THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Outline <ul><li>Overview—structures, organs, subdivision of respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Gas exchange cycle and te...
<ul><li>Provides means for gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomically  divided into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper respirat...
Figure 25.01
<ul><li>Functional  Divisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting portion : nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, progressiv...
<ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing = pulmonary ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhalation = inspir...
Figure 25.16b Exhalation
Figure 25.16a Inhalation
<ul><li>Other functions of the respiratory system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas conditioning —gases are warmed, humidified, a...
Figure 25.02aa
<ul><li>Nose and Nasal Cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal bones—form the bridge of the nose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nas...
Fig. 23.02a Alar cartilage Lateral nasal cartilage
Sphenoidal sinus nostril vestibule
Figure 25.03 All paranasal sinuses are  connected to the nasal cavity by ducts
<ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common to digestive and respiratory systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends from ...
Figure 25.02b
<ul><ul><li>Oropharynx —immediately posterior to the oral cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bounded by the edge of the...
Inferior border of cricoid
<ul><ul><li>Laryngopharynx— </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is continuous with the larynx and esophagus;  </li></ul></ul></...
Lower Respiratory Tract <ul><ul><li>The larynx or voice box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents swallowed substances f...
Figure 25.05b Superior view of the larynx
No mucous membrane With mucous membrane
 
<ul><ul><li>Anatomy of The Larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by nine pieces of cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul...
<ul><ul><li>Sound production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By  ligaments  stretching from posterior surface of thyroid ca...
Figure 25.04 See next picture for “above” view of vocal cords s s s arytenoid Tracheal cartilage Cricoid cart.
 
 
<ul><li>Quality of Sound Produced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air passing through the vocal folds  causes them to vibrate </li><...
No mucous membrane With mucous membrane
Figure 25.05a Arytenoid cartilage Thyroid cartilage Vocal ligaments Vocal cords in larynx, top view Corniculate
Figure 25.06
 
<ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 2.5 cm in diameter, 12 to 14 cm long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracheal carti...
<ul><li>The Bronchial Tree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly branched  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary bronchi </li></ul></u...
Right lung: three  lobes Left lung: two lobes
 
<ul><li>Secondary bronchi (lobar) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have smaller diameter than primary bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><ul><li>There are approximately 9 to 12 levels of bronchial branch division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics...
Figure 25.07ab Tracheal cartilage Carina C-shaped cartilage
Figure 25.07c Mucus layer Pseudostratified ciliated  columnar epithelium
Figure 25.08
 
<ul><li>Bronchioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchi eventually branch into tubules with a diameter of less than one millimet...
Figure 25.09a Arteriole Alveolar duct Alveoli Capillary beds Respiratory bronchiole CT Branch of  pulmonary  vein Branch o...
<ul><li>The Respiratory Portion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal bronchioles branch to form the  respiratory bronchioles </l...
<ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.25 to0.5 mm in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin wall for gas diffusion </l...
Cell types of the alveoli <ul><ul><li>Alveolar type I  cells (squamous alveolar)—promotes gas diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul...
Figure 25.10a Gas exchange CO 2 O 2
Figure 25.16a
<ul><li>The  Respiratory Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The thin wall between inhaled gases and the blood </li></ul></ul><...
Figure 25.10b Respiratory  membrane
Fig. 23.12
<ul><li>Gross Anatomy of the Lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide concave  base  rests on the diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Figure 25.11
Figure 25.12a
Figure 25.12b
<ul><li>Lymphatic Drainage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes and vessels are located: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In co...
Figure 25.14
Thoracic duct R. Lymphatic duct Broncho- mediastinal trunk Broncho- mediastinal  trunk
<ul><li>Changes in the Thoracic Wall During Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During inhalation dimensions of thoracic cav...
Figure 25.p778
<ul><li>Exhalation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal exhalation does NOT require the use of any muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Figure 25.15a
Figure 25.15b
Regulation of Breathing <ul><li>The respiratory rhythmicity center of the medulla oblongata consists of two nuclei: </li><...
Figure 25.17 Apneustic center Ventral  Respiratory group (VRG) (expiratory center) Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG) (inspira...
<ul><li>Cystic Fibrosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common genetic disease in Caucasians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused ...
Figure 25.p761 Cystic fibrosis
Respiratory Distress Syndrome <ul><li>In premature newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Is a consequence of a lack of surfactant </l...
Figure 25.p781a
COLOR PHOTOS
Figure 25.02ab
Figure 25.07ab
Figure 25.09bc
Figure 25.16b
Figure 25.p768
Figure 25.p776a
Figure 25.p776b
Figure 25.p776c
Figure 25.p781b
Figure 25.p783a
Figure 25.p783b
Figure 25.p783c
Figure 25.p784a
Figure 25.p784b
Figure 25.p784c
COLOR UNLABELED PHOTOS
Table 25.01
Table 25.02
Table 25.03
Table 25.04
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Respiratory

