9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies


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9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies

  1. 1. 9-11 & Shortsighted American Foreign Policies
  2. 2. 9-11 and American Foreign Policies Copyright © 2010 by Shivaprasad Srikantia All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without explicit prior permission from the author and publisher. First Edition : D06 Cover Images : Portraits : Courtesy of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Cockpit view : Courtesy of the United States Department of Defense D06010610 4CROYDON BOOKS EQUATION MERIDIAN (Publishing & Syndication) 10 Hornby Building, 172/174 Second Floor, Dr. D.N. Road, Fort, Mumbai 400 001 INDIA Limited edition (for public libraries and government organizations) Laser typeset at Equation Meridian, 1D Hillcrest Manor, Shankarpuram Bangalore 560004 INDIA
  3. 3. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 9-11 ATTACK PROVOKED BY AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICIES Issues that plague the modern world are so complex that there are always many sides to a story. However, when there are at least two sides to a story, the truth lies somewhere in-between. A distinguished American scholar named Naom Chomsky had once expressed the view that the American news media was actually engaging in the activity of manufacturing consent. There seemed to be unholy alliances between corporate media, special interest groups, and politicians holding power. The American corporate media is surprisingly acquiescent and will easily buckle under political pressure from the White House and the Pentagon to run misinformation campaigns. Due to strict censorship, the Israeli press is also sometimes forbidden from reporting incidents in the exact manner in which they occurred. With sympathy, this censorship may be looked upon as being legitimate, considering the war like situation that prevails in the region. However, American corporate news agencies with a global outreach have an agreement with Israel to follow the censorship guidelines and notreportsensitiveincidents with serious political implications. At other times, peer pressure and patriotism force American journalists to illegitimately suppress and withhold critical information from the American public. Until now, it had been diplomatically embarrassing to disclose the truth about the string of political issues that had lead to the 9-11 attack. Sensitive information had to be tucked away and suppressed by the White House administration, the American news media, and the local publishing industry. Nearly 9 years after the 9-11 incident, this document examines information that was illegitimately withheld from the American people by the corporate news media and the White House ! Quite often, terrorism is simply an act of political revolt by a section of society that feels utterly powerless while being distressed by perceptions of social injustice. The September 11 attacks were not exactly unprovoked. Behind the attacks, there is a 30 year history of political hostilities between America and nations in the Middle East. Just as American citizens were kept unaware of the financial wrongdoings in Wall Street until the Lehman Brothers fiasco, mainstream America had been also been kept unaware of the political
  4. 4. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies wrongdoings in the White House until the 9-11 debacle. For over half a century, the political aristocracy in the White House had kept working class American citizens ignorant of foreign polies that had alienated societies in South East Asia, South America, and the Middle East. Therefore, for the vast majority of New Yorkers on that fateful morning, the September 11 attacks on the twin towers and the Pentagon might have come as a complete surprise. Foreign affairs mismanagement at the highest political levels was partly responsible for brewing a dangerous concoction of hostilities in the Middle East. One day, the foreign policy mistakes simply blew up in the face as 9-11. This book has been written with the intention of meticulously documenting bristling geo- political issues and foreign policy factors that insidiously created the political climate for a major assault on America. In the light of such information, the 9-11 attack might appear more as an act of warfare. In the last century, major Western military powers in search of oil reserves descended on the Middle East and cut up regions to share them among themselves as if they were pieces of an apple pie. In one glaring instance, oil rich regions of Kuwait were unconstitutionally snatched away from Iraq by Western intruders. Incidentally, Saddam Hussein had invaded Kuwait to recapture oil rich territories that once legitimately belonged to Iraq, Furthermore, and against the will of the Arab people, puppet governments had been installed in the Persian Gulf regions by consorting Western powers. These puppet governments were to help in the systematic annexation of oil wealth over a period of 100 years. For instance, the Shah of Iran had been installed against the will of the Iranian people. Legend has it that the Shah had been clandestinely assisting Western oil companies in the plunder of Iranian oil reserves. Meanwhile, Israel was armed with advanced American weaponry and allowed to quietly emerge as the sole nuclear power in the Middle East. After the first Gulf War, economic sanctions were imposed on Iraq.ArabsocietiesperceivedtheIraqisanctionsasbeingunwarranted,unfair,and cold-hearted. After the first Gulf War, America began stealthily building her military presence in the Gulf region. In the backdrop of America’s umbilical cord relationship with Israel, Arab societies found the foreign military presence in their neighborhood irksome. Perhaps, the 9-11 incident intended to be a message for America to back off. Therefore, it would be somewhat inaccurate for White House officials and Congressmen to turn around and say that the 9-11 attack was completely unprovoked. In America, financial gains were not attained merely through organic growth of the domestic industry. In fact, eminent American economists and policy makers
