Spanish 4H Grammar Book      Alejandra Cooke           Period 1
Table of Contents3: El Presente            23: Negative Formal4: Irregular Yo Forms     Commands5: Irregular Verbs        ...
Table of Contents contd.42: Future                           60: Future Perfect43: Conditional                      61: Co...
El Presente•  present tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive   ending “-ar, -er, -ir”• used to expres...
Irregular Yo Forms• -er/-ir have irregular yo forms in the present  tense• -cer/-cir change to -zco in the yo form• -ger/-...
Irregular Verbs, Present Tense>dar: doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan>decir>estar                         Ejemplos>ir        ...
Ser y Estar                       “to be”                not interchangeable                SER                           ...
Ser y Estar contd.      SER Ejemplos                   ESTAR Ejemplos1) Soy de Woodstock, GA.     1)   Estoy en Nueva York...
Verbos Como Gustar• gustar: “to please”            • Aburrir: to bore        >the thing/person        • Caer bien/mal: to ...
Verbos Como Gustar contd.1) Me gusta la revista de InStyle.2) Nos gustan las vacaciones en Florida.3) Me fascina Central P...
Nouns & Articles• nouns in Spanish are either masculine  or feminine (masculine usually ends in –  o, feminine usually end...
Adjetivos• adjectives are used to describe nouns• they take the form of either masculine or  feminine, depending on the ge...
Preterite v. Imperfect            PRETERITE                          IMPERFECT“Snapshot” of the past             “Video” o...
Preterite v. Imperfect contd.        PRETERITE                  IMPERFECTTrigger Words:            Trigger Words: aayer, a...
Preterite v. Imperfect contd.•   -gar changes g to gu•   -car changes c to qu•   -zar changes z to c•   verbs that end in ...
Present Subjunctive   Subjunctive      Main clause    -ar: e, es, e,          Irregulars       Mood              +        ...
Present Subjunctive contd.Impersonal Expressions*Es bueno que*Es mejor que*Es malo que*Es necesario que*Es importante que*...
Present Subjunctive contd.Expressions of Emotion*alegrarse (de): to be happy*esperar: to hope, to wish*sentir (e-ie): to b...
Present Subjunctive contd.Expressions of Doubt, Disbelief, & Denial*dudar: to doubt*negar (e-ie): to deny*Es imposible: It...
Subjunctive in Noun Clauses• noun clause: dependent clauses that serve as  a direct object or complement of a verb• the su...
Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses• adjective clause: an entire clause that  describes a noun or pronoun• the subjunctive mo...
DOP & IOP with Commands AFFIRMATIVE                                             NOSOTROSTú: drop the ‘s’                  ...
Formal Commands• use when addressing someone you don‟t know well or  someone you show respect to• all usted and ustedes co...
Negative Formal Commands• add “no” in front of the formal  commandEX: No saquen sus libros.No ponga su mochila aquí.No lle...
Informal Commands• use when addressing family or friends• affirmative tú commands are formed the same as the   present ten...
Nosotros Commands• used when the speaker suggests an action to be done  by a group, including the speaker• two ways to for...
Nosotros Commands contd.Negative• place “no” in front of the present subjunctive of nosotrosEX: No nademos.No salgamos.*re...
Object Pronouns*direct object pronouns receive theaction of the verb**indirect object pronouns identify towhom or for whom...
Object Pronouns contd.**Le and Les change to se when theyare used with lo, la, los, or las*when obj. pronouns are attached...
Prepositional PronounsMí: me, myself      Él: him, it      Nosotros/as: us,   Ellos: them                                 ...
Double Object Pronouns*indirect object pronouns precede thedirect object pronoun when they areused together in a sentence
Possessive Adjectives5 Possessive Adjectives: mi (my), tu (yourinformal), su (his, her, their, your formal), nuestro(our),...
Possessive Pronouns• mine: el mío, la mía, los míos, las mías• yours (familiars): el tuyo, la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas• ...
Demonstrative Adjectives     Este          Ese          Aquel     este          ese          aquel     estos         esos ...
Demonstrative Pronouns• replace a noun in a phrase instead of  modifying it like an adjective would1) replace noun(s) clos...
Demonstrative Pronouns contd.2) replace noun(s) that are not close tothe speaker (that one)EX: Ésas son las más bonitas.  ...
Demonstrative Pronouns contd.3) replace noun(s) far from the speakerand listener (that over there)EX: Aquél allá es peligr...
