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Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
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Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
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Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2
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Klas Tham - Human Habitat 12th april 2010 Part 2

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HUMAN HABITAT 2010 Lecture Series is an open platform on the theme of Sustainable Cities, engaging a wide audience including specialists and lay people. This Lecture Series was designed and is being …

HUMAN HABITAT 2010 Lecture Series is an open platform on the theme of Sustainable Cities, engaging a wide audience including specialists and lay people. This Lecture Series was designed and is being coordinated by the SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION Initiative in partnership with OCEANÁRIO DE LISBOA, Parque Expo and the Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente.

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  • 1. THE HUMANE IN ARCHI TECTURE KLAS THAM PART 2 12 April 2010 - Lisbon
  • 2. HOLY ISLAND
  • 3. HOLY ISLAND GARDE N B Y GERTRUDE JE KYLL
  • 4. GARDEN:GERTRUDE JEKYLL C A S T L E R E N O V. : E D W A R D L U T U Y E N S LI NDI S F ARN E C AS TLE PHOTO RAYMOND ROURKE, THE NATIONAL TRUST
  • 5. • STIA • SAN VITTORINO ROMANO
  • 6. THE HUMANE IN A R C H I T E C T U R E A N D C I T Y PL A N N I N G
  • 7. THE HUMANE IN ARCHITECTURE
  • 8. FIGLINE VALDARNO
  • 9. Arkitektur 4 - 1985
  • 10. GABETTI (ISOLA?), ALDO ROSSI, RALPH ERSKINE, LAWRENCE HALPRIN a NOVOLI / FIRENZE 1988
  • 11. 8 R AND INVITOR: BRUNO ZEVI WORKSHOP LEADER: LAWRENCE
  • 12. Bo01 URBAN PLANNING PROCESS some aspects and tools • The Pre-study • Three parties - Bo01 Ltd, the City of Malmö, the Developers • Developers Group • Seminars • Study tours • Reference Group • Quality Program • Strong mandate to the responsible urban planner • The Exhibition as a challenge and a goal
  • 13. Bo01 QUALITY MONITORING The Pre-study, formulating Aims and ambitions of the exhibition Criteria for the choice of host city Urban planning in intensive co-operation between Bo01 Ltd and the City of Malmö Developers Group, meetings monthly 1996 - 2001 Three parties - Bo01 Ltd, the City of Malmö, the 17 developers Seminars, at qualified academic levels 1995 - 2000 Study tours Quality program Co-ordinating sub-groups on various items, like logistics during construction period, waste, circulation and parking, etc etc Quality program, agreed by the three parties Formulation of demands and quality levels Follow-up and control Reference group – 300 non-professionals
  • 14. The quality program  Judicial document - civil law  Connected to the contract for buying a plot  Mutual agreement  Completed document before any plots had been sold  The developers were responsible for following the program  The quality program is being evaluated in many research programs
  • 15. SIGURDUR GUDMUND
  • 16. Bo01 QUALITY MONITORING Design competitions houses interior design parks, streets, squares art in the public space Strong mandate to the responsible urban planner responsible for the layout of the urban plan (with, of course, the city’s overriding right of veto) approval of the choice of architect of each developer approval of the choice of interior designer (through M Silfverhielm) of each developer approval of the choice of landscape architect (through A Persson) of each developer approval of each project before the start of the formal building permission procedure The Exhibition as a challenge and a goal as a mind-opener as a door-opener (authorities, funds, sponsors) as a quality-raiser (all involved want to show their best side) as a quality-sinker (time shortage) as a price-raiser (time shortage)
  • 17. Bo01 QUALITY MONITORING SOME THOUGHTS Furthermore, intensified development work and research is needed on Quality monitoring of quantifiable aspects - techniques, working methods, materials, damp-protection, accessibility and ergonomics, etc etc – better control systems must be found Quality monitoring of less easily quantifiable aspects - finding a more reliable basis for judging the less easily quantifiable aspects that are so important for success – research - finding a more reliable basis for judging the immeasurable aspects – simulation, and developing the developers/the clients competence in the selection of planners, architects, designers and other consultants
  • 18. Bo01 QUALITY MONITORING SOME THOUGHTS Quality monitoring by society Laws - ordinances – regulations – control systems Financial conditions Education of elected representatives The quality of the education of all professions involved in the planning and construction process The demanded level of the developer’s competence and education Quality monitoring by the market State of the market Competition conditions Forms of financing, length of depreciation period, hire-purchase terms of loans The judgement of the value of the pledge Forms of administration and management
  • 19. Bo01 QUALITY MONITORING SOME THOUGHTS The quality of the education of all professions involved in the planning and construction process – we must all learn to make clear distinctions between what we really know – confirmed knowledge what we think that we know – unconfirmed knowledge what we like – personal preferences
