Hlth497 urban sprawl


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HLTH497- Urban Sprawl

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Hlth497 urban sprawl

  1. 1. Urban Sprawl <ul><li>HLTH 497 </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is urban sprawl? <ul><li>The expansive and rapid spreading outwards of a metropolitan area (and its suburb) to outskirts and low-density rural lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>single-use zoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reliance on automobiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>homogeneity in design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low-density land use </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. History of Urban Sprawl <ul><li>Late 19th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthiest class in Europe had access to transportation, and built grand estates outside of the city. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of infrastructure caused relatively wealthy people to move away from polluted city centers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City centers become increasingly populated by lower-income individuals. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. History of Urban Sprawl <ul><li>1940s: Post War Boom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>great economic prosperity led to development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need for housing to accommodate growing populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own-Your-Own-Home national campaigns in the USA </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Facilitators of Urban Sprawl <ul><li>Automobiles </li></ul><ul><li>Governmental single-use zoning laws </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible mortgages </li></ul><ul><li>Housing subsidies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Environmental Issues and Urban Sprawl <ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dependancy on motor vehicles cause increase emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>local and regional pollution causes adverse health effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory disease </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cardiovascular disease, cancer and birth defects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increase runoff due to paved areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Health Issues and Urban Sprawl <ul><li>Lack of Physical Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>caused by heavy dependance on automobiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low walkability of suburban communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>land-use mix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>connectivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aesthetics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less likely to walk or bike, even short distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diabetes, obesity and hypertension </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Health Issues and Urban Sprawl <ul><li>Mental Health Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at the current rate of development, the average commuter in the GTA can expect a 300% increase in delay by 2031 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stress of commuting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mental effects of the loss of green space </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Break Out Discussion Groups <ul><li>What are the primary economic, political, environmental, and social arguments against sprawl? How about for urban sprawl? </li></ul><ul><li>Which parts of your metropolitan area provide examples of sprawl? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why has sprawl occurred in these areas? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What have been some of the impacts of sprawl in these areas? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What discussions, if any, have been held among citizens or politicians concerning how the effects of sprawl can be lessened and how sprawl can be curtailed in future development? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think should be done about the sprawl situation in this area? Is this really a big problem, or are things okay as they stand now? </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Great Urban Sprawl Debate <ul><li>Pro-Sprawl Opening Address (5 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Sprawl Opening Address (5 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Pro- Sprawl Rebuttal (3 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Sprawl Rebuttal (3 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Final Statement from Pro-Sprawl (1 minute) </li></ul><ul><li>Final Statement from Anti-Sprawl (1 minute) </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Future of Urban Sprawl? <ul><li>www.ted.com/talks/ellen_dunham_jones_retrofitting_suburbia.html </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sources and More Reading <ul><li>Bruegmann, Robert. 2005. Sprawl: a Compact History. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Hornstein, Jeffrey M. 2005. A Nation of Realtors®: A Cultural History of the Twentieth-Century American Middle Class. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>www.publichealthgrandrounds.unc.edu/urban/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497432/pdf/12432132.pdf www.8-80cities.org/Articles/Urban%20Sprawl-Jan-05.pdf </li></ul>