Reflexive Pronouns• reflexive pronouns work with reflexive verbs to show that a    person is performing the action to him/...
Por y Para             POR                               PARA*express gratitude or apology:Gracias por la ayuda           ...
To Become• Hacerse: reflexive verb; to become, to  pretend; conjugated the same as  hacer (add the proper reflexive  prono...
Reflexive Verbs*transitive verbs have an object, while intransitive does not have anobject          -aburrirse: to become ...
Future• tells what will happen or what shall happen• expresses wonder or probability in the  present state                ...
Conditional• expresses probability, possibility, wonder, or  conjecture would, could, must have, or  probably            ...
Conditional contd.Uses• express speculation about the past• express the future from the perspective of the  past• express ...
Relative Pronouns• combine two sentences that share a  common noun• “related” to a noun that has been previously  stated• ...
Qué vs. Cuál             Qué                           Cuál• “what”                      • “which”• asking for definitions...
The Neuter Lo• used before singular adjectives when they  function as nouns, usually referring to a  concept or category• ...
Subjunctive in Adverbial ClausesConjunctions that ALWAYS   Conjunctions that SOMETIMES  take the subjunctive         take ...
Subjunctive in Adverbial Clauses contd.Time Expressions• cuando: when• hasta que: until• en cuanto: as soon as• luego que:...
Past Subjunctive Subject    Ending            Subject                  Endingyo         -ra        nosotros/nosotras    (a...
Comparisons and Superlatives• comparisons: indicate that something has more or less of a  particular quality (like the Eng...
Adverbs• most Spanish adverbs are formed by adding  –mente to the feminine singular form of the  adjective (“-ly” in Engli...
Diminutives• diminutives: indicate smallness or show  affection**drop “–o” or “–a” from almost any noun andadd “-ito” or “...
Augmentatives• indicates that something is large or  undesirableEndings*-azo/-aza*-ón/-ona*-ote/-ota*-ucho/-ucha*-acho/-ac...
Present Perfect• refers to events that happened in the past• formed by the present tense of haber followed  by the past pa...
Present Perfect Subjunctive• formed by the present subjunctive  conjugation of haber + the past participle                ...
Uses of Se• reflexive pronoun: subject of the verb is also  the object; reflexive pronoun for 3rd-person  uses (Ex: himsel...
Past Participles as Adjectives• as adjectives, they agree with the nouns  they describe in both gender and number  (plural...
Time Expressions with Hacer• hace + time + que + present tense of verb      Ex: Hace un año que estudio español.         I...
Future Perfect• refers to an event or action that hasn‟t  happened yet but is expected or predicted  to before another occ...
Conditional Perfect• expresses something that would have  happened; probability or supposition in the  past• formed by the...
Si Clauses• two types that become part of a sentence:      1) sentences in which the condition is         likely or reason...
Transitional Expressions• different uses: cause & effect, clarification &  explanation, contrast & similarity, general & s...
Pero vs. Sino• pero & sino are both coordinating  conjunctions meaning “but”• “pero” indicates contrast• “sino”: when the ...
Passive Voice•   used when the subject is unimportant, unknown, or refers to a generalized    subject•   the thing that re...
Negative & Indefinite Expressions            Negative                            Indefinite*used when talking about nobody...
Past Perfect• formed by combining the auxiliary verb “had” with  the past participle      *imperfect tense of “haber” + pa...
Past Perfect Subjunctive• imperfect subjunctive of haber + past  participleUses1) completed actions that had happened   be...
Uses of the Infinitive• has one of the three endings: -ar, -  er, or -ir ~translated as “to + verb”Uses1) subject (gerund ...
Prepositions•   used to form a phrase, which then functions as an adjective or    adverb• preposition followed by an objec...
