1Technology Study Report on Bearing Industry - : Prepared By : -MSME - Development Institute, Government of India Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises Bais Godam, Jaipur – 302 006 (Raj.) Ph. 0141-2212098, 2213099, Fax. 2210553 e mail- email@example.com web- dcmsme.gov.in
2 CONTENTS Page • SCOPE OF THE REPORT • METHODOLOGY1 PRESENT STATUS OF TECHNOLOGY 1 - 22 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Industry Overview 1.3 Global Collaboration 1.4 Status of Bearing and Bearing Component Cluster at Jaipur 1.5 Raw Material 1.6 Plant and Machinery in SME Sector 1.7 Manufacturing Process2 IDENTIFYING TECHNOLOGY GAP 23 - 273 THRUST AREAS FOR TECHNOLOGY & TECHNOLOGY GAPS 28 - 324 PROPOSED ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY & ITS BENEFITS 33 - 395 PROJECT PROFILE 40 - 49 Annexures a. Technology Providers b. Quality Standards (BIS) c. Chemical Composition of Through-Hardening Bearing Steels Composition (%)
3SCOPE OF THE REPORT This Technology Study Report on Indian bearings industry covers overviewof the industry, Present status of Technology being used by the MSME sector inmanufacturing the product, Technological Gap, Modernisation & technological Upgradation aspect of bearing Industry & highlighting benefit of proposed technologyover the existing technology and its viability in keeping view of the competitivemarkets as well as international competitiveness. The report is useful for bearingsand component manufacturers, end user industries like automobile, machine tools,steel and equipment manufacturers ring, bearing component manufacturers, rawmaterials suppliers like steel industry, commercial and investment banks,investors, business analysts, consultants and students.
4METHODOLOGY Technology Study Report is prepared as per guide line given by DC(MSME). Theinteraction with following prominent Bearing & Bearing component Manufacturers werecarried out to know more about present status as well as latest proven technology hasbeen adopted by MSME & Large Bearing Manufacturers. Some advance plant &machinery suppliers were also contacted over phone or through internet.Contact Person Collaborations/ Products Advance TechnologyMr. K. N. Kansara Nadella - France RollersKANSARA ENGINEERS PVT. NSK- Japan (CYLINDERICAL,LTD. (A Unit of Sewaram Kansara NTN - Japan SPHERICAL,Group), E-36,M.I.A. Phase II, NEEDLE, TAPER)Basni, Jodhpur - 342005 (INDIA)Phone : +91-291-2745500,2745501, Fax : +91-291-2435187, 2745502Email :firstname.lastname@example.orgWeb : www.skbearings.comMr. Rohit Saboo, President & ( a. ) BRENCO Ball Bearing ,CEO Incorporated , U.S.A. Steel Ball,Email : email@example.com Since 1982-For Tapered RollerMr. Devendra Mishra Vice Cartridge Tapered Bearing, RailwayPresident Manufacturing Roller Bearings for Bearing (Rollerdevendramishra@nbcbearings.in Railway wagons and Bearing in AxleNAIONAL ENGINEERING Locomotives. Box, SphericalINDUSTRIES Ltd. www.brencoqbs.com Roller Bearing,Khatipura Road,Jaipur -302 006 (b) NTN Corporation , Cartridge TaperedPhone : 2223221 Japan Roller Bearing),Fax : 0141-2221926.2222259 Since 1985-For Ball Large DiameterE-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org Bearings, Cylindrical & Bearing Spherical Roller Bearings. Since 1997-For Tapered Roller Bearings. http://www.ntn.co.jp (c) Izumi Kinzoku Kogyo Co. Ltd., Japan Since 1996 - For re- manufacturing, retrofitting and overhauling of grinding and super finishing machines for bearing races. http://www7.ocn.ne.jp/~ izk.co
5Mr. Vinod Agarwal, M.D. Hatebur Hotmatic Forged & TurnedMr Namit Agarwal ,Director hotformers Bearing RaceAgrasen Engineering Industries (AMP 30 S)Limited & Hatebur ColdmaticF-198/199, Road No, 9F coldformers Vishwakarma Industrial Area, Installation of AutoPhone +91-141- 2330614 Turning Lines for Small E-mail : DGBB from Tubes -email@example.com , Production firstname.lastname@example.org 120,000 per day, SOP. Mr. M.R.I. SHAIKH Hatebur Hatebur Hotmatic( Indian Representative of M/S Umformmaschinen hotformers ,a fully-Hatebur Umformmaschinen AG) AG automated ForgingCHRYSTEC MACHINE TOOLS Postfach 916 &HateburPVT LTD, General Guisan- Coldmatic103 Winners Court, Lulla Nagar Strasse 21 coldformersPune 411040 CH-4153 Reinach produce precisionMaharastra, India Switzerland and complex parts00912030527484 Tel.: +41 61 716 21 11 formed directlyMobile: +91 (0) 9892249582 Fax: +41 61 716 21 31 from wire.WEB SITE www.chrystec.comMr. M.K. Banthia, Director Ball Bearing Cage Ball BearingMANU YANTRALAYA production line Cages, SheetG-1/800, Sitapura Industrial Area, (Transfer Press) in Metal ComponentsJaipur - 302 022, India Technical Collaboration and Dust ShieldsTEL : +91-141-277 1412 with M/s TohoFAX : +91-141-277 1410 Industrial Co. Ltd.,E-mail : email@example.com Japan was set up inwww.manuyantralaya.com 2000.Mr. :- Pramod Mathur, Director Transfer Press Dust shieldM/S CHANDRA INDUSTRIES Form M/S CHIN FONG (Z-shield,)A-1, Industrial Estate, Bais MACHINEGodam, Jaipur-302006(INDIA) INDUSTRIAL CO.,Phone:- +91-141- 2214246, LTD.2213017, Fax:- =91-141-2211288 186 Chang Shui Road,E-mail:- firstname.lastname@example.org Chang Hua, Taiwanhttp:www.chandrashields.com 500 R.O.C. TEL:+886-4-7524131 FAX:+886-4-7611920 E- mail:email@example.com om.tw URL:www.chinfong.co m.twMr. Anil Agrawal , MD Conventional Lathes, Bearing Race Low cost automated TurningM/s Supersonic Turners Pvt. hydraulic lathes,Ltd. Auto lathes (AceWorks 1 & H.O. ,F-393(A), Road Machines) Perma line
7 Chapter - 1 PRESENT STATUS OF TECHNOLOGY1.1 INTRODUCTION The technology used is conventional type in unorganized sector. But theorganized sector players are using state of the Art Technology to manufacture thebearings as per the global standards. The unorganized sector players are alsogradually switching over to technology up gradation. The cluster units at Jaipur for bearing and Bearing componentmanufacturing units are employing conventional technology, but with the clusterlevel intervention the units have initiated technology. upgradation by employingCNC Machine for turning, grinding, finishing, testing, etc. The machining operation involved in manufacture of antifriction bearingsinclude forging of the rings, turning, heat-treatment, face and outer dia -grinding,Bore and track grinding, finish and super finishing grinding , Demagnetizing,cleaning, inspection assembly and packaging, etc.The Product The Bearing is a machine element used in rotating parts of virtually everymachine. Bearing permit smooth low friction rotary or linear movement betweentwo surfaces. It employs either a sliding or a rolling action. If we could reducefriction by only 10% in all the rolling bearing in use today, it would mean an energysaving equivalent to the combined out put of Not less than 25 large Nuclear PowerStations. Bearing can be broadly classified into two segments:- • Bimetal • Antifriction – BearingsBimetal bearings (also known as engine bearings) are primarily used in enginesof automobiles or machines. The bearings are meant to reduce the friction
8between the moving parts of the engine crankshaft or crank shaft or associatedsupport surfaces.Antifriction Bearings include Ball Bearings and Roller Bearings. Roller bearingscan further be subdivided into tapered roller. Cylindrical roller, Needle roller, thrustbearings and other special application bearings. The main components of anantifriction bearing are the inner race (ring), the other race (ring) the rollingelements, cages (retainers) and seals. The following are the major types ofbearing.a. Ball bearingb. Cylindrical roller bearingc. Taper roller bearingd. Needle roller bearingFurther classification of these major categories is given below: Single row deep groove ball bearings Maximum capacity type ball bearings Single row angular contact ball bearings Duplex angular contact ball bearings Double row angular contact ball bearings Four point contact ball bearings Self aligning ball bearings Radial Ball Bearings Ball and Roller Bearings Ball Bearings Thrust Ball Bearings Roller Bearings Radial " Roller Bearings Thrust Roller Bearings