  5. 5. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 5 acknowledge that a significant part of the American nation’s superior economic healthwasderivedfromoverseas economic control of thirdworldregionsinSouth East Asia, South America, and the Middle East. In recent years, American foreign policies have almost always revealed hidden economic motives. American capitalism firmly hinged on the idea of self interest, and on the idea of attaining economic prosperity at the expense of other nations. When weak nations opposed American incursions for annexing mineral or oil reserves, military intimidation followed. Often, American foreign policies revealed a great deal of moral turpitude. Foreign policy makers in the White House and investment bankers in Wall Street were not exactly being tutored by angels dressed in white satins. Besides, an America which was unable to police Wall Street in its own backyard, was is no position to police the world ! It is time the world woke up to this reality and came to terms with the issue. In 1972, an American President and his entourage in the White House were linked to an attempted burglary at the posh Watergate Hotel. In 1973, an American Vice President pleaded guilty to charges of tax evasion. During the Vietnam War, a young American military lieutenant had Vietnamese men, women, and children massacred by his soldiers in the tiny village of Mai La. The American military and the White House administration tried to cover up the incident. Later,manyofthose found guilty of wrongdoing in the Watergate scandal and the Mai La incident received presidential pardons. ThehandlingoftheWatergateburglaryand the Mai La incident were major turning points in American history. They sent out a clear message to the world that the American government could no longer be trusted. An introspective appraisal in the corridors of power in Washington D.C. might have revealed that foreign policies meticulously crafted for economic gain by Western powers were alienating religious societies in the Persian Gulf region. Many policies were formulated on the simple assumption that the oil rich Arab states and their primitive political societies neither had the political will nor the military power to protest economic, geographic, and political intrusions by Western powers. The Persian Gulf regions around the holy places of Mecca and Medina were guarded by religious sentimentalities. They were not quite ready for integration with the rest of the world. At present, insurgency movements in the Middle East are largely directed against American and British interests. In the global political arena, many third world nations perceive America as a rogue military power. Fearing massive retaliation,
  6. 6. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 6 most sovereign nations of the world would be unwilling to launch an attack on America. In fact, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, it would be suicidal for anynation opposing Western domination to declare a legitimate war with America or any of the other nations in the G-7 club. Therefore, and as envisioned by millionaire Sheik Osama Bin Ladin, the key concept behind Al Qaeda was to create a secret political society to menace the world powers. A secret society would have no form or land boundaries. In creating Al Queda, the key idea was that a loosely knit insurgent entity with no physical form or boundary could engage in aggression without fearing retaliation. In fact, Al Queda doctrine encouraged the formation of invisible political societies without a clear postal address. Al Queda is usually responsible for education, indoctrination, ground training, and motivation. Graduates from the Al Queda training camps eventually step into the real world and launch autonomous careers. Typically, Al Queda graduates run independent political societies bent on menacing the great world powers. Both Democrats and Republicans were unwilling to candidly own up to a series of blunders in formulating American foreign policy. Therefore, the political elite in league with corporate media conspired to misinform, misguide, and mislead mainstream American society. At first American citizens were told that the assault was completely unprovoked. This was not exactly true. Ancient wisdom from biblical times tells us that precision assaults of this magnitude are rarely unprovoked. In the last century, the White House administrations had been routinely using the American nation’s awesome military power to intimidate socialist militias in third world countries. By doing so, the White House cultivated a lot of enemies right from Vietnam to Venezuela. After the collapse of Soviet incited communism, terrorism has evolved as the retort to obstruct and oppose American economic and political domination. Radicals generally belong to socialist inclined cultures and communities. Those who swear by unrestrained capitalism are bound to have conflicts with these radicals. However, it has become fashionable for radicals in Asia and the Middle East to give a religious spin to their revolutionary activities. In Middle East societies, any gripe with a religious affiliation finds a ready audience of sympathizers. In cultures where religion has ready appeal, socialist radicals intent on igniting a revolution against corrupt capitalismare using religion as a backdrop toenlistmembers.Religionprovidesthevanillaflavoringtoaradical’sconviction.