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Spanish 4 h grammar book

  1. 1. Spanish 4H Grammar Book Alejandra Cooke Period 1
  2. 2. Table of Contents3: El Presente 23: Negative Formal4: Irregular Yo Forms Commands5: Irregular Verbs 24: Informal Commands(present tense) 25: Nosotros Commands6: Ser y Estar 27: Object Pronouns8: Verbos Como Gustar 29: Prepositional10: Nouns & Articles Pronouns11: Adjetivos 30: Double Object12: Preterite v. PronounsImperfect 31: Possessive Adjectives15: Present Subjunctive 32: Possessive Pronouns19: Subjunctive in NounClauses 33: Demonstrative20: Subjunctive in AdjectivesAdjective Clauses 34: Demonstrative21: DOP & IOP with Pronounscommands 37: Reflexive Pronouns22: Formal Commands 38: Por y Para 39: To Become 40: Reflexive Verbs
  3. 3. Table of Contents contd.42: Future 60: Future Perfect43: Conditional 61: Conditional Perfect45: Relative Pronouns 62: Si Clauses46: Qué vs. Cuál 63: Transitional Expressions47: The Neuter Lo 64: Pero vs. Sino48: Subjunctive in Adverbial 65: Passive VoiceClauses 66: Negative & Indefinite Expressions50: Past Subjunctive 67: Past Perfect51: Comparisons and Superlatives 68: Past Perfect Subjunctive52: Adverbs 69: Uses of the Infinitive53: Diminutives 70: Prepositions54: Augmentatives55: Present Perfect56: Present Perfect Subjunctive57: Uses of Se58: Past Participles as Adjectives59: Time Expressions with Hacer
  4. 4. El Presente• present tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending “-ar, -er, -ir”• used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near futureStem-changing verbs >-ar/-er: e to ie and o to ue >-ir: e to i **no stem-changing in the nosotros and vosotros forms>JUGAR: u to ueconstruir, destruir, incluir, influir (add y before personalendings) Ejemplos 1) Yo como una hamburguesa para mi almuerzo. 2) Ella juega fútbol con sus amigas. 3) Escribimos con un lapiz en mi cuaderno.
  5. 5. Irregular Yo Forms• -er/-ir have irregular yo forms in the present tense• -cer/-cir change to -zco in the yo form• -ger/-gir change to –jo• many verbs have irregular -go endings >caer, to fall: yo caigo >conducir, to drive: yo conduzco >dirigir, to direct/manage: yo dirijo >caber, to fit: yo quepo >saber, to know: yo sé >ver, to see: yo veo
  6. 6. Irregular Verbs, Present Tense>dar: doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan>decir>estar Ejemplos>ir 1) Yo hago mucha comida durante los vacaciones de diciembre.>ser 2) Yo pongo mis libros en mi escritorio. 3) Yo salgo mi casa para ir al aeropuerto. 4) Yo conduzco con mi madre para recibir mi>tener licencia.>venir
  7. 7. Ser y Estar “to be” not interchangeable SER ESTAR• nationality and place of • express things temporarily origin (qualities or conditions that• profession or occupation change with time)• characteristics of • location or spatial people, animals, and things relationships• generalizations • health• possession • emotional states• material of composition • certain weather expressions• time, date, or season • ongoing actions• where or when an event (progressive tenses) takes place • results of actions (past participles) • death: “muerto/a”
  8. 8. Ser y Estar contd. SER Ejemplos ESTAR Ejemplos1) Soy de Woodstock, GA. 1) Estoy en Nueva York2) Ella es colombiana. para esta semana.3) Mi madre es una 2) Ellos están aburridos doctora. en la clase de4) Los gemelos, Ana y Nico, son morenos con ciencias. ojos verdes. 3) Porque es octubre,5) El libro Twilight es de estamos en el otoño. Selena. 4) Mi amiga Marisol está6) El concierto de Jingle Ball es en diciembre. enferma con la gripe.
  9. 9. Verbos Como Gustar• gustar: “to please” • Aburrir: to bore >the thing/person • Caer bien/mal: to get alongthat pleases is the subject; • Disgustar: to upsetgustar agrees in person and • Doler: to hurtnumber • Encantar: to enjoy >singular or plural • Faltar: to lack• when gustar is followed by • Fascinar: to fascinate one or more verbs in infinitive, singular form of • Hacer falta gustar is always used • Importar• used in conditional to • Interesar: to interest soften a request • Molestar: to bother• a+[prep. pronoun] or • Preocupar: to worry a+[noun] emphasizes who • Quedar: to leave; to fit is pleased (clothing) • Sorprender: to surprise
  10. 10. Verbos Como Gustar contd.1) Me gusta la revista de InStyle.2) Nos gustan las vacaciones en Florida.3) Me fascina Central Park en Nueva York.4) Te duelen piernas.
