civic encompassing necessary, optional and social activities (Gehl, 1987).5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- CASE STUDIES
INTRODUCTION1.DEFINITIONS Urban open spaces are: • invaluable assets in maintaining ecological health in a highly2.INTRODUCTION developed urban matrix.3.THE BENEFITS AND • But habitat values and ecological quality of these areas are oftenOPPORTUNITIES OF OPENSPACES challenged by consecutive urbanization.a. Social • Urban open spaces are vital part of urban landscape with its ownb. Health specific set of function.c. Environmentald. Economic • Open spaces (natural or man made) contribute to the quality of life in many ways (Burke and Ewan, 1999).4. URBAN OPEN SPACES-SPACES FOR ALL • Besides important environmental benefits, these areas provide sociala. Domestic psychological services, which are critical for the livability of the cityb. Neighborhood and well being of urbanites (Chiesura, 2004).c. Civic5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- • (Thompson 2002) sees open spaces in cities as places to celebrate CASE STUDIES cultural diversity, to engage with natural processes and to conserve memories.
THE BENEFITS AND OPPORTUNITIES1.DEFINITIONS OF OPEN SPACES2.INTRODUCTION3.THE BENEFITS AND • Open space is an essential part of the urban heritage, a strongOPPORTUNITIES OF element in the architectural and aesthetic form of a city:OPEN SPACESa. Social 1. plays an important educational role,b. Health 2. is ecologically significant,c. Environmental 3. is important for social interactiond. Economic 4. fostering community development and4. URBAN OPEN SPACES- 5. is supportive of economic objectives and activities.SPACES FOR ALLa. Domestic In particular it helps reduce the inherent tension and conflict in deprivedb. Neighborhoodc. Civic parts of urban areas . It has an important role in providing for the5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- recreational and leisure needs of a community and has an economic CASE STUDIES value in that of environmental enhancement. Driver and Rosenthal (1978) identified social benefits of green spaces, including trees and other features, as: • Developing, applying and testing skills and abilities for a better sense of worth; Exercising to stay physically fit. • Associating with close friends and other users to develop a sense of social place.
• Gaining social recognition to enhance self-esteem1.DEFINITIONS • Enhancing a feeling of family kinship or solidarity; • Teaching and leading others, especially to help direct the2.INTRODUCTION growth, learning and development of community3.THE BENEFITS AND • Reflecting on personal and social valuesOPPORTUNITIES OF • Feeling free, independent and more in control than is possible in aOPEN SPACESa. Social more structured home and work environmentb. Health • Growing spiritually;c. Environmental • Applying and developing creative abilities;d. Economic • Learning more about nature, especially natural processes, man’s4. URBAN OPEN SPACES- dependenceSPACES FOR ALL • upon them and how to live in greater harmony with nature;a. Domestic • Exploring and being stimulated, especially as a means of coping withb. Neighborhoodc. Civic boring,5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- • undemanding jobs and to satisfy curiosity and the need for exploration; CASE STUDIES • Replenishing adaptive energies and abilities by temporarily escaping adverse social and physical conditions experienced in home, neighborhood and work environments.
1.DEFINITIONS social Perhaps the most obvious benefits and opportunities that urban open2.INTRODUCTION spaces provide for city living are social benefits—that is opportunities3.THE BENEFITS AND for people to do things, take part in events and activities.OPPORTUNITIES OF Active & Passive recreationOPEN SPACES Open space for recreation and amenity accounts for 14 per cent of thea. Socialb. Health land take of the urban environment in Britain (Morgan, 199 1991).c. Environmental Such open space is used for a range of recreational and amenityd. Economic purposes which we will consider under the groupings of passive and active recreation. Active recreation is usually taken to mean activities4. URBAN OPEN SPACES-SPACES FOR ALL such as football, cricket, hockey and other games, whereas passivea. Domestic recreation is taken to mean activities such as watching—wildlife—b. Neighborhood looking at views, reading, resting or meeting friends.c. Civic5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- CASE STUDIES
Active & Passive recreation1.DEFINITIONS An alternative form of active recreation, which often makes use of open spaces,2.INTRODUCTION has developed in recent years and is3.THE BENEFITS AND worthy of mention. ‘Urban outdoorOPPORTUNITIES OF activities’ can provide opportunitiesOPEN SPACESa. Social for young and old to develop feelingsb. Health of well-being, self-confidence, relaxationc. Environmental and independence (Sainsbury, 1987).d. Economic Open spaces as educational resources4. URBAN OPEN SPACES- The increasing use of open spaces as an opportunity for educationSPACES FOR ALLa. Domestic can be seen from many examples. When the project ‘Learningb. Neighborhood through Landscapes’ was introduced one of its aims was to extendc. Civic environmental education to use schools, grounds (Adams, 1989)5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- rather than just relying on nature walks around the park, which many CASE STUDIES of us experienced as children. Research undertaken in twelve primary schools with 216 pupils identified that the children found the tarmac and concrete to be boring and that children wanted to have trees, grass and opportunities to develop imaginative play (Titman, 1994). A variety of projects affording educational benefits and opportunities have been recorded in research undertaken for the Department of Environment (Department of the Environment, 1996).