9 Single direction thrust ball bearings with flat back face Single direction thrust ball bearings with seating ring Double direction thrust ball bearings with flat back face Double direction thrust ball bearings with seating ring Double direction angular contact thrust ball bearings Single row cylindrical roller bearings Double row cylindrical roller bearings Single row tapered roller bearings Double row tapered roller bearings Spherical roller bearings Cylindrical roller thrust bearings Needle roller thrust bearings Tapered roller thrust bearings Spherical roller thrust bearings1.2 INDUSTRY OVERVIEW: The bearing Industry in India can be divided into three segments; theorganized sector, comprising 12 leading manufacturers, located at Rajasthan,Gujarat, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal andJharkhand primarily cater to the OEM Segment which are predominantlyautomotive, Railway and other Industrial users. The unorganized sector includesthe small scale manufacturers and manufacturers of spurious bearings. Theunorganized sector contributes to about 18% of the total Industry turn over. Theunorganized sector players have a strong regional presence and mainly cater tothe needs of the replacement markets. The Indian bearing Industry is estimated atRs. 100 billion. The domestic Industry caters to the 74 % of total demand forcommon varieties & sizes. The organized sector units contribute around 53% ofthe Industry sales. The imports are about 26% of the total demand of the industry,
10while about 18% import comes through official channels. There is also estimated8% illegal imports. Legal imports generally represent the specialized / superprecision bearings not manufactured in India. Illegal imports generally representthe entry of spurious imports of bearings. The legal imports are about Rs.1 8.00billion while the spurious imports is about Rs. 8.00 billion. The small scale units manufacturing bearing are mainly concentrated inRajasthan and Gujarat having 15 and 50 units respectively. The bearingmanufacturing units are also present in Delhi, Punjab, and Maharastra. The stateof Rajasthan has major concentration of about 100 bearing componentsmanufacturing units with 1000 to 1200 Vendors carrying out turning job work.There are substantial No. of component manufacturing units in Gujarat,Maharastra, West Bengal and Punjab also. The bearing component manufacturingunits are the vendors of organized sector, and unorganized sector bearingmanufacturing units for supply of inner & outer races, balls, rollers, cages, seals,retainers & rivets. These components are also exported to Europe, United Statesof America and other global customers.There are about 450 to 500 number of spurious bearing assembling units situated in theState of Punjab, Delhi and Gujarat, eating the market of organized & unorganized sectorplayers. A number of global bearing manufacturers have established their units inIndia through joint ventures or 100% ownership and more are expected to followsuit.The Big player of bearing sector are present in U.S.A, Russia, Japan, Chinaand eastern Europe. Some of leading bearing manufacturer are : - - NSK Japan - NTN Japan - KOYA Seiko Japan - FAG Germany - SKF Sweden - NRB France - Timken USA
11 International Bearing Market1.3 GLOBAL COLLABORATION All the manufacturers in the organised sector have entered into collaborationagreements for supply of complete process know how as well as supply of majormanufacturing machinery. The collaboration agreements are still valid and the industrygets all assistance for process, know-how product development,customer development,tool design, production control techniques etc from them. Most of the big player arehaving either technical or financial Collaboration with leading Auto Manufacturer.International Collaboration gives Access to best technology in the world. GLOBAL COLLABORATION COMPANY COLLABORATION SKF India SKF Sweden FAG Bearing India FAG, Germany NEI NTN NRB Nadella, France ABC Bearing Ltd. NSK Japan TIMKEN India TIMKEN USA Bimetal Bearing Ltd. Clevite Corporation USA Gabriel India Suspension Italy
12 The Indian Bearing Industry, especially the companies having technical andfinancial collaboration with Global player are expected to garner higher price inexport market In view of the growing industrial and automobile sector, the growth in thisindustry is going to be substantial . The requirement of bearings increasing day byday in India in both the OEM and replacement market and increasing number ofsmall manufacturing industries developing in Jaipur (Rajasthan) Rajkot andSurrender Nagar (Gujarat) and Punjab have come up in unorganized sector.These industries are manufacturing from complete bearings to components andsupplying to leading players. The following are the major manufacturers of bearings in India: 1. Associated Bearing Company Ltd., Pune (Maharashtra) 2. Asian Bearings Company Ltd., Hosur (Tamil Nadu) 3. Karnataka Ball Bearing Corporation Ltd., Mysore (Karnataka) 4. HMT Ltd., Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) 5. Tata Iron and Steel Company Ltd., (Bearings Division) Kharagpur (West Bengal) 6. Shriram Bearings Ltd., Ranchi (Bihar) 7. National Engineering Industries Ltd., Jaipur (Rajasthan) 8. FAG Precision Bearings Ltd., Vadodara (Gujarat) 9. Antifriction Bearing Company Ltd. Bharuch (Gujarat) Lonavala (Maharashtra) 10. Union Bearings Manufacturing Co., Porbunder (Gujarat) 11. Needle Roller Bearing Co. Ltd., Thana/Jalna (Maharashtra) 12. Shriram Needle Industries Ltd., Ranchi (Bihar) 13. Deepak Insulated Cables Ltd., Mysore (Karnataka) (Needle Bearings Division) 14. Austin Engg Company Limited Junagadh , Gujarat
13 15. Karnataka Ball Bearing Co Ltd., Mysore 16. Mysore Kirloskar Ltd, Harihar (Karnataka) 17. Needle Roller Bearings Ltd, Thane 18. Needle Roller Bearings Ltd., Waluj 19. SKF India Limited, Chinchwad , Pune 20. SKF India Limited, Bommasandra, Bangalore 21. Timken India Limited, Jamshedpur 22. ZKL Bearings India Pvt. Ltd., 23. NTN (India) Limited Market share of Big Bearing manufacturer companies in India 30.00 26.00 25.00 21.40 20.00Market share in % 15.70 15.00 10.00 8.45 7.04 5.00 3.16 2.90 2.60 1.60 1.50 1.34 1.30 1.25 1.19 0.96 0.93 0.77 0.73 0.63 0.55 0.00 SKF Bearings India FAG Bearings India National Engineering industries Timken India NRB Bearings Tata bearings HMT Bearings Harsha ABC Bearings Ltd. Sujana Industries Kirloskar Oil Engines Bimtel bearings ARB Bearings Austin Mipco Seamless Rings Asian SBL Texspin Others Imports Name of Companies