  11. 11. Nouns & Articles• nouns in Spanish are either masculine or feminine (masculine usually ends in – o, feminine usually ends in –a) Definite Articles Indefinite Articles el un la una los unos las unas Feminine: -a, -dad/-tad/-tud, - Masculine: -o, -ma/-ta/-pa ción/-sión/-gión, -ez, -triz, - umbre, and nouns referring to women Examples: feminine--la fruta, la ciudad, la canción, la validez, la actriz, la costumbre, la madre; masculine--el programa, el día
  12. 12. Adjetivos• adjectives are used to describe nouns• they take the form of either masculine or feminine, depending on the gender of the word they are describing (la fresa roja, el libro aburrido)• either singular or plural, again depending on the noun it‟s describing (EX: el chico alto, los chicos altos)• adjectives that end in -e for the singular also end in –es for the plural
  13. 13. Preterite v. Imperfect PRETERITE IMPERFECT“Snapshot” of the past “Video” of the past without a specific beginning or stopping point>actions viewed as single events >habitual actions>actions repeated a specific >actions that “set the stage” for othernumber of times past actions>actions that occurred during a >timespecific time period >date>part of a chain of events >weather>state the beginning/end of an >ageaction >mental states Preterite >describing characteristics of é í people, things, or conditions aste iste ó ió Imperfect amos imos aba ábamos ía íamos asteis isteis abas abais ías íais aron ieron aba aban ía ían
  14. 14. Preterite v. Imperfect contd. PRETERITE IMPERFECTTrigger Words: Trigger Words: aayer, anoche, el otro veces, cada día, cadadía, entonces, esta semana/mes/año, muchasmañana/tarde, la semana veces, nunca, mientras, sie mpre, todos los díaspasada, el año pasado >would, used to, were/was…ExampleJuan habló con la Exampleestudiante. Las chicas hablaban enJuan spoke with the inglés.student. The girls used to speak in English.
  15. 15. Preterite v. Imperfect contd.• -gar changes g to gu• -car changes c to qu• -zar changes z to c• verbs that end in -aer, -eer, -oír, -oer, & uir change ió to yó & ieron to yeron
  16. 16. Present Subjunctive Subjunctive Main clause -ar: e, es, e, Irregulars Mood + emos, en dar (dé)*attitudes connector estar (esté)*uncertainty + -er/-ir: a, as, a, ir (vaya)*hypothetical subordinate amos, an saber (sepa) clause haber (haya) ser (sea) Tenga Wishing/Wanting **Subjunctive is SUBJECTIVE Venga Emotion *iffy Doubt *indicative Dé/Diga Disbelief I vaya Impersonal Sea Expressions Haga/Haya Negation Esté God/Grief Sepa
  17. 17. Present Subjunctive contd.Impersonal Expressions*Es bueno que*Es mejor que*Es malo que*Es necesario que*Es importante que*Es urgente que
  18. 18. Present Subjunctive contd.Expressions of Emotion*alegrarse (de): to be happy*esperar: to hope, to wish*sentir (e-ie): to be sorry, to regret*sorprender: to surprise*temer: to be afraid, to fear*Es triste: It‟s sad*Ojalá (que): I hope (that), I wish (that)
  19. 19. Present Subjunctive contd.Expressions of Doubt, Disbelief, & Denial*dudar: to doubt*negar (e-ie): to deny*Es imposible: It‟s impossible*Es improbable: It‟s improbable*No es cierto: It‟s not true, It‟s not certain*No es seguro: It‟s not certain*No es verdad: It‟s not true
  20. 20. Subjunctive in Noun Clauses• noun clause: dependent clauses that serve as a direct object or complement of a verb• the subjunctive mood is used with noun clauses when: *subj. of the verb is different than that of the dependent clause *the verb is influence/willing(want, prefer, desire), emotion(fear, happy), doubt/negation(uncertain, deny), and impersonal expression(es posible, es importante)EX: Dudo que vaya al Inglaterra en el verano.Creo que tengamos una prueba en ciencias.
  21. 21. Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses• adjective clause: an entire clause that describes a noun or pronoun• the subjunctive mood is used with adjective clauses when the antecedent is indefinite, unknown, nonexistent, or negatedEX: Necesito un libro que me expliqueesto.Busco una doctora que sepa español.