2,414

Published on

Respiratory Slides Lecture Exam 3

Published in: Career
1 Comment
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,414
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
1
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Respiratory "

  1. 1. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Overview—structures, organs, subdivision of respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Gas exchange cycle and terminology; relation to cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Other functions of the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the respiratory system is order of use </li></ul><ul><li>Cells of the alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Gross anatomy of the lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Provides means for gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomically divided into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper respiratory tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sinuses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower respiratory tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Figure 25.01
  5. 5. <ul><li>Functional Divisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting portion : nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, progressively smaller airways from primary bronchi to terminal bronchioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(dead space—about 150ml) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory portion —composed of small airways called respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and air sacs (alveoli) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing = pulmonary ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhalation = inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhalation = expiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic gas exchange cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhalation draws oxygen into lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen is transported to body cells by blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas exchange in the tissue: Cells use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and water as a waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood transports carbon dioxide to lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide is released through exhalation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Figure 25.16b Exhalation
  8. 8. Figure 25.16a Inhalation
  9. 9. <ul><li>Other functions of the respiratory system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas conditioning —gases are warmed, humidified, and cleaned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound production —speech, singing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfaction —by the olfactory epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense —both structure and specific cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: lined with coarse hairs, twisted pathways prevent large particles, pathogens and insects from entrance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goblet cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous glands prevent drying out, secrete lysozyme </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Figure 25.02aa
  11. 11. <ul><li>Nose and Nasal Cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal bones—form the bridge of the nose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal cavity —continuous with the nasopharynx via paired nares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roof of nasal cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floor = hard palate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lining = pseudostratified columnar epithelium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vibrissae = coarse hairs near vestibule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory epithelium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal septum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal conchae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal meatuses = air passages </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Fig. 23.02a Alar cartilage Lateral nasal cartilage
  13. 13. Sphenoidal sinus nostril vestibule
  14. 14. Figure 25.03 All paranasal sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity by ducts
  15. 15. <ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common to digestive and respiratory systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends from area posterior to nasal cavity to point of bifurcation of larynx and esophagus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lined by mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains skeletal muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasopharynx — </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>its lateral walls have eustachian tubes that connect it to the middle ear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nasopharynx houses a single pharyngeal tonsil (called the adenoids) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 25.02b
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Oropharynx —immediately posterior to the oral cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bounded by the edge of the soft palate and the hyoid bone; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two pairs of arches form the entrance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palatoglossal arches </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior palatopharyngeal arches </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The fauces—the opening bordered by the arches; marks point of entry into the oropharynx from the oral cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic organs: palatine tonsils —on lateral wall between the arches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lingual tonsils —at the base of the tongue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Inferior border of cricoid
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Laryngopharynx— </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is continuous with the larynx and esophagus; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>terminates at the superior border of the esophagus or inferior border of the cricoid (long “I”; ring-like) cartilage of the larynx </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Lower Respiratory Tract <ul><ul><li>The larynx or voice box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents swallowed substances from entering the lower respiratory tract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts air into the lower respiratory tract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces sound </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Figure 25.05b Superior view of the larynx