14 The Government of India has set up bearings cluster for development ofunorganized segment in Small and Medium sector and understand the market andquality linkage and make them competitive and prepare them with the best benchmarkingpractices in the sector.1.4 STATUS OF BEARING AND BEARING COMPONENT CLUSTER AT JAIPUR Bearing in India started with the setting up of manufacturing unit in JAIPURby the Birla Group in 1946 under the name of "National Bearing Company Ltd." The Ist Bearing was manufactured in 1950 with a modest start of 30thousand Bearing in 19 Sizes. The Bearing Races (Soft) was Manufactured by theTiny Unit in the Small Scale Sector at Jaipur during 1970 on Job Work basis. witha view to utilize the end piece of the Stainless steel tube which could not be fed tothe Multi operation of National Engineering Industries Jaipur. There after there is acontinuous growth of this Industry and now it has grown to a level that Almost Allthe Leading Manufacturer of the country are procuring Soft Bearing. races fromJAIPUR. The National Engineering Industries procure lakhs of Ring every monthfrom these Bearing Race Manufacturing Unit. The other leading manufacturer likeS.K.F., FAG, TATA Bearing, ABC are also procuring the Bearing races fromJaipur. In addition to above , the Small Scale Units manufacturing Bearing in thestate of Rajasthan, Delhi, Gujrat and Punjab also purchasing Bearing Races andcomponents from Jaipur. Apart from Bearing Races there are Bearingmanufacturing SSI Units, Ball manufacturing Unit, and cage manufacturing unitpresent in Cluster. In the Jaipur Cluster, There are Approx 11 No. of SSI Bearing ManufacturingUnit, about 90 No. of Outer & Inner Soft Races Manufacturing SSI Units and about2000 No. of outer /Inner Races turning Tiny/Artisan units. Apart from above thereis one large scale bearing manufacturing unit at JAIPUR namely M/s. NEI Ltd.owned by Birla Group. The Bearing Manufacturing SSI Units of Cluster are producing 36 Lacs ofBearing worth of Rs. 8 Crore and The Bearing Races 50 Lacs Quantity and otherBearing components having the Approx worth of Rs. 100 Crore are produced In
15the Cluster. The Bearing and Bearing components units at Jaipur Cluster areengaged in manufacturing of outer & Inner Races, Cages Dust shield, Balls, & BallBearing.The Detail of type and size of Bearing Races are as under:-S.No. Type of Bearing Races Inner Dia Range1. Ball Bearing Races 10mm to 80mm2. Taper Roller Bearing Races 17mm to 100 mm3. Cylindrical Roller Bearing Races 20mm to 75 mm4. Special type of Bearing Races for Transport Vehicles (Thrust Bearing) 20mm to 75 mm5. Axle Box Bearing Races for Railway passenger coaches and wagon 100mm to 200mm
161.5 Raw Material. The raw material used in the Manufacturing of bearing Races is SAE 52100 highCarbon Chrome bearing steel, which has composition similar to EN-31 (100 CR 6As per BIS specification). The raw material for Bearing Races is in the form ofRods & Seamless Hollow Tubes. This is a Spherodised Annealed Steel. AlloySteel wire rods are used for the manufacture of rollers & balls. The cages andretainers are made out of plain carbon steel of 1008 & 1015 grade.Other materialslike stainless steels are also used as per the customers requirements .Approximate required composition for BEARING RACEs are:- • Constitute % Composition • Carbon 0.95 to 1.1 • Chromium 1.4 to 1.6 • Manganese 0.50 max. • Silicon 0.15 to 0.35 • Sulphur 0.025 (Max.) • Phosphorous 0.05 • Oxygen Content Note more than 15 ppmCAGES • The Material for manufacturing cages is CRCA Strips of • C2015 Bearing grade steel having carbon percentage at • 0.08% max. and Magnesium ranging from 0.25% to 0.45%BALLS • Steel Balls of grade 20, 16 &10 with close tolerance, • smooth surface made by using SAE 52100 High Carbon • Chrome Bearing Steel. 1.6 PLANT AND MACHINERY IN MSME SECTOR
17The plant and machinery in Different Category of Units are asfollowsActivity Plant & Machines presently in use Approx. Cost ( Rs. In Lakh ) Manufacturing Bearing Bar turning Machine 12-15Races By Bar Route & Centre Lathe 8-10Seamless tube Method Lathe Addahs 0.50(Drilling and trepanning Low cost automated hydraulic lathes 8-10Operation are not Tools cutter Grinder 12required ) CNC Machine for 15-20 Races Turning/Machining. Auto lathes (Ace Machines) Perma 6-8x4 lineForging Bearing RaceShearing Gas cutting and hacksaw machines 10-13 and modern shearing machines for raw material cuttingHeating Induction Heating Furnace for 15-2-0 Forging 300 kw, 3 KHz - For all Lines. Oil Fired furnace 12-15Forging,Trimming 300 tone power press 20-25 200 tone power press 15-20 100 tone power press 10-15 50 tone power press 7-10 Screw press having capacity : 350 22-25 toneRolling Hydraulic ring rolling machine 25-30 capacity to roll up to 300 mm. diameterTempering With the help of oil fired furnace / 6-10 electrically heated furnace forgings is treated with sperodise anealing to remove residual stressesDie Making Special die sinking machine ,EDM 6-10Inspection Hardness testing machine 0.50 equipments Laboratory for testing of final 2-5 products of forging with chemical composition and micro examinationHeat Treatment : Hardening & Tempering
181 - Heating 850 ° C Natural salt bath Pit type furnace 0.65-2(Austenitizing) to alter the with pre-heating Furnacestructure of the material2 - Quenching 40 ° C Mar quenching processesRapid cooling to fix thestructure of the materialand thus increasehardness.3 - Tempering 170 ° C" Electric Furnace 3-4Reheating" to reduce theeffects of thermal shock(quenching) inside thestructure and stabilise thematerial.Washing Races Tumbling Barrel 0.1-.0.15Blackening of Races Quenching oil Tank with Cooling 0.1-0.12 SystemGrinding Followed by The Machinery being used forHoning of Outer & Inner Grinding & honing by theRaces SSI Bearing Manufacturing Units are Imported & Second Hand Machinery.Face Grinding Face Grinder ( Rowland ,USA)-1No 8-10Centreless Ginding Centreless Grinder ( WMW, USA) 1- 5.3 -8 No Centreless Grinder ( ,Lidkoping USA) 3.45- 6 1-NoBore Grinding Bore Grinder (Jung Germany)1 -No 0.5-3 Bore Grinder (UVA, USA)1 -NoOuter Track Grinding Outer Track Grinder ( Heald, USA)-1 3.48-5 N0 Outer Track Grinder 5.22-7 ( Bryant,USA,1NoInner Track Grinding Inner track Grinder( Norton) 1 -No 1- 3 Inner track Grinder( Newall,USA) 1 - No Duplex Machine 1.5-2Honing of Track Honing Machine 5Nos 1.40-4Washing of Races Washing Machine (Self Fabricated) 1-1.4Lapping Machine Lapping M/c 12-15Cages & Shields Steel Cages are manufactured by 15-20Manufacturing Unit using Bearing GradeBlanking, Bending, Steel Sheet. These sheets areDrawing, Piercing, stamped with the help of HydraulicCleaning, Inspection Presses and various dies to provide the desired form and size of Steel CagePinning ( Pinning in Pinning Press (Electro Magnetic 0.1-0.2cages) Process ,20 Ton -1 No
19Riveting cages in Riveting Press ,Hydraulic 20 ton,1- 0.2-0.3Bearing No1Ball Manufacturing UnitCold Heading Cold Header Machine 10-12Flashing Ball Flash removing M/c. 4-6Heat Treatment Hardening followed by Tempering on 20-25 Rotary type furnaceTumbling Tumbler 2-3Ball Grading Ball Grading M/c. 3-5Rough Lapping Lapping M/c. 4-6Abrasive Lapping Abrasive Lapping M/c. 2-3Oil Lapping with the help of H.S. Diesel oil and 3-6 Chromium Oxide Caustic Soda Washing Inspection Grading Greasing PackingAssembly of Outer &Inner Races with Balls /Roller & Cageduly suited and locked bypower press Marking Machine and 3-4 ComparatorCleaning, Checking & Final InspectionMeasuring & Inspection Tools and Gauge, Comparators, Dial 7-10 Gauges, Demagnetisers, Micrometer, Slip gauge, Surface Plate,Telescope Gauge, Cylindrical Gauges etcTesting Laboratory Equipment 2-3Load ,RPM, Noise, Load ,RPM, Noise, Temperature etc 1-2Temperature etc Checking For final inspection Set-upChecking For finalinspectionPacking Sleeve packaging machine/Shrink 0.7-1 PackingWork Shop M/c Tools Surface Grinder/Duplex Grinder 7 Bench Drilling machine 0.1 Pedestal Grinder 0.15 Tool post Grinder 0.1 Electric Arc Welding M/c 0.5 Fitter Bench & Measuring 8-10 Instruments, Gauges, Fixtures etc.