  22. 22. DOP & IOP with Commands AFFIRMATIVE NOSOTROSTú: drop the ‘s’ Ud./Uds.: put it in ‘yo’ form, changeIrregulars: to opposite voweldi, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, ten, ven Irregulars: TVDISHESTú: put it in „yo‟ form and change Ud./Uds.: same as aboveto the opposite vowel, add „s‟ Irregulars: TVDISHESIrregulars: TVDISHES NEGATIVE NOSOTROS *DOP + IOP + „se‟ can attach to affirmative *DOP + IOP + „se‟ must go before the negative command
  23. 23. Formal Commands• use when addressing someone you don‟t know well or someone you show respect to• all usted and ustedes commands are formed the same as the present subjunctive1. start with the yo form of the present tense **irregularity carries2. drop the –o ending over from the yo form to command form3. add the following endings: >tenga, tengan *-ar: -e (usted), -en (ustedes) >traiga, traigan >venga, vengan *-er/-ir: -a (usted), -an (ustedes) **stem-changing verbs*hable, hablen *Affirmative & transition the same as*coma, coman Negative irregulars*escriba, escriban commands use >cuente, cuenten the same verb >vuelva, vuelvan forms* >pida, pidan
  24. 24. Negative Formal Commands• add “no” in front of the formal commandEX: No saquen sus libros.No ponga su mochila aquí.No lleguen tarde.
  25. 25. Informal Commands• use when addressing family or friends• affirmative tú commands are formed the same as the present tense usted form *hablar –ar + a= habla *comer –er + e= come *escribir –ir + e= escribe *EX: Compra la camisa. *pronoun attached to the end of aff. commands *IRREGULARS: decir-di, salir-sal, hacer-haz, ser-sé, ver-ve, tener-ten, poner-pon, venir-ven• negative informal commands use the tú form of the present subjunctive (EX: no hables, no escribas) *pronoun precedes the verb
  26. 26. Nosotros Commands• used when the speaker suggests an action to be done by a group, including the speaker• two ways to form these commands: ir form and subjunctive form *IR: use present nosotros form of ir EX: Vamos a nadar. Vamos al restaurante. *pronoun attached to the end *SUBJUNCTIVE: use nosotros in the presentsubjunctive form EX: Tomemos un taxi. Comamos aquí. *pronouns nos & se-drop the final –s of the verb andadd to the end
  27. 27. Nosotros Commands contd.Negative• place “no” in front of the present subjunctive of nosotrosEX: No nademos.No salgamos.*reflexive, direct object, & indirect object pronounsprecede negative pronounsEX: No los comamos. Reflexive: Peinémonos el cabello. Cepillémonos los dientes. DO: Comámoslas. Pongámoslo. IOP: Contestémosles. **when attaching reflexive pronouns to the end of a nosotros command, drop the final s of the command form before the reflexive pronoun**
  28. 28. Object Pronouns*direct object pronouns receive theaction of the verb**indirect object pronouns identify towhom or for whom an action is done*direct/indirect object pronounsprecede the conjugated verb*obj. pronouns may be attached to theinfinitive, gerund, affirmativecommand, or placed before theconjugated verb
  29. 29. Object Pronouns contd.**Le and Les change to se when theyare used with lo, la, los, or las*when obj. pronouns are attached toinfinitives, participles, or commands, awritten accent is often required tomaintain proper word stress
  30. 30. Prepositional PronounsMí: me, myself Él: him, it Nosotros/as: us, Ellos: them ourselvesTi: you, yourself Ella: her, it Vosotros/as: Ellas: them you, yourselvesUd.: you, yourself Sí: himself, Uds.: you, Sí: themselves herself, itself yourselves *prepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions >except for mí, ti, & sí, they are identical to their corresponding subj. pronouns *pronoun sí is used to refer back to the same third-person subject (mismo/a(s) added for clarification) *when mí, ti, & sí are used with con, they become conmigo, contigo, & consigo *these are used with tú and yo instead of ti and mí: entre, excepto, incluso, menos, salvo, según
  31. 31. Double Object Pronouns*indirect object pronouns precede thedirect object pronoun when they areused together in a sentence
  32. 32. Possessive Adjectives5 Possessive Adjectives: mi (my), tu (yourinformal), su (his, her, their, your formal), nuestro(our), & vuestro (your familiar or plural) *mi, tu, and su have both singular and pluralforms: mi, mis, tu, tus, su, sus• agree with the nouns they modify• mi, tu, and su do not have feminine or masculine forms (stay the same regardless of gender)• nuestro and vuestro: nuestro, nuestra, nuestros, nuestras & vuestro, vuestra, vuestros, vuestrasEX: mi libro, tus libros, su revista, nuestroscarros, vuestro cuaderno
  33. 33. Possessive Pronouns• mine: el mío, la mía, los míos, las mías• yours (familiars): el tuyo, la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas• yours (formal), his, hers: el suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas• ours: el nuestro, la nuestra, los nuestros, las nuestras• yours (familiar): el vuestro, la vuestra, los vuestros, las vuestras• yours (formal), theirs: el suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyasEX: Mi libro es grande pero el tuyo es pequeño.Su carro es negro pero el mío es rojo.