  7. 7. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 7 Mainstream American society was told that the 9-11 attackers hated the democratic values and freedom the American democracy granted. Though this untrue, many American citizens swallowed it. In reality, communists, socialists, and terrorists did not abhor democratic values or freedom. They abhorred the imperialismand financial expansionismthatWesterncapitalistswereengagingin. Asanintellectual exercise therefore, it would now make sense to examinepolitical disharmonies that lead to the 9-11 incident. To gain fresh insights, it would be worthwhile examining a few issues from the Middle Eastern perspective IMMIGRANTS HOLDING PUBLIC OFFICE INFLUENCED AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE During the last century, boat loads of immigrants with their baggage of political grievances and personal agendas arrived at JFK airport in New York. One crucial problem with American society was that newly arrived immigrants with personal agendas and political aspirations could become naturalized citizens and seek to hold political office. Though there was nothing radically wrong with the idea of first generation immigrants entering the White House through the back door and holding high office, it was unprincipled on the part of new immigrants to have demolishedtheoriginalframeworkofrichpoliticalidealstheAmericannationhad originally stood for. Though many of these immigrants who held political office were naturalized citizens by law, they were never true Americans in sprit. While carving out lucrative political careers for themselves, the new immigrants tried to give the young American nation a complete political make over. In this process, immigrantswith thick accents outrightlydestroyedthepeacelovingpoliticalspirit of the American nation. Henry Kissinger, Nbigniew Brzezinski, and Madeline Albright were all immigrants who became naturalized citizens and influenced America’s political establishment. In good faith, common American etiquette had made it socially inappropriate to distinguish between American born citizenry and foreign born naturalized citizenry. However, the act of taking the oath of allegiance for citizenship rarely made one genuinely American from the inside. To be able to assimilate the finer points of traditional American culture, one would have had to spent the most impressionable years of their adolescent life in an American high school.Furthermore,beingAmericanrequiredacertainsocialupbringingathome. Being American required a certain state of mind, a deeper moral consciousness, a spirit of compassion, a little erudition, and a certain passion for righteousness.
  8. 8. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 8 Newly arrived immigrants who just got off the boat in search of a better factory job in America rarely possessed these magnanimous qualities. In fact, many of these immigrants brought impoliteness, rudeness, crime, violence, and impertinence into the American culture. Nowhere was this more evident than in New York City and Chicago. During the days of prohibition and bootlegging, boat loads of immigrants with criminal intent arrived in New York City. Upon arrival, they formed gangs and turned the city into the epicenter of organized crime. It should not be hard to imagine that something similar happened in the political space. Back in the sixties, politicians in New York, Buffalo, and Boston hobnobbed with organized crime figures and openly sought money to fund election campaigns. In the corrupt political system that existed in the sixties, wealthy mobsters were often paraded as successful businessmen working for the good of the community. In the last century, there was a faint possibility of American labor unions embracing socialistic ideologies or turning to communists for inspiration. At that crucial time in American history, the political elites and wealthy tycoons in America wished to secretively use the collective muscle power of Italian crime syndicates to muffle the power of socialistic labor unions. Italian crime syndicates were known to be inherently anti-communist and anti-fascist. Therefore, politicians and the government machinery in America wanted to secretly allow Italian syndicates to flourish in America until labor unions and trade unions were sufficiently weakened. In New York’s political set up, underworld mob factions were brought in to keep labor unions under check. Gangsters with Italian roots were called in as strike breakers who could restore order. Federal authorities of that era were quietly encouraging Italian mob syndicates to clandestinely control major labor unions and stamp out socialist ideologies in the New York area. While secretlyenjoyingpoliticalpatronage,Italianmobsyndicatesbecameverypowerful in America. To help deflate socialism, and also allow the free flow of money into political campaigns, the FBI had also been advised by politicians to downplay the problem of organized crime and look the other way. Politicians running for office and local law enforcement authorities were willing to deny the existence of underground criminal organizations such as the Sicilian Mafia or the Cosa Nostra. For a long time, Congressmen and the FBI had maintained that there were no organized crime syndicates operating in America that were actually worth taking notice of. To keep the political aristocracy happy in Washington DC, FBI Director Edgar