20Material Handling Chain Pulley & Hoist 0.5-.7Electric D.G.Set 20 KVA 3-4Air Pipe line Compressor 1-1.2Centralised Cooling Centralised Cooling Tank with 0.6-0.8Tank with filtration filtration System ( Superior )System
211.7 Manufacturing ProcessThese are following three methods which are being used by units manufacturingbearing races (Soft Turned).BAR ROUTE :- Bar route method is considered to be most economical methodmanufacturing of soft turned Bearing Races. The following steps are involved inthis method. For the Inner Diameter upto 25mm , this method is more economicalas compared to the other method. That is why this method is more popular and itsestimated that 70% of Bearing Races soft turning upto 25 mm I.D. size and 50%Races of the total quantity of soft races manufactured by using this manufacturingtechnology. Beyond 25mm I.D. this method is not much cost effective Bar Turning Drilling, Parting & Trepanning(Trepanning is the operation in which the outer race & inner race is parted off from a single piece of Bar). Inner Diameter Machining & Facing Outer Diameter Machining & Facing Radius Formation Track Formation Ready for Dispatch for further operation.Seamless Tube Method:-
22In the Seamless Tube Method the Drilling and trepanning operation are notrequired , the remaining operations are as follows :- Parting I.D. Machining & Width Machining Outer Dia Machining & Facing Track and Radius Formation Ready for dispatch for further operationThis process technology is preferably being used for the outer Dia of 25mm orhigher size. Apart 40% of the total volume of Soft Races turning is being producedby using above mentioned method in the cluster.
23Forging Method:-Bearing Races are manufactured by Hot Forging Method. The operation of Drilling,parting, and trepanning are not required while using Forging Method. The Metallicclosed Dies are used in Hot Forging Method. This method is more suitable andeconomical for outer Dia of 30 mm and above size. In the cluster Approx. 10% ofBearing Races are produced by using Forging Method. The Forged Bearing Racesare machined/finished as Indicated in the earlier method.Further Operation for Bearing Manufacturing The Bearing Outer & Inner Races manufactured by using any one of themethod mentioned above are then supplied to large scale and small scale Bearingmanufacturing Unit. The further sequence of operation for manufacturing ofBearing are as under Hardening & Tempering of Outer & Inner Races. Grinding Followed by Honing of Outer & Inner Races Assembly of Outer & Inner Races with Balls / Roller & Cage duly suited and locked by power press. Cleaning, Checking & Final Inspection Packing Ready for dispatch
24Heat TreatmentHeat Treatment increases material hardness.At each of the three steps, different processes are available, depending on the product. Heating 850 ° Austenitizing) to alter the structure of the material. C- Quenching 40 ° Rapid cooling to fix the structure of the material C- and thus increase hardness Tempering 170 ° "Reheating" to reduce the effects of thermal shock (quenching) C inside the structure and stabilise the material.GrindingVarious Machines are used to perform Grinding operations: • Surface grinding • Outer ring outer diameter grinding • Inner ring inner diameter grinding • Inner ring outer diameter grinding (raceway) • Outer ring inner diameter grinding (raceway) • Super-finishing : Improves the condition of raceway surfaces by polishing with a grinding rod.Manufacturing Process of Other Bearing Component
25Steel Ball :-Steel Ball with Close tolerance and desired surface finish are produced by usingSAE-52100 Steel Rod. The process flow diagram forBall Flashing Operation Deburring Machine Rill Filing MachineWire is fed from de-coilers into cold Header Machines when ere it cut into Blanks,then pressed into balls between hemispherical dies.
26Manufacturing of steel ball is as under:-Flow chart Cold Heading (on Cold Header Machine) Flashing (on Ball Flash removing M/c.) Heat Treatment (Hardening followed by Tempering on Rotary type furnace) Tumbling (on tumbler) Ball Grading (on Ball Grading M/c.) Rough Lapping (on Lapping M/c.) Abrasive Lapping (on Abrasive Lapping M/c.) Oil Lapping (with the help of H.S. Diesel oil and Chromium Oxide) Caustic Soda Washing Inspection Grading Greasing Packing
27Steel Cages:-Steel Cages are manufactured by using Bearing Grade Steel Sheet. These sheetsare stamped with the help of Hydraulic Presses and various dies to provide thedesired form and size of Steel Cage.The Process flow diagram for manufacturing of Bearing Cages is as under: Blanking Bending Drawing Piercing Cleaning Inspection Ready for dispatchCage’s Manufacturing Process
28Metal Shields - Bearing Metal Shields is protective closures which retains lubricants and assistin preventing contaminants from reaching internal surfaces. DustShields - The aperture usually found in the top cover housing is sealed to form a barrier toassist prevention of airborne contamination into the contact areaShielded Bearings - A shielded bearing has a metallic shield on the backside andShielded bearings are not sealed bearings. With the shielded type of bearing, grease mayenter the bearing readily, but dirt is restricted by the close fitting shields. If there is noshield on the backside of this bearing, the excess grease can escape into the innerbearing cap of the equipment bearing housing.Assembly : Assembly of various items, performing additional functions (greasing,marking, etc.) During each of these steps, the bearing manufacturing process layout iscarried out in compliance with total quality (self-inspection, SPC and TPM). Chapter-2 IDENTIFYING TECHNOLOGY GAP
29 The following section present on Analysis of Business operation for the Bearingand Bearing Component Cluster Jaipur. The following factors have been taken intoconsideration in the Analysis. • Raw Material • Technology (Machinery & Production) • Quality Standard • Product & Marketing • Entrepreneur & their Enterprises. • Finance & working capital. • Man Power Requirement • Infrastructural Facilities. • Business Development Service.The raw material SAE 52100 Spherodised bearing steel only available from few IndianSupplier. • Indian Seamless Metal Tube, PUNE • Indian Seamless Steel & Alloy, PUNE • Mahindra Ugine Steel Company Khapoli. Internationally, the accent is on achieving higher and higher quality levels of bearings.Higher precision, minimum handling damages and maximum cleanliness are the thrustareas for development. Individual units have their own grading of quality. SKF, forexample, designates t, as Q77, Q66, Q55, where Q66 is reported as the prevalent leveland Q55 as the level aimed at International manufacturers are moving towards specialbearings, and sub assemblies involving bearings, where production of small batchquantities becomes more attractive.High rates and consistency of productivity have been achieved by the manufacturersabroad by line manufacture. The market demands there, permit mass productiontechniques and thereby bring in economies in production.
30- As regards materials, closer grade and specification ratings are emphasised.- Upgrading of technology has generally come not from within or from market forcesbut usually from the collaborators insistence, if the latter has stakes, either financial orthrough its name.The following testing facilities are not available in most of the cluster units. • Chemical examination of steel. • Non Destructive Testing of Material. • MetallographicThe Machinery and equipment used by majority of SSI units for manufacturing of BearingRaces are of sub standard and obsolete. Even the SSI Bearing manufacturing units areusing the second Hand Imported Grinding & Honing Machine which are having LesserTolerance Accuracy so the bearing manufactured by these units are not preferred byInternational Industrial Buyer. The Product require high degree of precision the manufacturer are unable tomaintain Accuracy with in 2 microns. In accordance with the standard of InternationalMarket. The existing plant & machinery can give accuracy with 4 microns. The profile cutting operation of Bearing Races is not properly done due to NonAvailability of optical profile grinder. Therefore lot of technological intervention need to be done in the area ofMachinery and Production in order to make final product as per International Standard.The following observation need technological Intervention:-(1). Use of Kerosene for Splash Cleaning for Assembled Bearing and Swab Cleaning of Individual Parts.(2). Inspection of Contamination level of the Bearing not inspected.(3). Dust free Room/Assembly shop of Bearing not maintained.(4) Erroneous measurement of parallelism, concentricity, flatness, taper, straightness, radial and Axial clearance.(5) Non Uniform Temp. in Shaker Hearth Furnace(6) Mar Quenching Oil is being used for Quenching, but Mar Quenching Salt is not the practice.