  34. 34. Demonstrative Adjectives Este Ese Aquel este ese aquel estos esos aquellos esta esa aquella estas esas aquellas Neuter Forms (refer to abstract ideas) *esto: this matter, this thing *eso: that matter, that thing *aquello: that matter/thing over there
  35. 35. Demonstrative Pronouns• replace a noun in a phrase instead of modifying it like an adjective would1) replace noun(s) close to the speaker (this one)EX: Yo quiero ésta aquí. Singular Plural éste (this one here) éstos (this one here) ésta (this one here) éstas (this one here)
  36. 36. Demonstrative Pronouns contd.2) replace noun(s) that are not close tothe speaker (that one)EX: Ésas son las más bonitas. Singular Plural ése (that one there) ésos (those there) ésa (that one there) ésas (those there)
  37. 37. Demonstrative Pronouns contd.3) replace noun(s) far from the speakerand listener (that over there)EX: Aquél allá es peligroso. Singular Plural aquél (that over there) aquéllos (those over there) aquélla (that over there) aquéllas (those over there)
  38. 38. Reflexive Pronouns• reflexive pronouns work with reflexive verbs to show that a person is performing the action to him/herself (personal care & daily routines)• used to indicate an emotional responseEX: Me ducho cada mañana.I shower (myself) every morning.• placed immediately before simple conjugated verbs & negative commands; attached to affirmative commandsReflexive Verb Examples Singular Pluralcepillarse (to brush) 1st person me (to, for, from, or nos (to, for, from, or off myself) off ourselves)ducharse (to shower) 2nd person te (to, for, from, or os (to, for, from, orsecarse (to dry off) off yourself) off yourselves) 3rd person se (to, for, from, or se (to, for, from, or off himself, herself, off themselves, itself, yourself) yourselves)
  39. 39. Por y Para POR PARA*express gratitude or apology:Gracias por la ayuda *destination: Ella salió para*“through”, “along”, “by”, “in Madridthe area of”: Andamos por el *use or purpose: El vaso esparque para agua*exchange, including sales *“in order to”, “for the purpose*“on behalf of”, “in favor of” of”*express length of time: Estudiépor dos horas *recipient: Este regalo es para*“during” ti*communication, transportatio *deadline or specific timen: Viajo por tren y hablo porteléfono*express cause or reason*idiomatic expression: porahora, por aquí, porejemplo, por favor, por fin, porúltimo
  40. 40. To Become• Hacerse: reflexive verb; to become, to pretend; conjugated the same as hacer (add the proper reflexive pronoun-EX: me hago)• Ponerse: me pongo, se ponen, reflexive form of poner• Volverse: me vuelvo, te vuelves• Llegar a ser: Spanish phrasal verb that means “to become”
  41. 41. Reflexive Verbs*transitive verbs have an object, while intransitive does not have anobject -aburrirse: to become bored -acordarse: to remember Ponerse -comerse: to eat up “to get” -dormirse: to fall asleep “to become” -irse (de): to go away (from) *used with adj. -llevarse: to carry away -mudarse: to move -parecerse (a): to resemble, to look like -ponerse: to put on (clothing) -quitarse: to take off (clothing)*prepositions: a, de, & en -acercarse (a): to approach -enterarse (de): to find out (about) -morirse (de): to die (of)
  42. 42. Future• tells what will happen or what shall happen• expresses wonder or probability in the present state Irregular Verbs • caber: cabr- Regular Verbs • poner: pondr- **add these endings • decir: dir- to the infinitive form • haber: habr- • salir: saldr- -é • hacer: har- -ás • poder: podr- -á • tener: tendr- -emos • querer: querr- -éis • valer: valdr- -án • saber: sabr- • venir: vendr-
  43. 43. Conditional• expresses probability, possibility, wonder, or conjecture would, could, must have, or probably Irregular Verbs • caber: cabr- Regular Verbs • poner: pondr- **add these endings • decir: dir- to the infinitve form • haber: habr- • salir: saldr- -ía • hacer: har- -ías • poder: podr- -ía • tener: tendr- -íamos • querer: querr- -íais • valer: valdr- -ían • saber: sabr- • venir: vendr-
  44. 44. Conditional contd.Uses• express speculation about the past• express the future from the perspective of the past• express hypothetical actions/events that may or may not occur• polite use to soften requests• ask for advice• reported speech• express what would be done in a particular situation
  45. 45. Relative Pronouns• combine two sentences that share a common noun• “related” to a noun that has been previously stated• introduce a clause that modifies a noun Examples *que: refers to both people and things, in either subject or object position *quien: only refers to people *el/la/los/las/lo que: refers to both people and things *cuyo/cuya/cuyos/cuyas: relates the owner to that which is owned “whose”
  46. 46. Qué vs. Cuál Qué Cuál• “what” • “which”• asking for definitions • used before es and• most often used before other forms of ser when nouns not seeking a definitionExamples • suggest a selection or¿Qué es una ciudad? choice from among aWhat is a city? group¿De qué color es la camisa? ExamplesWhat color is the shirt? ¿Cuál es tu número de teléfono? What is your phone number?