1.DEFINITIONS Health Health is not the mere absence of illness, but means physical, social and2.INTRODUCTION mental wellbeing.(The World Health Organization)3.THE BENEFITS ANDOPPORTUNITIES OF Contribution to physical & mental health-opportunities for exercise &OPEN SPACES natural viewsa. Socialb. Health Open spaces can and should, play an important part in providingc. Environmental Opportunities for the activities suggested by the above evidence.d. Economic Children of both pre-school and school ages can benefit from a range of open spaces, such as playgrounds, parks, school playgrounds and playing4. URBAN OPEN SPACES-SPACES FOR ALL fields that are designed and maintained in a suitable manner In additiona. Domestic it would be beneficial to link the use of open spaces in with sportsb. Neighborhood Programmes.c. Civic5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- CASE STUDIES Aesthetic appreciation Aesthetic appreciation relates to the beauty, or ugliness, of the open space.
1.DEFINITIONS Environmental • Urban open space is a key component to sustainable living in cities2.INTRODUCTION because they provide environmental benefits. In siting early settlements across the world mankind knew and3.THE BENEFITS ANDOPPORTUNITIES OF understood the character of land, land cover and water surfaces.OPEN SPACES However, built environments have had an impact on locala. Social climates, with such intervention becoming greater with increasedb. Healthc. Environmental urbanizationd. Economic (Morcos-Asaad, 1978). • Urban open space provides a range of tangible environmental4. URBAN OPEN SPACES- benefits, such as mitigating urban heat island (UHI) as well as air andSPACES FOR ALLa. Domestic water pollution (Yu and Hien 2006, Cavanagh et al. 2009), andb. Neighborhood improving biodiversity (Tzoulas and James 2004).c. Civic5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- CASE STUDIES
Measuring the economic benefits of open space1.DEFINITIONS • From an economic perspective, the valuation of urban open space is difficult to calculate because it is a classic public good, where there is2.INTRODUCTION no market price. Its lack of value in monetary terms prevents urban3.THE BENEFITS AND open space from being properly evaluated in cost-benefit analyses.OPPORTUNITIES OF Neil Dunse and colleagues reviewed economic condition with referenceOPEN SPACESa. Social to four key categories:b. Health 1 Proximity to open space-Being in close proximity to open spaces doesc. Environmental have positive impact on property values, but this is largely dependent ond. Economic the type of open space and distance from the space.4. URBAN OPEN SPACES- 2 Condition- The parks Were grouped into four categories: small andSPACES FOR ALL attractive, small and basic, Medium and attractive, medium and basic. Ita. Domestic was found that small, attractive parks have a positive and statisticallyb. Neighborhoodc. Civic significant influence on neighboring property values and medium sized,5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- attractive parks exhibited a positive, but not statistically significant, CASE STUDIES effect. Basic parks, on the other hand, were found to have a negative and statistically significant impact on neighboring property values. 3 Development potential-Neil Dunse suggests that any amenity values associated with an open space are likely to vary, depending on its development potential - permanently protected open space may be valued more highly than open space that could be developed in the future. This does seem to be the case. 4 Economic status of the area.
