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Realizing the Full Potential of Taxonomies by Branka Kosovac

Realizing the Full Potential of Taxonomies by Branka Kosovac






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    Realizing the Full Potential of Taxonomies by Branka Kosovac Realizing the Full Potential of Taxonomies by Branka Kosovac Presentation Transcript

    • Realizing the Full Potential of Taxonomies Content Strategy Workshops Vancouver, BC, July 12, 2013 Branka Kosovac, dotWit Consulting Branka.kosovac@dotwit.com
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    • <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:skos="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#"> <skos:Concept rdf:about="http://www.my.com/#canals"> <skos:definition>A feature type category for places such as the Erie Canal</skos:definition> <skos:prefLabel>canals</skos:prefLabel> <skos:altLabel>canal bends</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel>canalized streams</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel>ditch mouths</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel>ditches</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel>drainage canals</skos:altLabel> <skos:broader rdf:resource="http://www.my.com/#hydrographic%20structures"/> <skos:related rdf:resource="http://www.my.com/#channels"/> <skos:related rdf:resource="http://www.my.com/#transportation%20features"/> <skos:related rdf:resource="http://www.my.com/#tunnels"/> <skos:scopeNote>Manmade waterway used by watercraft or for drainage, irrigation, mining, or water power</skos:scopeNote> </skos:Concept> </rdf:RDF> 14
    • <owl:Class rdf:ID="Wine"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="&food;PotableLiquid"/> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasMaker" /> <owl:cardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger">1</owl:cardinality> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasMaker" /> <owl:allValuesFrom rdf:resource="#Winery" /> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#madeFromGrape" /> <owl:minCardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger">1</owl:minCardinality> </owl:Restriction> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasBody" /> <owl:cardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger">1</owl:cardinality> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasColor" /> <owl:cardinality rdf:datatype="&xsd;nonNegativeInteger">1</owl:cardinality> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#locatedIn"/> <owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="&vin;Region"/> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> <rdfs:label xml:lang="en">wine</rdfs:label> <rdfs:label xml:lang="fr">vin</rdfs:label> </owl:Class> 15
    • Continuum from enumerations to ontologies Enumeration Classification (Scheme) Subject Headings Controlled Vocabulary Semantic Network Term Base Light Ontology Thesaurus Ontology Contextual Taxonomy Enterprise Taxonomy Business Taxonomy Tagging Taxonomy Navigation Taxonomy Profiling Taxonomy
    • Uses • Accessing information – Browsing • Hierarchy • Filtering • Cross-navigation – Search • Full-text search • Advanced search • Faceted search • Matching – Personalization/Targeting – Contextual advertising – Contextualization – Security – Content to person – Product to product – Person to person…. • Information management – Managing access – Managing display – Managing currency – … • Integration & interoperability • Analytics & visualization • Mining & intelligence • Natural language processing • Terminology management • eDiscovery • ….
    • How Infrastructure Taxonomy; Schemas; Mappings; Standards Magic Description/tagging, classification/filing, matching, search engine configuration… Automated, manual, semi-automated UI Navigation, search UI, search results, personalized/targeted/contextualized delivery…
    • Objects • Documents • Webpages • Content components • Digital assets • Knowledge assets • Marketing assets/resources • Records • Social content • Products • People profiles • … • Subject domain • Enterprise • Intranet • Website • World Wide Web • Catalogue – Single channel – Multi-channel • Application • … Scopes
    • Elements Categories Labels Relationships Descriptions Codes (language independent) Hierarchy Designed organic Scope notes Preferred Typed Named Formally defined Formal definitions (for computer inference) Alternative Synonym rings Equivalence relationships Generic (Is a kind of) Partitive (is a part of) Instance of (is an instance of) Typed Associative Multilingual Transitivity Reflectivity Symmetry Associated vocabulary (for auto-classification) user-added keywords, hashtags (for social content)
    • • Those that belong to the emperor • Embalmed ones • Those that are trained • Suckling pigs • Mermaids (or Sirens) • Fabulous ones • Stray dogs • Those that are included in this classification • Those that tremble as if they were mad • Innumerable ones • Those drawn with a very fine camel hair brush • Et cetera • Those that have just broken the flower vase • Those that, at a distance, resemble flies Taxonomy of Animals in Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge from Jorge Luis Borges essay "The Analytical Language of John Wilkins", 1942
    • KINGDOM STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION METHOD OF NUTRITION Monera small, simple single prokaryotic cell (nucleus is not enclosed by a membrane); some form chains or mats absorb food and/or photosynthesize Protista large, single eukaryotic cell (nucleus is enclosed by a membrane); some form chains or colonies absorb, ingest, and/or photosynthesize food Fungi multicellular filamentous form with specialized eukaryotic cells absorb food Plantae multicellular form with specialized eukaryotic cells; do not have their own means of locomotion photosynthesize food Animalia multicellular form with specialized eukaryotic cells; have their own means of locomotion ingest food Definitions of Kingdom categories in the Linnaean Classification of Living Things