  9. 9. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 9 Hoover constantly downplayed the emergence of organized crime factions. President Richard Nixon routinely fraternized with individuals suspected to be associated with organized crime. Jimmy Hoffa was one such person. Jimmy Hoffa’s labor union activities and mob activities in Las Vegas had come under scrutinybylawenforcementauthorities.Organizedcrimefigureswith laborunion ties could provide a ready pool of voters for American politicians. In fact, American organized crime bosses could directly spearhead political fund-raising activities with their ability to extort money from wealthy businessmen and labor unions. The fundamental point is that America’s political system had become incorrigibly corrupt and treacherously dishonest. It was this very political system that was formulating foreign policies which were not only unethical, but also very un-American in voice and tenor. Immigrants who had arrived in America to escape Nazi persecution had come in with a lot of dismay, disillusionment, and distrust. Those who came with distrust could never become truly American in spirit. Understandably, foreign policies drafted by new immigrants holding public office were somewhat un-American in spirit, somewhat immoral, somewhat devious, somewhat cold-hearted, somewhat self-centric, and somewhat paranoid. Incidentally, a significant part of the military threats Henry Kissinger perceived from distant corners of the world were just conjectural and paranoically speculative. After the world wars, the European economy was in a precarious condition. The European nations exaggerated the Soviet communist threat to have the White House invest in counter-attack nuclear weaponry on behalf of the nations in Europe. In a diametrically complimentary scenario, the White House administrations exaggerated the Soviet communist threat because America needed European nations within her sphere of influence. The communist threat would allow America to set up military bases in Europe. During the last century, taxpayer’s money was channeled into the weapons industry through Federal contracts. The Soviet communist threat provided a blanket excuse. Henry Kissinger preferred to operate behind a veil of secrecy even on trivial political issues. Kissinger made a secret visit to China. The peculiar behavior patterns precipitated suspicion of devious diplomatic maneuvers that would have been very un-American in spirit and character. Nbigniew Brzezinski, a Polish immigrant who became the National Security Adviser in the Jimmy Carter administration, was indirectly responsible for deviating from American ethical norms and encouraging the illegitimate jihadi movement in Afghanistan. As
  10. 10. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 10 America’s welcoming multi-cultural society had a blind spot, it was also unable to see the dangerous tectonic shift that had occurred in America’s political culture due to the sudden influx of immigrants with a new set of moral values. Within the confines of the American democracy, this hypothesis drives a wedge between mainstream American society and the political elite in Washington. While mainstream American society was humane, the political society in Washington D.C. was devious, deceitful, dishonest, cunning, and crafty. Though middle class American citizens wished to see themselves as members of an equal and egalitarian society, they had allowed about 5 percent of America’s wealthiest to hold almost 50 percent of the wealth of the nation. In America, tall skyscrapers were built in New York City and Chicago to remind nations of the world about the formidable power of American capitalism. In fact, American multinationaloilcorporationswerebecomingpoliticallymorepowerfulthanmany third world states in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The towering presence of American multinational business corporations in the global political arena might have been a cause of great concern to small nations in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The attack on the World Trade Center towers seem to be highly symbolic. Symbolically, the 9-11 incidents seemed to be simultaneous attacks on America’s political, military, and financial establishments. To the deeply religious Middle Eastern societies, the World Trade Center might have represented corrupt capitalism and imperialism. Meanwhile, the Pentagon, might have represented corrupt military power used to advance unethical capitalism. Religion in America was cleverly utilized to deflect attention away from political and financial wrongdoing of the ruling elites. While mainstreamAmerican society was congregating at Churches to hear evangelists, wings of the American government were relaxing regulations to assist American corporations and banks in amassing hundreds of billions of dollars of wealth through questionable business practices. This was being done to guarantee preeminence for American financial institutions and multinational corporations operating in the highly competitive international financial arena. WhenEnron’sbankruptcywasbeinginvestigatedbyFederalauthorities,theWhite House was dragged into the fray. Furthermore, the Institute of Public Policy expressed the view that at least 20 American government agencies had assisted Enron in overseas expansion projects in developing countries. Investigations revealed that even the World Bank had a hand in the Enron projects. Incidentally, the Federal Reserve helped create the dotcom bubble to manufacture American