Employment opportunities- Green spaces in urban areas can provide opportunities for community involvement that can in turn help to1.DEFINITIONS develop a sense of self-esteem and enable individuals and2.INTRODUCTION communities to develop skills new to themselves. Tourism- Some urban open spaces not only provide opportunities for3.THE BENEFITS ANDOPPORTUNITIES OF local people and their daily life but can also be used as regional orOPEN SPACES national attractions for tourists.a. Socialb. Healthc. Environmentald. Economic4. URBAN OPEN SPACES-SPACES FOR ALLa. Domesticb. Neighborhoodc. Civic5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- CASE STUDIES
Open space typologies1.DEFINITIONS There are various typologies given by researchers, organizations & authorities to differentiate various types of open spaces .2.INTRODUCTION Like lynch (1981) developed a typology for open space that identified3.THE BENEFITS AND Regional parks, squares, plazas, linear parks, adventure playgrounds,OPPORTUNITIES OF wastelands, playgrounds and playing fields. This typology perhapsOPEN SPACESa. Social focuses more on spaces that are dominated by hard landscape, ratherb. Health than later typologies that have included or focused on green openc. Environmental spaces.d. Economic • Domestic urban open spaces4. URBAN OPEN Domestic urban open spaces are those open spaces in the urbanSPACES-SPACES FOR ALL context that are physically closest to home. These include spaces thata. Domesticb. Neighborhood are integral within a housing area, private gardens, communityc. Civic gardens and allotments. The first two are those most closely linked5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- with the home because they are the physical setting within which the CASE STUDIES home is placed. Community gardens may be associated with a small group of family houses, a small block of flats for professional people or perhaps a group of bungalows for the elderly. Community gardens are thus shared physically but the use of them may not be a shared experience—it may be that one might be the only user at a particular time.
• Neighborhood urban open spaces Neighborhood urban open spaces are those that are part of the1.DEFINITIONS neighborhood in two ways. First of all they are physically further from2.INTRODUCTION home, except on rare occasions. than domestic urban open spaces. This means that to use neighborhood urban open spaces one has to3.THE BENEFITS ANDOPPORTUNITIES OF make a very specific decision to do so. This may be different fromOPEN SPACES some domestic urban open spaces which one can almost treat as ana. Social extension of the home. E.g. Parks, Playgrounds, Playing fields andb. Health sports grounds, School playgrounds, Streets, City farms, Incidentalc. Environmentald. Economic spaces and natural green space.4. URBAN OPEN • Civic urban open spacesSPACES-SPACES FOR ALLa. Domestic The largest number of urban open spaces discussed fall into theb. Neighborhood category of civic urban open spaces.c. Civic Commercial urban open spaces include squares & plazas.5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- Ports & docks. CASE STUDIES
Sherwood, Longsands and1.DEFINITIONS Cottam, PRESTON,LANCASHIRE2.INTRODUCTION Client - English Partnerships (formerly Commission for New Towns)3.THE BENEFITS AND Landscape architect - Trevor Bridge AssociatesOPPORTUNITIES OF Engineers - Howard Humphries and Company, WarringtonOPEN SPACESa. Social Work started - March 1994b. Health Practical completion - December 1997c. Environmental Project value - £900,000 (hard works: £650,000, soft works £250,000)d. Economic Capital funding sources - Commission for the New Towns (CNT)4. URBAN OPEN SPACES-SPACES FOR ALLa. Domesticb. Neighborhoodc. Civic5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- CASE STUDIES
Project aims1.DEFINITIONS To provide recreational facilities for residents and workers, a network2.INTRODUCTION of footpaths and bridleways to link facilities, landscape buffers between developments and to enhance existing wildlife habitats3.THE BENEFITS AND while creating new ones.OPPORTUNITIES OFOPEN SPACES A series of sites were identified as important locations such asa. Social adjacent to communication routes, the canal or at urban focal points.b. Health Landscape architects rolec. Environmentald. Economic The landscape architect was involved from the inception of the work, through feasibility, design, production of contract4. URBAN OPEN SPACES- documentation and tendering to monitoring the works on site upSPACES FOR ALLa. Domestic until completion.b. Neighborhood The unique opportunities of this projectc. Civic The comprehensive master plan and brief provided for the retention5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- CASE STUDIES of specified areas of land for public open space in this predominantly Greenfield development The series of linear open spaces within urban areas, utilizing and improving existing landscape features, facilitated a major contribution to this new urban environment In addition to providing areas for recreation, important wildlife corridors were retained and improved. Conservation and enhancement of a range of habitats, together with improved access for people and the provision of new recreational activities, resulted in the creation of an important asset for the community.
