INDEX 2). Formation of petroleum 3). History of petroleum 5).
What is Petroleum?In a lay man’s language, PETROLEUM is FUEL.Fuels are materials that give off heat when they are burned. A fuelmay be a solid, a liquid, or a gas. Fuels that come from theremains of living things are called fossil fuels. Wood, coal, naturalgas and the liquid fuel petroleum are common fossil.
Consumption of Energy by MankindPetroleum is energy, stored deep in the earth by nature. This isa non-renewable energy source because petroleum suppliesare limited and they draw on finite resources that willeventually dwindle. Petroleum includes crude oil, condensateand natural gas.
How is Petroleum formed?Petroleum is made primarily ofmixtures ofhydrocarbons, compounds ofcarbon, and hydrogen.Scientists believe petroleumhydrocarbons come from theremains of tiny animals andplants that lived millions ofyears ago.The idea that oil was created from dinosaurs is a myth, there simply werenot enough of them to create such large amounts of oil.
STAGE 1When tiny organisms die, they sink to the bottom of the sea and are mixed with mud and silt.
STAGE III STAGE II Lack of oxygen at the bottom of sea keeps the Bacteria removes most animals and plants from of the decaying completely.oxygen, nitrogen, phosp The partially horus, and decomposed organisms sulfur, leaving mainly create a slimy mass, hydrogen and carbon. which is then covered. with layers of sediments.
STAGE IVOver millions of years, many layers of sedimentpile on top of the once-living organisms. When the depth of burial reaches about 10,000 feet, natural heat of the earth and intense pressure combine to act upon the mass. The end result, over time, is the formation of petroleum
Petroleum deposits are locked in porous rocks almost likewater is trapped in a wet sponge .When crude oil comes out ofthe ground , it can be as thin as water or as thick as tar.
The first Petroleum Well Petroleum was discovered at a shallow depth of only 21 metres through “Drake’s well” The first petroleum was drilled in Pennsylvania, USA in 1859. Early modern discoveries of petroleum relied on these small surface wells. In the United States, bores that were used for water began producing crude oil. At that time, petroleum was called coal oil. The discovery of petroleum eventually closed the nineteenth century whale-oil industry.You could say that the oil and gas industry has helped to save the whale!
FINDING PETROLEUM WAS ONCE A JOB FOR PROSPECTORS WHO DUG WELLS INPLACES THAT THEY THOUGHT WOULD BE SUITABLE - PERHAPS A LINE OF HILLS OR ASWAMP. SO THEY DRILLED A HOLE THERE AND IT WAS KNOWN AS A “WILD-CAT” WELL.BUT THE DEMAND FOR PETROLEUM BECAME TOO GREAT TO RELY ON GUESSWORK.WILD-CAT PROSPECTORS HAD TO GIVE WAY TO SPECIALIST SCIENTISTS. THESESCIENTISTS ARE GEOLOGISTS AND GEOPHYSICISTS.
GEOLOGISTS INTERESTED IN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. THESE ARE CALLED SEDIMEN-TOLOGISTS. GEOLOGISTS STUDYING FOSSILS ARE CALLED PALAEONTOLOGISTS.GEOLOGISTSSTUDY ROCKS AND GEOLOGISTSSOILS IN THE SPECIALISING IN THE CHEMISTRY OF ROCKSLAYERS OF THE AND THE FLUIDS THEY CONTAIN ARE GEOCHEMISTS.EARTH’S CRUST GEOPHYSICISTS STUDY AND MEASURE THE PHYSICAL PHENOMENA OF THE EARTH. THEY MEASURE TEMPERATURE, MAGNETI SM, EARTH MOVEMENTS, WATER FLOW, ASSESS EARTHQUAKES.
The Geologists work togetherwith 3 objectives FIRST, TO IMPROVE OUR KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE EARTH (WHAT IT IS AND WHAT MAKES IT TICK). SECOND, TO FIND OUT WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE EARTH FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS, BUILDINGS, POWER STATIONS AND OTHER STRUCTURES. AND THIRD, TO EXPLORE THE EARTH FOR PETROLEUM, NATURAL GAS AND MINERALS, AND TO ESTABLISH WHETHER THESE ARE SUITABLE FOR COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION.
Of every 100 new wells drilledonly about 44 produce oil.When scientists think theremay be oil in a certainplace, a petroleum companybrings in a drilling rig andthey need to drill a well.The typical oil well is aboutone mile deep.
Petroleum is found in threeforms: as a solid, calledbitumen; as a liquid, whichis usually called crude oil orcondensate; and as agas, such as methane and ethane.Both liquid oil and naturalgas are generally foundtogether.Whether a discoverybecomes an oil or a gas fielddepends solely on whetherthere is more of one fossilfuel or the other fossil fuelin the area.
We can’t use crude oil as itcomes out of the ground.We must change it intofuels that we can use. Thefirst stop for crude oil is atan oil refinery. A refinery isa factory that processes oil.The refinery cleans andseparates the crude oil intomany fuels and products.The most important one isgasoline. Other petroleumproducts are dieselfuel, heating oil, and jetfuel. Industry usespetroleum to make plasticsand many other products.
Oil and the EnvironmentPetroleum products –gasoline, medicines, fertilizers, and others havehelped people all over the world. But there is a trade-off. If drilling is not carefully regulated, it may disturb fragile land and ocean environments. Petroleum production and petroleum products may cause air and water pollution. Transporting oil may endanger wildlife if it’s spilled on rivers and oceans. Burning gasoline to fuel our car pollutes the air. Even the careless deposal of motor oil drained from the family car can pollute streams and rivers.
Fuel for thoughtPhd scholar at the Center Energy and Environment, TERI University,Aditi Banerjee is currently pursuing her research in the area of biomassutilization for ethanol production . There has been widespread concernover global warming and climate change caused by use the use of fossilfuels. In this regard, biofuels like bioethanol and biodiesel have emergedas a sustainable and greener alternative in fossil fuels.Ethanol is a type of an alcohol, used in whisky, bear, rum, wine, etc.However, ethanol can also be blended with petrol as a fuel additive tomake it more fuel efficient and help reduce air pollution. Generally,ethanol is produced from sugarcane molasses ( a waste stream forsugar production factory). But it’s not an adequate source to meet therising demand for ethanol production which Is required to blend withpetrol. Therefore, new source or feedstocks are explored for productionof ethanol.