31(7) Blackening Salt is full of Contamination.(8) Sampling System is Erroneous.(9) Roundness Testing is used for setting parameter of M/c.(10) Micro Structure Like Type of Martensite, Retained Austenite, Benetic Structure , is not being inspected.(11) Sub-Zero Treatment is not being done in the cluster(12) Micro Hardness measurement is not practice .(13) Speed, Feed and Depth of cut for Turning and grinding are not optimum .(14) Precision Measuring Instrument are all shop made.(15) Fatigue Testing of Bearing not being carried out.(16) No phosphating of Inner and outer ring .(17) Go-No-Go gauges practice is not existed.(18) Forging Dies are made of H 11 & H13 Hot Die Steel and Hot H21 & H 23 material. The Quality of Bearing Races is concerned SSI Units have to follow the relevantspecification, drawing and other instruction provided by the purchaser. The system of100% inspection is being followed without any process wastage. However some of theBearing manufacturer permit 1% process wastage. In the event of rejection the unit hasto make payment for loss of the raw material the Bearing Manufacturer.The main defects of Ball Bearing Races are Track Centre out (for which Unit is 100Micron) eccentricity in outer Dia and Track Dia or Base and Track Dia. The Radius formon Outer Dia and base of race is not proper which Account for major rejection.The gauge calibration facility are not available as the gauge are required to be calibratedperiodically in order to ensure the quality of product. The most of SSI/Artisan Unit ofCluster do not have the well organized marketing channel and Demand forecastingsystem and are facing marketing problem due to lack of availability of sufficient fund andother resources required for Advertisement & Publicity, Credit required by the buyers,Branding, Market Assessment etc.Most of Artisan Units are having defective Product pricing system. The units are cuttingprices due to cut throat competition.
32 The Bearing Manufacturing SSI Units are only supplying to replacement market.There is very vast scope to supply OEM & Other sector if they produce standard quality ofBearing. The Problem of duplicating and Reconditioning of old Bearing are anotherConstraint in the Industry. SSI Bearing Manufacturing Units are also facing challenge from Indian LargeScale Bearing Manufacturer like SKF, NEI, TATA Bearing etc. as large scale unit havemade Huge Investment for Product Technologies, Collaboration from world leader ofBearing Industry. Large Scale units have employed the professionally qualified work forceand producing at higher volume as compared to SSI Units, and hence taken a lead in allthe functional Area of Manufacturing, R & D, Marketing etc. More over these units areusing latest and Innovative technique to have their higher productivity, quality andprofitability. The SSI Units are far away and yet to adopt these technique tool for theirbetterment 25 % of total demand for bearing industry is met by imports. While a part ofthe imports come through official channels, there is also a huge volume of illegal imports.legal Imports generally represent the specialized bearings not manufactured in India.There are a large variants of imported bearings, each holding a small market share inIndia. Though, the quality of bearings manufactured by large players in India iscomparable to world standards, domestic manufacture is not viable due to the small sizeof the market segment. It becomes uneconomical to manufacture such type of bearings as it includes hugecapital expenditure. Illegal imports generally represent the entry of spurious imports ofbearings. In the past, the Indian bearings industry was highly protected on account ofvery high import duties ranging from 150% to 240% ad valorem. As a result, illegalimports via smuggling and under invoicing of imports was the order of the day, accountingfor a high 45-50% of total imports. While duty rates have come down over the last fewyears, a few countries like China, Russia, Eastern Europe dump their excess productionat a very low rate. This leads to a huge price differential between domestic and importedbearings (almost 40-50%), encouraging imports.• Most of the unit, the enterprise structure is proprietary or partnership type. Theproprietor/ partner himself look after the Management Aspect and Keep over all control ofthe functioning of the unit and in most of the cases they do not posses the requiredtechnical/Managerial back ground.
33• Technological Awareness of Entrepreneur are not upto the level. It need to be improvedso they can successfully compete the era of liberalization and globalization.Finance is the most critical problem of the Industry in term of shortage of finance,delayed payments, difficulties in getting bank finance and additional requirement of credit.• Units require to maintain large inventory and its the experience of manufacturer that theworking capital need are not fully realized by the bank & financial institution and it directlyaffect their market.• The SSI Units faces common problem regarding availability of skilled man power, Aworker After working for a period of few year in this Industry leave the Job to start his ownturning unit or to get higher wages from another unit.• There is no regular training facilities available where the manufacturer and workerundergo need based training.• The SSI Units also faces problem about less availability of trained man power such asturner, tool maker etc.- The Tiny/Artisan Units are scattered in Different Area. They are functioning under rented shop and due to availability of lack of space, the placement of machinery & handling of material with in the unit is not proper.- Due to frequent power cuts production is hampered.- There is dearth of quality BDS in the Area of technology, Marketing, Export, Health & Safety etc.• Networking among R & D Centre, Technical Training Centre, Testing Centre are notpresent in cluster.