  47. 47. The Neuter Lo• used before singular adjectives when they function as nouns, usually referring to a concept or category• lo has a difficult time translating to English, but sometimes it serves as “what is”Example: Lo importante es amar. The important aspect is to love. What’s important is to love.• represents an idea/concept when it is the DO of the verb translated as “it”
  48. 48. Subjunctive in Adverbial ClausesConjunctions that ALWAYS Conjunctions that SOMETIMES take the subjunctive take the subjunctive• antes (de) que: before • aunque:• para que & a fin de although, even que: in order that though, even if• sin que: without expresses uncertainty• con tal (de) que: • de modo que/de provided that manera que: so that, in• en caso de que: in such a way that case expresses intent or• a no ser que & a purpose menos que: unless
  49. 49. Subjunctive in Adverbial Clauses contd.Time Expressions• cuando: when• hasta que: until• en cuanto: as soon as• luego que: as soon as• después (de) que: after• mientras (que): while
  50. 50. Past Subjunctive Subject Ending Subject Endingyo -ra nosotros/nosotras (accented vowel) + -ramostú -ras vosotros/vosotras -raisél -ra ellos -ranella -ra ellas -ranusted -ra ustedes -ran Forming the Past Subjunctive **take third person plural in the preterit and add the endings seen in the chart above ***the ending “-se” may be seen replacing “-ra”
  51. 51. Comparisons and Superlatives• comparisons: indicate that something has more or less of a particular quality (like the English suffix –er) Ex: Roberto es menos guapo. Roberto is less handsome.• superlatives: indicate that something has the most of a particular quality (like the English suffix –est) Ex: Ana es la más inteligente. Irregulars Ana is the most intelligent. • bueno (good) • malo (bad) • mayor (older) • menor (younger) • mejor (better) • peor (worse) • viejo (old) • joven (young)
  52. 52. Adverbs• most Spanish adverbs are formed by adding –mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective (“-ly” in English) Ex: perfectamente – perfectly cariñosamente – affectionately
  53. 53. Diminutives• diminutives: indicate smallness or show affection**drop “–o” or “–a” from almost any noun andadd “-ito” or “-ita”**add “-cito” or “-cita” to words not ending in“-o” or “-a” Ex: la chica la chiquita el niño el niñito
  54. 54. Augmentatives• indicates that something is large or undesirableEndings*-azo/-aza*-ón/-ona*-ote/-ota*-ucho/-ucha*-acho/-acha*-udo/-uda
  55. 55. Present Perfect• refers to events that happened in the past• formed by the present tense of haber followed by the past participle• participles are formed by adding –ado to“-ar” verbs and –ido to “-er/-ir” verbs Conjugation he + past participle has + past participle ha + past participle hemos + past participle habéis + past participle han + past participle
  56. 56. Present Perfect Subjunctive• formed by the present subjunctive conjugation of haber + the past participle Conjugation haya + past participle hayas + past participle haya + past participle hayamos + past participle hayáis + past participle hayan + past participle
  57. 57. Uses of Se• reflexive pronoun: subject of the verb is also the object; reflexive pronoun for 3rd-person uses (Ex: himself, themselves in English)• equivalent of English passive voice: indicates action without indicating who performed the action• substitute for le or les: avoids having two pronouns in a row beginning with l sound (Ex: to her, to them)
  58. 58. Past Participles as Adjectives• as adjectives, they agree with the nouns they describe in both gender and number (plurals have an s added)• add –ado to –ar verbs; add –ido to –er/-ir verbs
  59. 59. Time Expressions with Hacer• hace + time + que + present tense of verb Ex: Hace un año que estudio español. I have been studying Spanish for one year. **to make the expression negative, add “no” before the verb• present tense of verb + desde hace + time Ex: Estudio español desde hace un año. I have been studying Spanish for one year. **to make it negative, add “no” before the verb
  60. 60. Future Perfect• refers to an event or action that hasn‟t happened yet but is expected or predicted to before another occurrence “will have” or “shall have”• formed by the future indicative form of haber followed by the past participle Singular Plural habré + past participle habremos + past participle habrás + past participle habréis + past participle habrá + past participle habrán +past participle **can be translated as “must have”, “may have”, or “might have”
