1. Renal system (physical assessment)
Inspection: Skin- pallor, yellow-gray,
excoriations, changes in turgor, bruises,
texture(e.g. rough, dry skin)
Mouth: stomatitis, ammonia breath.
Face & extremities- generalized edema,
peripheral edema, bladder distention,
masses, enlarged kidney.
Abdomen-abdominal contour for midline
mass in lower abdomen (may indicate
urinary retention) or unilateral mass.
Weight: weight gain 2 nd to edema, weight
loss & muscle wasting in renal failure .
2. Renal system (physical assessment)
General state of health- fatigue, lethargy, &
alpation- No costovertebral angle
tenderness, nonpalpable kidney & bladder,
no palpable masses.
ercussion: Tenderness in the flank may be
detected by fist percussion. If CVA
tenderness & pain are present, indicate a
kidney infection or polycystic kidney
Auscultation: The abdominal aorta & renal
arteries are auscultated for a bruit, which
indicates impaired blood flow to the kidneys
3. Renal Systems (Diagnostic test)
Urinalysis- evaluation of the renal system & for
determining renal disease.
Wash perineal area & use a clean container.
Obtain 10 to 15 mL of the 1 st AM sample
If the client is menstruating, indicate this on
the lab. requisition form.
Specific Gravity-measures the kidney’s ability
to concentrate urine. Measured by multipletest dipstick (most common method),
refractometer-instrument used in the lab,
urinometer (least accurate method). Cold
specimens produce a false high reading.
Factors that interfere with an accurate
reading include radiopaque contrast agents,
glucose & proteins.
4. Renal Systems (Diagnostic test)
A decrease in SG (less conc. urine) occurs
with increased fluid intake, diuretic
administration, diabetes insipidus.
An increase SG (more conc. Urine) occurs
with insufficient fluid intake, decreased renal
perfusion, or the presence of ADH.
Urine Culture & Sensitivity- identifies the
presence of microorganisms & determines the
specific abx. that will treat the existing
microorganisms. Note that urine from a client
who forced fluids may be too dilute to provide
a positive culture.
5. Renal Systems (Diagnostic test)
Creatinine clearance test- A blood & timed
urine specimen that evaluates kidney
Blood is drawn at the start of the test &
the AM of the day that the 24-hour
urine specimen collection is complete.
Maintain the urine specimen on ice or
refrigerate. If the client is taking
steroids, check with MD regarding the
administration of these medications
during test. Encourage adequate fluids
before & during the test.
6. Renal Systems (Diagnostic test)
Vanillymandelic acid (VMA)- to diagnose
pheochromocytoma, a tumor of the
adrenal gland. The test identifies an
assay of urinary catecholamines in the
urine. Instruct to avoid foods such as
caffeine, cocoa, cheese, gelatin at least
2 days prior to beginning of the
collection & during collection. Save all
urine on ice or refrigerate. Instruct to
avoid stress & to maintain adequate
food & fluids during the test.
7. Renal Systems (Diagnostic test)
Uric acid- A 24-hour collection to diagnose gout
& kidney disease.
Encourage fluids & a regular diet during
testing. Place the specimen on ice or
UB idney, ureters, bladder) radiograph-An xray film that views the urinary system &
adjacent structures; used to detect urinary
ladder ultrasonography-A noninvasive method
of measuring the volume of urine in the
8. Renal Systems (Diagnostic test)
Computed tomography (CT & M provide
RIcross-sectional views of the kidney &
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)- the
injection of a radiopaque dye that
outlines the renal system. Performed
to identify abnormalities in the system.
Withhold food & fluids after midnight
before the test. Inform the client abt.
Possible throat irritation, flushing of
the face, warmth or salty taste that
may experienced during the test .
9. Renal Systems (Diagnostic test)
Renal angiography- the injection of a
radiopaque dye through a catheter for
examination of the renal arterial supply.
Assess the client for allergies to iodine,
seafood & radiopaque dyes. Inform
about possible burning feeling of heat
along the vessel when the dye is
NPO after MN on the night of the test.
Instruct to void immediately before the
procedure. Inspect the color &
temperature of the involved extremities.
Inspect site for bleeding .