34 Chapter 3 THRUST AREAS FOR TECHNOLOGY & TECHNOLOGY GAPS The reflections of technological achievement are seen in the quality of the product.The bearings manufactured by the Indian industry have to improve considerably to meetinternational standards. If the roots of the problem are to be identified, one comes to thefollowing conclusions:Machine Tools - precision, productivityMaterials - quality, consistencyOperations - process mastery, assembly, quality control SkillThese broad areas can be identified as "Technology Gaps" in bearing manufacture.Although considerable efforts have been made in these directions, the gaps have not yetbeen bridged.Technology Gaps:Activity Plant & Machines Proposed plant and presently in use Machinery Manufacturing Bearing Bar turning Machine . Installation of AutoRaces By Bar Route & Turning Lines for SmallSeamless tube Method Centre Lathe DGBB from Tubes -(Drilling and trepanning Production capcityOperation are not Lathe Addahs 120,000 per day,required ) Low cost automated hydraulic lathes Tools cutter Grinder CNC Machine for Races Turning /Machining. Auto lathes (Ace Machines) Perma lineInvestment Range Investment Range : Investment Range : Rs. 10-20 Lakh Rs. 100-200 LakhForging Bearing Race Gas cutting and hacksaw Automatic Hot & Cold machines and modern Forming machines shearing machines for raw material cutting
35 Induction Heating Furnace for The outstanding features Forging 300 kw, 3 KHz - of the forging shop For all include: Lines. Oil Fired furnace • Automatic bar 300 tone power press loading 200 tone power press • Induction heating 100 tone power press • Laser sensor 50 tone power press assisted ESA Hydraulic ring rolling technology for machine capacity to roll precise bar feed up to 300 mm. diameter control and auto Screw press having Bar End Ejection capacity : 350 tone • On line control & Special die sinking monitoring of machine forging Bar shearing machine temperature Hardness testing • Highly sensitive machine equipments press load Laboratory for testing of monitoring system final products of forging • High speed forging with chemical process composition and micro eliminating risk of examination cracks due to temperature drop. • Auto monitoring system for yield & tool life. With the help of oil fired furnace / electrically heated furnace forgings is treated with sperodise anealing to remove residual stressesInvestment Range Investment Range : Investment Range : Rs. 200-250 Lakh Rs. 1400-1700 LakhHeat Treatment :Hardening & Tempering1 - Heating 850 ° C Natural salt bath Pit Temperature Controlled(Austenitizing) to alter the type furnace with pre- Energy Efficient Heatingstructure of the material. heating Furnace Funace • Liquid carburising processes • Gas carburising processes • Continue hardening processes
362 - Quenching 40 ° C Mar quenchingRapid cooling to fix the processesstructure of the materialand thus increasehardness.3 - Tempering 170 ° C"Reheating" to reduce theeffects of thermal shock(quenching) inside thestructure and stabilise thematerial.Investment Range Rs. 0.6-2 Lakh Rs.20-30 LakhGrinding Followed by The Machinery being Automatic Lines,Honing of Outer & Inner used for Grinding &Races honing by the(Surface grinding, Outer SSI Bearingring outer diameter Manufacturing Units aregrinding, Inner ring inner Imported & Second Handdiameter grinding, Inner Machinery.ring outer diametergrinding (raceway), Outer Bore Grinding Machinering inner diametergrinding (raceway), Track Grinding MachineSuperfinishing (Internal GrindingImproves the condition of Machine)raceway surfaces by Center less Grinderpolishing with a grinding (External Grindingrod. Machine ) Honing MachineInvestment Range 100-200 Lakh 800-1000 LakhCages & Shields Steel Cages are Press SectionManufacturing Unit: manufactured by using (Blanking TransferBlanking, Bending, Bearing Grade Press M/S Chandra Steel Sheet. These Industries &M/S ManuDrawing, Piercing, sheets are stamped with Yantralaya have adoptedCleaning, Inspection the help of Hydraulic transfer Presses and Presses and various dies have good market share to provide the desired in SME manufacturers in form and size of India. Steel CageInvestment Range 50—100 Lakh 100-200 LakhBallManufacturingUnit
37 Cold Heading (on Cold Automatic Lines M/S Header Machine) Kansara Engineers Pvt. Flashing (on Ball Flash Ltd. (A Unit of Sewaram removing M/c.) Kansara Group), E- Heat Treatment 36,M.I.A. Phase II, Basni, (Hardening followed by Jodhpur - 342005 Tempering on Rotary (INDIA) has adopted type furnace) automatic line and have Tumbling (on tumbler) good market share in Ball Grading (on Ball SME manufacturers in Grading M/c.) India Rough Lapping (on Lapping M/c.) Abrasive Lapping ( on Abrasive Lapping M/c.) Oil Lapping (with the help of H.S. Diesel oil and Chromium Oxide) Caustic Soda Washing Inspection Grading Machine Grading Greasing PackingAssembly of Outer & Hydraulic power press AUTO INNER & OUTERInner Races with Balls / DIAMETERRoller & Cage INSPECTION,duly suited and locked by AUTO IR & OR ULTRASONICpower press WASHING MACHINE, AUTO CONSERVATION OIL SPRAYING MACHINE Automatic Lines(AUTO COMBINING & CAGE ASSEMBLY MACHINE), AUTO GREASING & SHIELDING MACHINE, AUTO DEMAGNETIZING MACHINE, , AUTO BALL BEARING ASSEMBLY MACHINE , Pinning Press Marking Machine Laser Marking M/C
38Cleaning, Checking & Tools and Gauge, • ChemicalFinal Inspection Comparators, Dial Gauges, Demagnetisers, composition of raw Micrometer, material Including Slip gauge, Surface Plate,Telescope Gauge, Microscopic Cylindrical Gauges etc examination • Ultrasonic Testing • Oxygen contain Checking • R.A. Value measurement for Rough measurement. • Calibration Testing equipmentTesting Nominal Laboratory EquipmentLoad ,RPM, Noise, Load ,RPM, Noise, AUTO DOUBLE SIDE VIBRATION & NOISETemperature etc Temperature etc INSPECTION MACHINE, AUTOChecking For final Checking For final DOUBLE SIDE SENSITIVITYinspection inspection Set-up INSPECTION MACHINE, AUTO RADIAL INTERNAL CLEARANCE & SENSITIVITY INSPECTION MACHINE ,Packing Sleeve packaging machine/Shrink PackingPacking Sleeve packaging machineWork Shop M/c Tools Surface Grinder/Duplex CNC M/ C Tools Grinder Bench Drilling machine Pedestal Grinder Tool post Grinder Electric Arc Welding M/c Fitter Bench & Measuring Instruments, Gauges, Fixtures etc. Chapter 4 PROPOSED ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY & ITS BENEFITS
39Bearing Steel : The most common material used in the manufacture of bearing rings, ballsand rollers is Alloy steel conforming to specifications SAE 52100. This material hasbecome standard material for the industry all over the world. While the basicmaterial remains the same, the steel manufacturers all over the world have beenimproving this material in order to improve the life span and quality of the bearing.The Indian steel manufacturers although manufacturing steel to specifications SAE52100, are not able to meet the requirement of the bearing manufacturers in so faras purity and oxygen content is concerned. Therefore, bearing SteelManufacturers should be equipped with Vacuum Degassing & Vacuum OxygenDe-Carburising Equipment (LEYBOLD HERAEUS, Germany.) In order tomaintain Oxygen content < 15ppm . The tubes are tested to ensure that the steelis free from injurious imperfections such as piping, cracks, porosity, segregation orinjurious inclusions as referred to in ASTM-381.The inclusion rating is evaluated inaccordance with Plate III of ASTM E-45,The tubes are spheroidized and annealedto ensure that the microstructure consists of spheroidized commentate in a ferritematrix with carbide size conforming to Plates 2 to 4 as per IS 4398-1972 and CG2.1 - 2.3 as per SEP 1520-78.Spherodise annealing and normalising improves themachinability of the annealed hypereutectoid steel and improves its microstructure.To accomplish spherodise annealing and ormalising,temperature controlled energyefficient electrically heated furnace with a capacity of 6,000kg and oil firedfurnaces with capacities of 3,500kg to 4,000kg are being proposed for SME sector. The spherodise annealing and normalising process provides improved ductility,removal of residual stresses, improved machinability and grain refinement.Race Turning :Auto lathes (Ace Machines) /CNC Machines/ SLC-100G/Machines for RingTurning CNC Turing centers of HMT, GD Weiler and other reputed makes,capable of components upto 100mm diameter are being proposed for SME sector.Though some units in MSME sector have already installed f Auto Turning Lines forSmall DGBB from Tubes - Production capacity 120,000 per day, One of them M/sSupersonic Turners Pvt. Ltd , Jaipur is performing well in this sector.Benefits :These machines are built on the Modular concept for Productive, trouble freeRunning with minimal operator Intervention. They are ideally suited & developedfor small to medium sized disk type components that are made in large volumeslike bearing rings, water pump rings, sleeves, brake pistons etc. These machineoffers many high productive features that enhances productivity significantly1.High rate of production2. Cost effective3. Less wastage