  61. 61. Conditional Perfect• expresses something that would have happened; probability or supposition in the past• formed by the conditional conjugation of haber + the past participle “would have” Singular Plural habría habríamos habrías habríais habría habrían
  62. 62. Si Clauses• two types that become part of a sentence: 1) sentences in which the condition is likely or reasonably likely si followed by present indicative tense of a verb 2) sentences in which the condition is contrary to fact or is unlikely past subjunctive is used• si clauses can either precede or follow the rest of the sentence
  63. 63. Transitional Expressions• different uses: cause & effect, clarification & explanation, contrast & similarity, general & specific, intro & conclusionExamples1) cause & effect: por, porque, como, ya que2) clarification & explanation: además (de), en otras palabras3) contrast & similarity: sin embargo, aunque, igualmente4) general & specific: en general, específicamente5) intro & conclusion: en primer lugar, para concluir
  64. 64. Pero vs. Sino• pero & sino are both coordinating conjunctions meaning “but”• “pero” indicates contrast• “sino”: when the part of the sentence coming before the conjunction is in the negative; when the part after the conjunction directly contradicts what is negated in the first part (“rather”, “but rather”, “instead”)
  65. 65. Passive Voice• used when the subject is unimportant, unknown, or refers to a generalized subject• the thing that receives the action of the verb comes first, followed by the verb “to be” and the past participle of the main verb *ser is conjugated to agree with the subject preceding it• the subject of a sentence written in passive voice would be the direct object in a sentence written in active voice• another method: use se followed by a verb to express ideas like “one does it”, “they do it”, or “you (in general) do it” Active Passive El terremoto destruyó el El pueblo fue destruido pueblo. por el terremoto. The earthquake The town was destroyed destroyed the town. by the earthquake.
  66. 66. Negative & Indefinite Expressions Negative Indefinite*used when talking about nobody *used when you don‟t know whator nothing or who you‟re referring to -nada: nothing -algo: something, anything -nadie: nobody, nothing -alguien: someone, somebody -ningún: not any -alguna vez: once, sometime -ninguno/a: neither one -alguno/a: some, any -ni: neither, nor -cualquier/a: which- / whatever -nunca, jamás: never *alguno & cualquier change -tampoco: neither, not either according to gender*also formed by adding “no” EX: Algo pasó en el banco.before the verb Something happened in the bank.*you have to form doublenegatives in Spanish because it‟sthe proper grammatical way
  67. 67. Past Perfect• formed by combining the auxiliary verb “had” with the past participle *imperfect tense of “haber” + past participle• to make the sentence negative, add “no” before the conjugated form of haber Past Perfect Tense había + past participle habías + past participle había + past participle habíamos + past participle habíais + past participle habían + past participle
  68. 68. Past Perfect Subjunctive• imperfect subjunctive of haber + past participleUses1) completed actions that had happened before another past action2) conditional constructions3) hypothetical situations that could‟ve happened, but didn‟t
  69. 69. Uses of the Infinitive• has one of the three endings: -ar, - er, or -ir ~translated as “to + verb”Uses1) subject (gerund form: -ing)2) predicate nominative (noun that follows the verb)3) object of a verb4) object of the preposition
  70. 70. Prepositions• used to form a phrase, which then functions as an adjective or adverb• preposition followed by an object (usually noun but sometimes a pronoun or verb that functions as a noun)Examples-a: to, at, by means of-antes de: before-con: with-contra: against-de: of, from, indicating possession-desde: since, from-durante: during-en: in, on-entre: between, among-hasta: until-para: for, in order to-por: for, by-sin: without-sobre: over, about
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