  22. 22. No mucous membrane With mucous membrane
  23. 24. <ul><ul><li>Anatomy of The Larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by nine pieces of cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three unpaired </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epiglottis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cricoid cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three paired </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arytenoid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corniculate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuneiform </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><ul><li>Sound production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By ligaments stretching from posterior surface of thyroid cartilage to arytenoid cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior ligaments —together with mucous membrane covering them are the vocal cords; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superior ligaments —vestibular ligaments; together with mucosa are called the vestibular folds (false vocal cords); protect vocal cords </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rima glottidis : the opening between vocal folds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glottis = rima glottidis + vocal folds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Figure 25.04 See next picture for “above” view of vocal cords s s s arytenoid Tracheal cartilage Cricoid cart.
  26. 29. <ul><li>Quality of Sound Produced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air passing through the vocal folds causes them to vibrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length, tension and position of the vocal folds determine quality of sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Range (bass or soprano) determined by the length of vocal folds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer vocal folds produce lower sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pitch (frequency) determined by amount of tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulated by intrinsic laryngeal muscles (e.g., lateral cricoarytenoid muscles— see next slide ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loudness—depends on the force of the air passing through the vocal folds </li></ul>
  27. 30. No mucous membrane With mucous membrane
  28. 31. Figure 25.05a Arytenoid cartilage Thyroid cartilage Vocal ligaments Vocal cords in larynx, top view Corniculate
  29. 32. Figure 25.06
  30. 34. <ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 2.5 cm in diameter, 12 to 14 cm long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracheal cartilage: 15 to 20 C-shaped cartilages; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annular ligaments —elastic sheets that join the tracheal cartilage rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The trachealis muscle—binds the opening of the C; can narrow the diameter of the trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The submucosa contains numerous mucous-secreting goblet cells </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>The Bronchial Tree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly branched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right primary bronchus is shorter, wider and more vertically oriented than the left </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter the hilum of each lung together with lymphatic vessel, pulmonary vessels and nerves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branch into secondary bronchi </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 36. Right lung: three lobes Left lung: two lobes
  33. 38. <ul><li>Secondary bronchi (lobar) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have smaller diameter than primary bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary bronchi branch into tertiary bronchi ( segmental bronchi ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right lung </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left lung— </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary (segmental) bronchi branch into bronchioles (___ to _____ levels of branching) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The smallest bronchioles branch into terminal _____________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 9-12 levels of bronchial branching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>END OF CONDUCTING PORTION </li></ul></ul>
  34. 39. <ul><ul><li>There are approximately 9 to 12 levels of bronchial branch division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of all bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete rings of cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A complete ring of smooth muscle between mucosa and the cartilagenous support </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 40. Figure 25.07ab Tracheal cartilage Carina C-shaped cartilage
  36. 41. Figure 25.07c Mucus layer Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  37. 42. Figure 25.08
  38. 44. <ul><li>Bronchioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchi eventually branch into tubules with a diameter of less than one millimeter; these are bronchioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lined with …. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No …. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a thicker layer of smooth muscle, which helps regulate constriction and dilation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal bronchioles—the final segments of the conducting pathways; conduct into the respiratory portion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 45. Figure 25.09a Arteriole Alveolar duct Alveoli Capillary beds Respiratory bronchiole CT Branch of pulmonary vein Branch of pulmonary artery Terminal bronchiole
  40. 46. <ul><li>The Respiratory Portion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal bronchioles branch to form the respiratory bronchioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further partitioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The smallest respiratory bronchioles divide into alveolar ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar sacs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveoli—outpockets of…. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 47. <ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.25 to0.5 mm in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin wall for gas diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 300 to 400 million alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Account for the spongy nature of lungs </li></ul></ul>