404. Better and consistent quality5.Less power consumptionThe CNC, SPM and convectional turning machines for centreless, cylindrical andround operations. SPM type convectional turning machines for proof turning andsome other special operations. PLC and hydraulic type convectional machiningcentres for various operations are being used in SME sector as advancetechnology .HEAT TREATMENT : Following Plant & equipment for Heat Treatment arebeing proposed in SME Sector • Liquid carburising processes • Gas carburising processes • Continue hardening processes • Natural salt bath processes • Mar quenching processes • quenching ( Cryogenic or Nitrogen Mathanol system ): To eliminate retained Austenite,the quench temperature has to be loweredForging : Manufacturers of closed die Forgins for Bearing Race equipped withFollowing Equipments in SME Sector. • Induction Heating Furnace for Forging 300 kw, 3 KHz - For all Lines. • Well equipped furnace • 300 tone power press • 200 tone power press • 100 tone power press • 50 tone power press • Hydraulic ring rolling machine capacity to roll up to 300 mm. diameter • Screw press having capacity : 350 tone • Special die sinking machine- EDM • Bar shearing machine • Hardness testing machine equipments • Full equipped laboratory for testing of final products of forging with chemical composition and micro examination
41 Hot & Cold Automatic Forming plant operates at an average speed of 110 ppm providing the utmost production efficiency when compared to the conventional forging process. The Hotmatic AMP 30 S/AMP-50S three-station hotformer is ideally suited to the production of parts for the automotive, fittings and bearing industries are being suggested for large scale units . Benefits : • Simple operation and conversion • High production output (up to 140 parts/minute) • Accurate transfer • Broad range of parts (e.g. cams for passenger vehicles) • Fully developed and proven machine designNote : M/s Agrasen Engineering Industries Limited is equipped withHotmaticAMP-30S, propelling towards future with an outstanding growth rate.The outstanding features of the forging shop include: • Automatic bar loading • Induction heating • Laser sensor assisted ESA technology for precise bar feed control and auto Bar End Ejection • On line control & monitoring of forging temperature • Highly sensitive press load monitoring system • High speed forging process eliminating risk of cracks due to temperature drop. • Auto monitoring system for yield & tool life.Ring Rolling Process :. The raw material is heated in an induction bar heater andin precisely temperature-controlled furnaces, which provide scale free heating. Theplant is equipped with gas cutting and hacksaw machines and modern shearingmachines for raw material cutting. The plant uses pneumatic, mechanical andhydraulic power presses for forging. Sun Forge C-1/285, G.I.D.C.,Phase II, Aji Ind.Estate,Rajkot - 360 003, Gujarat have equipped with such technology .Cold Rolling Plant : Ring Rolling Machin- D51A, D51B, D52 and D53K series ,D51A & D51B series of vertical type Ring Rolling (Zhucheng ShengyangMachinery Co., Ltd ) and Hatebur Coldmatic coldformers (AKP 3-5 | AKP 4-5 |AKP 4-6 S | AKP 5-5 ) produce precision and complex parts formed directly from
42wire. The parts produced this way are characterized by precision tolerances,quality surface finish and overall strength, are being also used in Bearing sector.Benefits :Machine have advantages of small volume and compact structure and savingmaterial and power and so on, which also widely used for hot rolling of ring likeblank in bearing forging and auto gear and flange manufacture industry. D52 &D53K series of CNC horizontal type Ring Rolling Machine have the followingadvantages: advanced structure, numerical programme control, high automationdegree and productivity and saving material and power and so on. EspeciallyD53K CNC Ring Rolling Machine, it can roll rings simultaneously in radial and axialdirection and is the ideal equipment of processing large scale seamless rings,which has been widely used in spaceflight, aviation, ship, petrochemical industryand power industry and so on.Manufacturing of Bearing Cage & Shields : The following plant & Machineriesare being suggested for SME Sector • AIDA Transmax TMX Transfer Press or Straight Side 2-point Transfer Presses • software’s provided by Forming Technologies (I) Pvt. Ltd • Transfer Press – 50 (Aida, Asahi Seiko, Kyori, Chin Fong Machine Industrial Co., Ltd.186 Chang Shui Road, Chang Hua, Taiwan other)15Ton~150Ton • Rivet Insertion Machines – 43 (Toa Seiko, Shimizu Seiko)Press Section (Blanking Transfer PressThe main process in the production of a bearing cage. At first stage, in a processcalled blanking, a round ring is being cut out of a steel coil. Then, in a processcalled transfer pressing, a proper cage is formed by pressing out from a blank. BLANK Pre-forming Forming Piercing
43Rivet insertionRivet, which is a part of bearing-cage, is manufactured from a steel wire. . The process ofrivet insertion is implemented by specialized machines. The cage set is made of twoidentical cages joined by a rivet. Rivet Insertion Machines – 43 (Toa Seiko, Shimizu Seiko)
44 Advanced Flow Chart to manufacturer Bearing CagesBenefits :Convenient to integrate with the 2D/3D transfer unit to increase productionMinimal overall clearance derived from high-precision componentsLow noise and low vibration which contribute to extended die lifeNote: Manu Yantralaya has adopted transfer presses & consistently marchingahead to furnish the needs of customers belonging to ball bearing industry..Assembly Section : Automatic Line from R& S Machine China are being proposed forlarge scaleQuality control : Some advance Machine & equipments are being used as mentionedunder: • TALYROND - Roundness , squarness, concentricity and coaxiality of bearing and components ,Testing instrument, FORM TALYSURF • Profile and surface finish testing instrument etc. from - Taylor Hobson, U.K. • Bearing Eccentricity stand, Dial Calibration Instrument and Gauss Meter (Residual Magnetism Tester) etc.
45 • Form and surface finish measuring instrument is being used for checking the micro geometry, it evaluate parameters like Form geometry and surface finish of components • Roller Sorting Machine • Bearing Noise Level & Vibration Tester.ADVANCE TESTING EQUIPMENTS : The following testing equipment s are being usedby M/S KANSARA ENGINEERS PVT. LTD.Jodhpur . • Carl ZEISS Microscope model No. AXIOVERT 100 A – Germany • Taper Roller Head Radius Measuring Instrument • Talyrond 262- U.K. • Dial Calibrator • Talysurf FTS- U.K. Intra 2 System with Ultra Comprising • Profile Projector • Surface Roughness Tester • ATC Calibrator Chapter – 5 PROJECT PROFILEProduct : Forged Bearing RacesNIC Product Code : 356601005Product Code ( ASICC ) : 71243
46Plant Capacity per annum : 7200MT ( Two Shift )Job work per annum : Rs, 9,36,00,000Month & Year of Preparation : March, 2011 : Prepared By : - Micro Small and Medium Enterprises Development Institute, Government of India Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises Bais Godam, Jaipur – 302 006 (Raj.) Ph. 0141-2212098, 2213099, Fax. 2210553 e mail- firstname.lastname@example.org web- dcmsme.gov.in Forged Bearing Races1.0 INTRODUCTION : The profile envisage to set up Automatic Hot & Cold Forming Forging Plant to manufacturer Bearing Races .The operation of Drilling, parting, and trepanning are not required while using Forging Method. The Metallic closed Dies are used in Hot Forging Method. This method is more suitable and economical for outer Dia of 30 mm and above size.. The Forged Bearing Races are turned /finished on turning Lines.2.0 MARKET & DEMAND ASPECT : The demand for bearing industry is derived from demand in two key user segments - automobile and industrial sector growth. The automobile industry is the largest growth