Project design1.DEFINITIONS A series of linear open spaces and other publicly accessible2.INTRODUCTION areas were developed as part of new residential and business3.THE BENEFITS AND areas across the north end of Preston. The sites tended toOPPORTUNITIES OF follow streams, some of which were in steeply sided valleysOPEN SPACES that had remained relatively undeveloped anda. Socialb. Health uncultivated, and contained extensive mature woodlands.c. Environmental Formal and informal paths, depending on their context, leadd. Economic into these areas. Bridges span streams etc.4. URBAN OPEN SPACES-SPACES FOR ALLa. Domesticb. Neighborhoodc. Civic5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- CASE STUDIES
Current site users1.DEFINITIONS The client was pleased that the briefs had been adhered to and2.INTRODUCTION that a high-quality project was provided. Preston Borough3.THE BENEFITS AND Council have commented that the sports fields within theOPPORTUNITIES OF project are the best drained ones within the town. The sitesOPEN SPACES are well used for a wide range of recreational activities. Froma. Socialb. Health comments that have been received it is apparent that thec. Environmental series of open spaces are considered to be an important assetd. Economic to the housing development4. URBAN OPEN SPACES-SPACES FOR ALLa. Domesticb. Neighborhoodc. Civic5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- CASE STUDIES
Edinburgh Park, Edinburgh1.DEFINITIONS Client - New Edinburgh Limited2.INTRODUCTION Landscape architect Ian White Associates3.THE BENEFITS AND Architect Richard Meier and Partners, New YorkOPPORTUNITIES OF Engineers Halcrow, EdinburghOPEN SPACES Initial involvement 1988a. Socialb. Health Work started on site 1990c. Environmental Practical completion In stages—to be completed about 2015d. Economic Management started 19924. URBAN OPEN SPACES- Project value £120 million:SPACES FOR ALLa. Domesticb. Neighborhoodc. Civic5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- CASE STUDIES
Project aims1.DEFINITIONS The aims of the landscape strategy were to create an2.INTRODUCTION ordered, high-quality environment as the setting for a business park. To create a landscape setting in advance of development.3.THE BENEFITS AND To create a landscape structure using a controlled range ofOPPORTUNITIES OFOPEN SPACES materials. To control implementation and managementa. Social standards in order to achieve a high-quality environmentb. Healthc. Environmental Landscape architects roled. Economic The landscape architect has been an integral pat of the4. URBAN OPEN SPACES- development process since 1988 through the masterSPACES FOR ALL planning, implementation and management stages of thisa. Domestic phased development. The landscape architect is responsibleb. Neighborhoodc. Civic for the design and co-ordination of all external5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- spaces, implementation of hard and soft landscape works and CASE STUDIES continues to provide advice to Edinburgh Park Management Limited. The landscape architect is also a member of the design review committee, which controls all aspects of existing and proposed developments. Project constraints There were no major constraints to the project, but there was an increasing requirement to implement best practice in water management for attenuation and treatment of the water.
The unique opportunities of this project1.DEFINITIONS The developer’s decision to provide landscape infrastructure in2.INTRODUCTION advance of the building development as a means of establishing development standards on a cost-effective basis3.THE BENEFITS AND early in the development process and as a marketing aid. TheOPPORTUNITIES OFOPEN SPACES site is a phased development over 20 years and thereforea. Social consists of completed occupied sites, major construction sitesb. Healthc. Environmental and sites awaiting development.d. Economic Project design4. URBAN OPEN SPACES- Edinburgh Park, on the western edge of the city, is a 138 acreSPACES FOR ALL business park adjacent to the Edinburgh city bypass. The site isa. Domestic surrounded by a retail park, theb. Neighborhoodc. Civic bypass with green belt on the5.URBAN OPEN SPACES- opposite side, a shopping centre, CASE STUDIES private housing and finance offices. It is planned on a strict Cartesian grid of 8 meters, to create an ordered environment, in accordance with the modernist principles of Richard Meier..
Referenceswww.rics.orgUrban open spaces-by Helen Woolley- Spon PressComplicated Simplicity: A Case Study on Urban Open Spaces in Phoenix Metropolitan AreaISOLATION TRENDS OF URBAN OPEN SPACES-H. Esbah a, *, B. Deniz a, E. A. CookUrbanParksOpenSpaceandResidentialPropertyValues.pdf