10. Renal Systems (Diagnostic test)
Renal Scan- An IV injection of a
radiopaque for visual imaging of renal
blood flow. Instruct that imaging may be
repeated at various interval before the
test is complete. Assess for signs of
delayed allergic reactions, such as
itching & hives.
G)- A graphic
recording of the pressures exerted at
varying phases of the bladder. Inform of
the voiding requirements during & after
11. Renal Systems (Diagnostic test)
Cystoscopy & B
iopsy- the bladder mucosa is
examined for inflammation, calculi or tumors
by means of a cystoscope, a biopsy may be
obtained. NPO after MN before the test.
Monitor for postural hypotension. Note that
pink-tinged or tea-colored urine is common.
Monitor for bright, red or clots & notify MD.
Renal biopsy- insertion of a needle into the
kidney to obtain a sample of tissue for exam.
NPO after MN. Provide pressure to the biopsy
site for 30 minutes. Check site for bleeding.
Force fluids to 1500-2000 mL. Instruct to
avoid heavy lifting & strenuous activity for 2
12. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Inflammation of the bladder from
infection or obstruction of the urethra.
The most common causative organism
are E. coli, Enterobacter,
pseudomonas, & serratia.
More common in women because they
have shorter urethra than men, & the
location of the urethra in women is
close to the rectum.
Sexually active & pregnant women are
most vulnerable to UTI.
13. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Causes: Allergens or irritants, such as
soaps, sprays, bubbles bath
Bladder distention, calculus,
hormonal changes influencing
alterations in vaginal flora.
Indwelling urethral catheter, loss of
bacterial properties of prostatic
secretions in the male
Sexual intercourse, urinary stasis,
use of spermicides, wet bathing suits
14. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Assessment: Frequency & urgency, burning on
urination, voiding in small amount, inability to
void, incomplete emptying of the bladder,
lower abdominal discomfort or back
discomfort, cloudy, dark, foul smelling urine,
hematuria, bladder spasms, malaise, chills,
fever, nausea & vomiting.
Implementation: Obtain urine C/S to identify
bacterial growth. Instruct to force fluids up to
3000 mL a day. Provide meticulous perineal
care with an indwelling catheter. Instruct to
avoid alcohol. Provide heat to abdomen or
sitz bath for complaints of discomfort
15. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Nursing Diagnosis: Acute pain r/t
inflammation of mucosal tissue of UT
as manifested by pain on urination,
flank pain, bladder spasms.
Provide relief by administering
analgesics such as Pyridium or
combination agents (Urised). Alert that
urine color will be orange & blue or
green with combination agents.
Teach the use of nonpharmacologic
technique- heating pad, warm
16. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Impaired urinary elimination r/t UTI as
manifested by bothersome urgency,
hematuria or concern over altered
Obtain midstream voided specimen for
Administer antimicrobial drugs.
Teach signs & symptoms of UTI.
Encourage adequate fluid to help
prevent infection and dehydration.
Formation of urinary stones; urinary
calculi formed in the ureters.
When a calculus occludes the ureter &
blocks the flow of urine, the ureter
dilates, producing a condition known as
If the obstruction is not removed,
urinary stasis results in infection,
impairment of renal function on the side
of the blockage, & resultant
hydronephrosis & irreversible kidney
Causes: Family history of stone
Diet high in CA, vitamin D, milk,
Obstruction & urinary stasis
Use of diuretics, which can cause
Hypercalcemia, & hyperparathyroidism
Elevated uric acid, such as gout
Nursing Assessment: Nausea, vomiting, dietary
intake of purines, phosphates, low fluid
Elimination: Decreased u/o, urinary urgency,
feeling of bladder fullness.
General: Acute, severe colicky pain in flank,
back, abdomen groin or genitalia; burning
sensation on urination, dysuria,anxiety.
Skin: warm, flushed skin or pallor with cool.
Urinary: tenderness on palpation on renal
areas, passage of stone(s).
Increased BUN & creatinine; WBC, calcium,
phosphorus, uric acid.
KUB- calculi or anatomic changes on IVP
Implementation: Force fluids up to 3000
mL/day, unless contraindicated-to
facilitate the passage of the stone &
Strain all urine for the presence of
Turn and reposition immobilized clients.
Administer analgesics & response to
Instruct in the diet specific to the stone
Nephrolithomy- incision into the kidney to
remove the stone.