47driver for OEM market as it accounts for almost 45% of total bearingmarket.Engineering sector, which accounts for 28% of total share, holds thesecond growth driver. Considering the high reliance of bearing industryon automobile sector, the fate of bearing industry is largely dependenton production of vehicles.The demand of bearing is also linked to heavy-duty industrialapplication in rolling stock, rolling mills, heavy earth movingequipments and other heavy machinery, accounting for 21% of totalbearing market. However demand in the latter category is met throughimports and therefore does not have significant impact on domesticgrowth .Up Swing in Automobile Sector ,The Indian Automobile sector hasgrown 16.5% in FY03 contributed by export growth of 65.3% anddomestic growth of 14.8%. The automobile industry comprising ofcommercial vehicles, passenger cars, multi-utility vehicles, two/threewheelers and tractors has performed extremely well in FY03. Thesharp growth of this sector has been partly driven by the impact oflower interest rate on demand, intermediated by a competitive financialsector, which has steadily cut prices of automobile loans as interestrates went down.Infrastructure has received a fillip in last 2 years through N-S-E-Wcorridor and Golden Quadrilateral projects. The transformation of roadtransport industry through these initiatives will lead to higher demandfor commercial vehicle industry. Passenger cars continue to grow indouble digit driven by rising aspiration levels and easy availability ofcheap finance. Within two wheelers, we expect motorcycle industrygrowth to continue on its growth path.After two bad years, the tractor industry is also likely to witness arevival with completion of inventory correction phase and goodmonsoons likely to drive demand. The positive outlook for auto sectoraugur well for bearings demand and we expect all segment ofautomobile industry to report strong growth in the coming year.Export PotentialExports of bearings companies has increased at a CAGR of 13% inlast seven years from 1995-96 to 2001-02 at Rs2.5bn.Big players inIndian ball and roller bearing have been already exporting a part oftheir production to developed countries like US, Europe etc. Domesticplayers are already sensing the outsourcing opportunity and haveinitiated the process of manufacturing a range of bearings for meetingthe requirements of global customers.The Indian bearing industry, especially the companies havingtechnical/ financial collaboration with global players like SKF Bearings,
48 FAG Bearings, Timken India, ABC Bearings and NRB Bearings are expected to garner higher price in export market. The OEM and replacement market control the market dynamics of Bearing. The OEM and replacement market both account for 40% of total demand of Bearing Industry individually. The Bearing Manufacturer are only supplying to replacement market. There is vast market of OEM Sector The SSI Bearing Manufacturing units of cluster are mainly supplying to the replacement market of Bearing. On the other hand a number of SSI Races Manufacturing Units are supplying the Soft turned Bearing Races to the following large scale units. In the Bearing & Bearing component manufacturers cluster Jaipur Approx. 10% of Bearing Races are produced by using Forging Method. Name of Large Scale Unit : No. of Vendor in Jaipur Cluster (i) NBC : 30 No. (ii) SKF : 05 No. (iii) ABC : 02 No. (iv) FAG : 04 No. (v) TATA :02 No. (vi) TIMKEN : 01 No. The Bearing Manufacturing SSI Units are only supplying to replacement market. There is very vast scope to supply OEM & Other sector if they produce standard quality of Bearing.3.0 RAW MATERIALS : The raw material used in the Manufacturing of bearing Races is SAE 52100 high Carbon Chrome bearing steel, which has composition similar to EN-31 (100 CR 6 As per BIS specification). The raw material for Bearing Races is in the form of Rods The Project profile envisage to perform job work of large scale Bearing manufacturers.4.0 MANUFACTURING PROCESS & SOURCE OF TECHNOLOGY : Manufacturing process begins by sending hot rolled bar material through Induction Heaters to achieve the proper temperature needed for forming the part. The material then proceeds into Hatebur 3 station or 4 station hot former. Depending on the job specifications, these machines pancake the part, then form and punch the inside diameter through the product. Both machines possess the added feature of combination forging, which produces two parts at the same time thus reducing material waste. At this point, depending on the application, the product can go through forge normalizing or spheroidize annealing furnaces, cold ring rolling process, shot blasting or visual inspection areas prior to the shipping area.
49 4.1 Quality System : The tests are conducted as per I.S. & A.S.T.M. standards. In the Laboratory, tests such as Chemical Composition, Including rating, carbide Bending, Grain Size and other tests are conducted. Once the material s approves after spherodized Annealing, it is send for turning process where Inspection of pre-turned races is done, continuous dimension inspection during turning process,100% Crack Detection testing,100% Visual Inspection for dent, forging spots, rust & Burr of turned races is done. After getting approval material is transferred for dispatch.5.0 BASIS OF PROJECT SELECTION : The spurt in prices of the import raw material-steel tubes, has compelled the industry to look for an alternative form of material, which has been seen in forged/formed rings.The proposed . Hatebur machines are impressive not only for their precision and flexibility, but also because of their ability to produce large volumes of parts at a high production rate which in turn yields good production efficiency. In anticipating future demand & keeping view of global trend only such a plant may be a approved vendor of large scale bearing manufacturers.The proposed proven technology has already adopted by M/S Agrasen Engineering Industries Limited , Jaipur this technology , running very well , Hence it justified the project selection.6.0 PRESUMPTIONS: - (1) To improve the energy efficiency of the plant, it has to run continuously. The scheme is based on two shift of 75% efficiency 25 days/month and 300 days per annum (ii) Labour wages has been taken as per market rate. It is likely to vary depending upon the location of the project . (iii) Rate of interest has been taken 12% on an average on fixed and working capital. It is likely to vary due to financial outlay and the location of the unit. (iv) The operative period of the project is estimated to be about 8 years considering technology obsolescence. (v) Value of machinery & equipment is estimated on the basis Quotations received & prevailing cost of the local mkt. (vi) As the cost of raw Material is major part of working Capital and is very high and as per the mrket trend the working capital is being taken for 1.5 months only.7.0 PRODUCTION CAPACITY :
50 The proposed ATEBUR-HOTMATIC® AMP 30 S work with one shearing and three forming stations for the production of forging parts up to 67 mm diameter and 0.7 kg input weight & 84- 140 strokes per minute. In keeping view plant capacity and presumptions made over capacity calculated as under :8.0 Plant Capacity per annum : 10533.6 MT ( Two Shift ) Value per annum : Rs, 79,10,73,360/-9.0 UTILITY REQUIREMENTS : 1500 KWHot Forming PlantElectrical:- Power supply (start and production) 120 kVACompressed air:- Pressure 5,5-10 bar- Consumption (non compressed state) 3 Nm3/hCooling water:- Pressure 4 bar- Max. flow rate (depending on part) 30 m3/h10 IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE :S.No. Activities Period in Months 1 Preparation of project report and selection of site 1 2 Registration 1 3 Application for Electricity Connection 1 4 Availability of finance& Procurement of machinery 6 6 Electrification & installation 2 7 Recruitment of staff 1 8 Trial run 1 Total 1311 FINANCIAL ASPECTS: i) Land : The requirement of land for the proposed unit would be 3000 Sq. Mtr. purchased @ 2500 3000 2500 7500000 Shed & Building Constriction 1000 5000 5000000 TOTAL 12500000 b PLANT & MACHINERYS.No. Description of machine Qty. Price Amount
51 1 HATEBUR HOTMATIC® AMP 30 1 133879000 133879000 S with one shearing and three forming stations for the production of forging parts up to 67 mm diameter and 0.7 kg input weight. With 6 inline Induction heater and cold ring rolling machine & Shot Blasting 2 Noise abatement cabin. 1 7964550 7964550 3 Adaptation to tropical conditions. 1 653,400 653400 For ambient temperature higher than 40° C and for relative humidity higher than 90 %, it is necessary to install a larger cooler and a heater to keep condensation from forming inside the cubicle during machine standstill. The heater is controlled by temperature controller and hygrostat and allows a temperature difference of max. 15° C. 4 CNC Lathe 200 mm 1 2000000 2000000 5 Cylindrical Grinder 1 400000 400000 6 Internal Grinder 1 300000 300000 7 Vertical milling Machine 1 450000 450000 8 Spare Parts 1 5440050 5440050 9 Changeover Aids 1 2393820 2393820 Other Conventional M/c Tools like 1 200000 200000 drill, weld bench vice , portable grinder etc 10 Accessories 1 10032660 10032660 Total 163786480 vat, Taxes, Installation & Electrification @ 10% 16378648 TOTAL 180165128 9 Office Equipment, Dies & Tools LS 7614585 7614585 Total Investment In Plant & 187779713 machinery Pre operation Charges i.e. for Getting 3755594.26 Electricity Connection etc. c Total Investment In fixed assets 204035307.3D. WORKING CAPITAL i PersonnelS.NO. DESIGNATION No. Salary Total (Rs.) 1 Workshop in charge 1 30000 30000 2 Supervisor cum clerk 2 1200 2400 3 Skilled Worker 8 8000 64000 4 Semi skilled worker/ Helper 4 4500 18000 5 Peon / Watchman 3 3000 9000 Total 18 123400 Additional Perquisites @ 15% 18510 Total Expenditure in Salary & Wages 141910