  42. 48. Cell types of the alveoli <ul><ul><li>Alveolar type I cells (squamous alveolar)—promotes gas diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar type II (septal cell); Function: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar macrophages (dust cells): Function: </li></ul></ul>
  43. 49. Figure 25.10a Gas exchange CO 2 O 2
  44. 50. Figure 25.16a
  45. 51. <ul><li>The Respiratory Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The thin wall between inhaled gases and the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The plasma membrane of alveolar type I cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelial cell of the capillary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The fused basement membranes of the alveolar type I cell and the endothelial cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEE SLIDES (# 49 & 50) ON CYSTIC FIBROSIS </li></ul></ul>
  46. 52. Figure 25.10b Respiratory membrane
  47. 53. Fig. 23.12
  48. 54. <ul><li>Gross Anatomy of the Lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide concave base rests on the diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apex (or cupola) projects to a point just superior to the clavicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bordered by the thoracic wall anteriorly, laterally and posteriorly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs are separated by the mediastinum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hilum—bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves pass through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left lung—cardiac impression; slightly smaller; groove-like impression formed by the descending aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right lung—three lobes; horizontal and oblique fissures </li></ul></ul>
  49. 55. Figure 25.11
  50. 56. Figure 25.12a
  51. 57. Figure 25.12b
  52. 58. <ul><li>Lymphatic Drainage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes and vessels are located: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In connective tissue of the lung </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Around bronchi and pleura </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes collect carbon, dust, and pollutants not filtered out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Path of lymph: lymph from lungs to 1) pulmonary lymph nodes to 2) bronchopulmonary lymph nodes to 3) tracheobronchial lymph nodes to 4) left and right bronchomediastinal trunks; the R bronchomediastinal trunk drains into the 5) R lymphatic duct while the L bronchomediastinal trunk drains into the 5) thoracic duct </li></ul></ul>
  53. 59. Figure 25.14
  54. 60. Thoracic duct R. Lymphatic duct Broncho- mediastinal trunk Broncho- mediastinal trunk
  55. 61. <ul><li>Changes in the Thoracic Wall During Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During inhalation dimensions of thoracic cavity increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical changes —diaphragm contracts flattening the dome shape, moves inferiorly against viscera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral changes —occur with rib movements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle actions that increase the size of the thoracic cavity: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The scalenes elevate the 1 st and 2 nd ribs during forced inhalation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The external intercostals extend from a superior rib inferomedially to the adjacent inferior rib; The ribs elevate upon contraction increasing the transverse dimensions of the thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The serratus posterior superior elevates ribs 2-5 during inhalation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other muscles also help </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 62. Figure 25.p778
  57. 63. <ul><li>Exhalation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal exhalation does NOT require the use of any muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced exhalation : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction of the internal intercostals depresses the ribs during forced exhalation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A small transversus thoracis extends across the inner surface of the thoracic cage and attaches to ribs 2-6; it helps depress the ribs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The serratus posterior inferior depresses ribs 8-12 during exhalation </li></ul></ul>
  58. 64. Figure 25.15a
  59. 65. Figure 25.15b
  60. 66. Regulation of Breathing <ul><li>The respiratory rhythmicity center of the medulla oblongata consists of two nuclei: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ventral respiratory group (VRG)—expiratory center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dorsal respiratory group (DRG)—inspiratory center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulation of the respiratory rhythmicity center by nuclei in the pons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumotaxic center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apneustic center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 67. Figure 25.17 Apneustic center Ventral Respiratory group (VRG) (expiratory center) Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG) (inspiratory center) Respiratory rhythmicity center Pneumotaxic center
  62. 68. <ul><li>Cystic Fibrosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common genetic disease in Caucasians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by defect in a chloride ion channel —the channel does not expel chloride ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence: water from mucus is taken up by the cells in the mucous membranes of epithelium, ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucus thickens and obstructs passage ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the respiratory system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the pancreas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  63. 69. Figure 25.p761 Cystic fibrosis
  64. 70. Respiratory Distress Syndrome <ul><li>In premature newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Is a consequence of a lack of surfactant </li></ul><ul><li>Results in collapsed alveoli </li></ul>
  65. 71. Figure 25.p781a
  66. 72. COLOR PHOTOS
  67. 73. Figure 25.02ab
  68. 74. Figure 25.07ab
  69. 75. Figure 25.09bc
  70. 76. Figure 25.16b
  71. 77. Figure 25.p768
  72. 78. Figure 25.p776a
  73. 79. Figure 25.p776b
  74. 80. Figure 25.p776c
  75. 81. Figure 25.p781b
  76. 82. Figure 25.p783a
  77. 83. Figure 25.p783b
  78. 84. Figure 25.p783c
  79. 85. Figure 25.p784a
  80. 86. Figure 25.p784b
  81. 87. Figure 25.p784c
  82. 88. COLOR UNLABELED PHOTOS
  83. 89. Table 25.01
  84. 90. Table 25.02
  85. 91. Table 25.03
  86. 92. Table 25.04

×