    • Linnaean Classification of Living Things: hierarchy for homo sapiens Images taken from: Encyclopaedia Britannica ANIMALIA CHORDATA SAPIENS MAMMALIA ORDER GENUS SPECIES eukaryotic cells having cell membrane but lacking a cell wall, multicellular, heterotrophic animals with a notochord, dorsal nerve cord, and pharyngeal gill slits, which may be vestigialPHYLUM KINGDOM CLASS PRIMATES warm-blooded vertebrates with hair and mammary glands which, in females, secrete milk to feed young FAMILY upright posture, large brain, stereoscopic vision, flat face, hands and feet have different specializations HOMINIDAE s-curved spineHOMO HABILIS ERECTUS high forehead, well-developed chin, skull bones thin collar bone, eyes face forward, grasping hands with fingers, and two types of teeth: incisors and molars
    • Classification theories Aristotle’s categories • Class definitions • Membership based on shared characteristics-- necessary and sufficient conditions • Strong influence on Western thinking • Not how the real world works, but is what Western audiences are expecting Prototype theory • Categories based on prototypes • Membership decided based on family resemblances
    • Sometimes it’s easy
    • • when there is a single clear distinguishing feature • when there are well established categories (someone of authority created them, e.g. state/province, zodiac sign, blood type, …) • when you work at a “basic category” level • when the collection is not too large and diverse • when it’s single use • when homogeneous audience Sometimes it’s easy Select v circle square triangle
    • Sometimes a bit less easy
    • Sometimes a bit less easy Color Blue Red Yellow Shape Circle Square Triangle Size Small Medium Big But what if… • Your technology does not support faceted approach or polyhierarchy? • These are physical objects: • Table linen you have to put into your drawer? • Earrings?
    • And sometimes…
    • When it gets complicated • large and diverse collections • multiple uses • diverse user groups • cultural differences • cultural/political sensitivities • no formal agreement/authoritative source • emerging and volatile domains • far from “basic categories” • ….
    • What to do then? • There are some general (but not universal) rules • and some tricks of trade • but above all: context, context, context… – external users vs. internal audience – human use vs. computer inference – impact of error – use scenarios – display constraints – supporting technology – costs…
    • Categories • mutually exclusive • collectively exhaustive • clear grouping principle • relevant grouping principle • homogeneous peer categories • pre-coordination vs. post-coordination • compound concepts (“first aid” vs. “coal extraction”)
    • Labels • clear • unambiguous • informative • brief • suitable for audience • consistently formatted • grammatically parallel • no abbreviations, jargon, concatenation
    • Hierarchy • consistent or varied depth? • defined levels, typed relationships, or organic? • polyhierarchy? • lots of top level categories or deep hierarchy? • transitive or not transitive?
    • Overall structure • logical • consistent • well-balanced • extensible • fit for purpose (scenarios, business goals…) • ordering logical and consistent • top levels convey the scope • no single-child categories • no Other/Miscellaneous/General
    • Some techniques • Standardize, but not more than necessary • Consensus vs. mapping vs. standardized core and general rules • Derivative local taxonomies—mix & match • Scoped labels and/or relationships • If future use not known, follow general rules, define ad document as much as possible
    • How to begin • make sure you know what your taxonomy needs to do–now and in the future – user research, business requirements, vision, scenarios • make sure you know all the constraints – tools, costs (including long-term maintenance), available expertise, organizational culture… • promote and obtain high-level management support • gather sources: – user warrant (search logs, social content, user research/feedback logs) – content warrant (your content, global content, your competitors’…) – existing metadata, folksonomies, glossaries, formal or informal taxonomies… – publicly available taxonomies—reuse, adapt, start from scratch (e.g. Linked Data, Taxonomy Warehouse)
    • How to develop • Combination of: – Top down (domain modelling) – Bottom up (terminology clustering, open card sort) • Design & Strategy – Metadata element set, associated facets/branches – Category/term properties, relationship types, hierarchy levels… – Sustainable maintenance strategy – Metrics – Roadmap • Development – Know where to stop • Validation & Testing – Throughout development and beyond
    • How to complete • Documentation – Scope – Design – Maintenance guidelines – Implementation guidance – Use guidelines • Deployment – Work with developers, UX designers, taggers and don’t give up until properly implemented • Governance – Roles and responsibilities – Procedures
    • Exercises • Exercise groups/topics • Exercise tasks – Describe vision (add context details as needed) – Develop domain model – High-level taxonomy design and strategy – Develop key facet – Record your considerations, sources, thought process
    • Ask Me Anything Branka.kosovac@dotwit.com