Pyelolithotomy- incision into the renal pelvis
to remove the stone.
Ureterolithotomy-removal of stone in the
Cystotomy- indicated for bladder calculi.
Lithotripsy- procedure used to eliminate
calculi in the kidney. Hematuria is common
after the procedure. A stent is often placed
after the procedure to promote passage and
to prevent obstruction, then removed 1 to 2
weeks after lithotripsy .
22. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
eaching: teach good perineal care & to
wipe from front to back.
Instruct to void every 2 to 3 hours.
Instruct to void & drink a glass of water
Encourage menopausal women to use
estrogen vaginal creams to restore pH.
Instruct the female to use water- soluble
lubricants for coitus, especially after
A cystic formation and hypertrophy of the
kidney, which lead to cystic rupture,
infection, formation of scar tissue and
The ultimate results of this disease is renal
Types: Infantile: inherited autosomal
recessive trait that results in the death of the
infants within few month after birth.
Adult: dominant trait results in end-stage
Assessment: Flank lumbar pain or
abdominal pain, fever, chills, UTIs,
hematuria, proteinuria, pyuria HTN, palpable
abdominal masses & enlarged kidney.
Monitor for gross hematuria which indicates
Increase sodium & water loss intake
because sodium loss rather than retentions.
Provide bed rest if cyst ruptured & bleeding
Implementation: Prepare for percutaneous
cyst puncture for relief of obstruction or
draining an abscess.
Prepare client for dialysis and encourage
26. Renal T
May be benign or malignant: Common sites of
metastasis include bone, lungs, liver, spleen or
Assessment: Dull flank pain, palpable renal
mass, painless hematuria. Unknown cause.
Treatment: Radical nephrectomy: Removal of
the entire kidney, adjacent adrenal gland &
renal artery & vein.
Radiation therapy & chemotherapy.
27. Renal T
Implementation: Monitor abdomen for
distention caused by bleeding
Observe bed linens under the client for
Monitor for hypotension, decreases in urinary
output & alterations in LOC, indicating
Monitor urinary ouput
Do not irrigate or manipulate the nephrostomy
tube if in place.
28. Nephrotic Syndrome
Arising from protein wasting 2nd to diffuse
Assessment: Proteinuria, edema, anemia,,
malaise, irritability, HTN, waxy pallor of the
skin, amenorrhea or abnormal menses.
Implementation: Monitor I/O. Bedrest if
edema present, monitor daily weights.
Administer plasma expanders, to raise the
Sclerosis of the small arteries & arterioles of the
kidney. There is decreased blood flow, which results
in patchy necrosis of the renal parenchyma.
Benign –occurs in adults 30 to 50 yrs. of age. It is
caused by vascular changes resulting from
hypertension and from atherosclerosis process.
Malignant-complication of HTN,characterized by
sharp increase in BP with a diastolic pressure
greater than 130 mm Hg.
Treatment- aggressive antihypertensive therapy. The
prognosis is poor.
hases of ARF
Oliguric phase: GFR
decrease,hyperkalemia, fluid overload,
elevated BUN & creatinine.
Diuretic phase: GFR Begins to increase,
hypokalemia, hypovolemia, gradual
decline in BUN, creatinine.
Recovery phase: BUN is stable &
normal, complete recovery may take 1
to 2 years.
31. Stages of Chronic RF
Stage 1: Diminished renal reserve-renal
function is reduced, no accumulation of
metabolic wastes, nocturia & polyuria
occurs as a result of decreased ability to
Stage 11: Renal Insufficiency: metabolic
waste begin to accumulate, oliguria &
edema occur as a result of decreased
responsiveness to diuretics.
Stage 111: excessive accumulation of
metabolic waste. Kidney are unable to
maintain homeostasis. Dialysis is required.
Implantation of a human kidney from a
compatible donor into a recipient.
Performed for irreversible kidney failure.
Immunosuppressive medications must be
taken for life.
Complications: Graft rejection- fever, malaise,
elevated WBC, graft tenderness, signs of
deteriorating renal function, acute HTN,
anemia. Occurs immediately after surgery to
48 hours-removal of rejected kidney.
Avoid prolonged period of setting
Recognize the signs & symptoms of
infection & rejection.
Avoid contact sports
Use medications & maintained
immunosuppressive therapy for life.