  11. 11. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 11 wealth from thin air. In fact, the structural backdrop for corrupt capitalism and economic fraud in America extended well beyond Wall Street. It extended deep into the American government machinery and the offices of the Federal Reserve. In Wall Street circles, engaging in multibillion dollar financial scams to guarantee American preeminence in world financial markets was considered patriotic and honorable. Therefore, powerful banking cartels in New York managed to have politicians and legislators make laws that forbid financial analysts from publicly making negative statements about the economic health of banking institutions. This was nothing but a massive public misinformation scheme. The American public seemed to be completely ignorant of what was going on in Wall Street and the White House. Top secret documents discoveredbyaccidentrevealthatIsraelhadoffered nuclear warheads to the apartheid government in South Africa. The nuclear arsenal had been offered in 1975 by Shimon Peres when he was the defense minister of Israel. Over a period of time, White House policies for control of major oil reserves promoted economic and political injustices in the Middle East. Such meddling in political and economic affairs of the Middle East helped create the right ambience for highlymotivated terrorist political organizations to spring into political power. Over a 50 year time frame, extremist groups in the Middle East were getting bigger, bolder, and better at whatever they wanted to do. Obviously, generously funded radical groups and state authorities with military expertise had formed complex alliances stretching across state borders. Meanwhile, with the tacit approval of the White House administration, American weapons manufacturers collectively duped Arab nations by supplying them with weapons systems that were obsolete by a few technological generations. In a clever trick, the more technologically advanced versions were supplied to Israel to provide military superiority over the Arab nations. Meanwhile, as the ruling elites in many Middle Eastern states were becoming wealthier through bribes and kickbacks stemming fromlucrative weapons contracts, the elites did not stand up and oppose the supply of outdated military technology. Incidentally, in many Middle Eastern societies, the opulent lifestyle of the ruling elites point a finger towards corruption enveloping oil contracts and weapons contracts. In many societies of the East, jihadi violence would be considered a meritorious public service. With great pride and pleasure, the government machinery of Pakistan allows terrorist training camps to openly operate within the nation’s boundaries. Therefore, it might seem laughable that a country that proudly allows political groups to operate terrorist training camps within her national boundaries
  12. 12. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 12 is also America’s most celebrated associate in fighting terror. Obviously, treacherous political and diplomatic agendas dictate the partnership between Pakistan and America. Incidentally, the partnership enables the CIA to clandestinely utilize the services of Pakistani terror outfits to destabilize unfriendly governments in the Middle East and Asia. In the last century, the White House used Pakistan’s terrorist infrastructures to aid Afghan tribal warlords intent on destabilizing their Soviet friendly government. Unknown to most American citizens, the White House administration had engaged in an act of serious political mischief in this part of the world. JIHADI MOVEMENT INSPIRED BY BRZEZINSKI Many of America’s foreign policies in the last century were drafted by European immigrants who had become naturalized citizens. After 1925, pivotal foreign policies in America were being guided by immigrants who had fled from Europe to avoid persecution. In recent decades, foreign policies shaped byfirst generation immigrants from Europe have exposed the American nation to a lot of risk in the Middle East. While America had always wished to project herself as a peace loving nation, policies drafted by new immigrants has got America involved in military misadventures. As new policy makers, these immigrants implanted the European craving for military conflicts in America’s political system. Incidentally, for over 300 years, Europe had been embroiled in wars and military conflicts. Being at war with a neighboring nation or an illusory enemy was a part of European political tradition. Once upon a time in history, the Jimmy Carter administration in the White House wanted to get the Soviets entangled in a conflict similar to the American conflict in Vietnam. It was payback time. The CIA set out to supply weapons to Afghan tribal warlords through Pakistan. Every able bodied Afghan tribal was secretively given a cache of sophisticated weapons, and an English vocabulary. When the armed rebellion acquired sufficient momentum to be able to menace the elected Soviet friendly government in Afghanistan, the Russian military decided to intervene and quell the revolt. However, the unanticipated suddenness of the Soviet military incursion into Afghanistan sent panic waves through the White House and the Pentagon. Neither the White House administration nor the CIA had expected such a sledge-hammer military response from the Soviets. Appalled by the strength and decisiveness of the invading Soviet military, the
  13. 13. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 13 American administration frantically evolved an ill conceived engagement plan. In a political atmosphere of desperation, tons of assault rifles, rocket launchers, grenades, and explosives were given away as gifts from the White House administration to the Afghan tribes. In fact, the Afghan warlords had managed to befriend the American CIA and acquire shoulder weapons that could bring down Soviet aircraft. The Soviet air force was completely defenseless when jihadis began using American designed shoulder weaponry supplied by the CIA through Pakistan.Inthistreacherouspoliticalgame plan, usingPakistanasanintermediary would allow the White House to deny a direct involvement in the affairs of Afghanistan. Through the assistance of the government of Pakistan, the American administration had hundreds of thousands of mujahideen fighters trained in jihadi camps. To extend the jihadi potency further, radical elements from the adjoining Middle Eastern states were also recruited and trained. In this scenario, a Saudi millionaire named Osama Bin Ladin began his adventurous political career by fighting the Soviets alongside the Afghan radicals. It is evident that the White House administration andtheCIAwantedPakistantosecretivelystart and manage a guerrilla war in Afghanistan until Soviet power was sufficiently weakened. In American political circles, it is widely believed that the prolonged war in AfghanistanbankruptedtheSovietUnionandinitiatedthedisintegrationofSoviet communism. After the September 11 attacks in America, events in history were carefully recalled and examined. Declassified files from the CIA were reexamined in a wider context. Nbigniew Brzezinski’s critical role in inspiring the American weapons armed jihadi movement was severely ridiculed. As a Polish immigrant who had just got off the boat, Nbigniew Brzezinski’s had failed to foresee the dangerous repercussions of arming renegade aboriginals in a third world nation and igniting an armed freedom struggle. At least, he failed to understand that trained warriors and Frankensteins could not be made to sit idle and relish peace. After the Soviets withdrew, the Afghan peasants with weapons expertise banded with local warlords engaged in a variety of foolhardy subversive activities. The weapons left behind by the Western powers eventually fell into the hands of extremist outfits in Afghanistan and Pakistan. These extremist freedom fighter outfits are now engaged in bringing about civil disorder in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq. The White House administration had tried to use the jihadis and Sheik Bin Ladin
  14. 14. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 14 in its own political interest. The idea was to weaken the grip of Soviet communism.However,aftertheSovietthreathadgraduallyreceded,theAmerican administration left the mujahideen freedom fighters abandoned without food and water. After the Soviet armies pulled out, the Afghan mujahideen were practically left to die of starvation and disease. When the Afghan tribal factions eventually discovered that they had been used, manipulated, wronged, and exploited by the White House in self interest to counteract Soviet domination, they were furious. The devout Afghan tribal groups and Bin Ladin had accidentally discovered how unfaithful the Western political aristocracy was. Gradually, inner political conscience drove the tribal mujahideen community to avenge the exploitation by turning their guns on America and her Western allies. When the tales of American geo-politicalwrongdoing,deceit,andexploitationinAfghanistanbecamefolklore in the Middle East, wealthyphilanthropists came forward to offer help to the dying mujahideen. By doing so, Saudi philanthropists actually aided a violent resurrection of the jihadi movement. Later, the Hamid Karzai government was waging a battle with the Taliban factions which detested an American presence in Afghanistan.
  15. 15. 9-11 and Shortsighted American Foreign Policies 15 International paperback edition : 530 pages www.lulu.com/croydonbooks 4CROYDON BOOKS Equation Meridian Publishing & Syndication