  • 20. KVALITETSSÄKRING Bo01 Förstudien – målformulering Stadsplanearbete Byggherregruppen varje månad 1996 - 2001 Kvalitetsprogrammet Referensgruppen Tävlingar Starkt mandat till mässarkitekten/planförfattaren Utställningen som uppfordran, mål
  • 21. KVALITETSSÄKRING Bo01 Förstudien – målformulering samt kriterier för valet av värdstad Stadsplanearbete intensivt samarbete mellan Bo01 och Malmö Stad Byggherregruppen varje månad 1996 - 2001 tre parter – Bo01 AB, Malmö Stad, Byggherrarna seminarier studieresor kvalitetsprogram samordning Kvalitetsprogrammet – ett juridiskt bindande dokument kravformulering uppföljning, kontroll Referensgruppen Tävlingar hus lägenheter, inredning parker, gator, torg konst i det offentliga rummet
  • 22. KUNSKAPSSÖKNING
  • 23. META ISAEUS-BERLIN
  • 24. The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah attr. John
  • 25. TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABILITY, EXCELLENCE IN ALL THE ARTS - ENGINEERING, THE CRAFTS, ARCHITECTURE - IS NECESSARY
  • 26. IT
  • 27. “At some time during the eleventh century, towards the end of the Heian period in Japan, an anonymous court noble set down the rules and cautions of garden art in a book called Sakuteiki. His advice was simple: Begin by considering the the lay of the land and water. Study the works of past masters, and recall the places of beauty that you know. Then, on your chosen site, let memory speak, and make into your own that which moves you most.” from the preface of The POETICS of GARDENS by Moore, Mitchell, Turnbull 1988
  • 28. Modell: Ewa Westermark Bo
  • 29. OUR GOALS To provide opportunities for the essence of the city – the meetings of people and different cultures - to gradually develop. The differences of environmental character within the plan and its small-scale property subdivisions (one house = one plot) are intended to counteract the establishment of a mere mono-culture in this attractive location. The offered housing should span from the glamorous to the more modest.
  • 30. Bo01 BoStad 02 Hammarby Sjöstad 356 1 525 FLATS 17 9 DEVELOPERS 21 11 ARCHITECTS 22 13 DEVELOPER’S PROJECTS 16 117 DWELLINGS / PROJECT 130 180 NET LANDUSE FACTOR
  • 31. The Good Talk A planning process in dialogue with the developers, in the aim to achieve high quality and housing for rent at a reasonable cost
  • 32. SOME DEMANDS ON THE DWELLING OF THE FUTURE 1/2 SUSTAINABILITY IN PRODUCTION SUSTAINABILITY DURING USE GENERALITY – ALLOWING MULTIPLE USE FLEXIBILITY – ALLOWING EASY CHANGE USEFULNESS ACCESSIBILITY SPACE EFFICIENCY and SPACIOUSNESS ERGONOMICALLY GOOD ADAPTION TO OUR BODY ERGONOMICALLY GOOD ADAPTION TO OUR SENSES
  • 33. SOME DEMANDS ON THE DWELLING OF THE FUTURE 2/2 GOOD SOUND INSULATION, making it possible to enjoy silence – and thereby also to allow the neighbours to make noise, without disturbing A POSSIBILIY FOR SECLUDED INTIMACY, FOR SECRET SPACES AN INVITING KITCHEN AND DINING PLACE, for cooking and meals A DESIGNATED SPACE FOR THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SPACES, ROOMS WITHOUT INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUFFICIENT STORAGE SPACE CONTACT WITH VEGETATION AND WATER – physical and visual
  • 34. ARCHITECTURE - MAY IT BE INTERIOR DESIGN OR URBAN PLANNING - IS FORMED BY HUMAN BEINGS FOR HUMAN BEINGS (not only…). ON WHAT BASIS? WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT HUMAN BEINGS ? WHO IS HE? WHO IS SHE? IN HER PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT - WHICH NEEDS DOES SHE HAVE? AND WHAT DOES SHE LIKE?
  • 35. “The human being cannot be understood in terms of biology only – but her essence is not either determined only by class or psychological trauma. She is heredity and environment, nature and culture – at the same time ‘an animal among animals’ and a creature with an extraordinary capacity to reflect upon its situation, its behaviour, its future and its past. The behaviour and the experiences of human beings, their anxiety and sorrow as well as their lust and joy, are determined both by what they have experienced during their own life and by their biologically given inclinations and patterns of thought. This is a rather banal statement. //...
  • 36. ..// Yet have we been without theories that unite our knowledge of man as a biological being – including the needs of food, sleep, sex and social community which characterise men as well as many other animals – with his way of shaping his society and his culture bearing capacity. This is to be regretted. To be able to deepen our knowledge about the social creature Homo Sapiens we must gain insight into how that which has been incorporated into the gene pool co-operates with that which reaches the individual from out-side.” Professor Nils Uddenberg in “Arvsdygden” (The Original Virtue) 1998 (translation from Swedish by K Tham)
  • 37. The Human Dimension • Edward O Wilson – ”Consilience” • Nils Uddenberg – ”Arvsdygden” (The original Virtue) • Antonio R Damasio – ”Descartes error. Emotion, reason and the human brain”, • Peter F Smith – ”The Human Dimension”, ”The Dynamics of Urbanism”, ”The Syntax of Cities”, etc • Patrik Grahn – ”Människors behov av parker” • Ulrika Stigsdotter – ”Landscape Architecture and Health”
  • 38. ON EMOTION, REASON AND RATIONALITY - “..what are emotions, feelings, passions? Can we attach a value to them as truth? Can one speak of rationality with respect to feeling and desires? Nussbaum's answer to the latter question is a very definite yes.” Martha C Nussbaum (Quote from Z Zivkovic's preface to Nussbaum’s ‘Känslans skärpa, tankens inlevelse’(The sharpness of emotion, the empathy of thought”) (Symposion, Stockholm / Stehag 1995)) “... complete political rationality demands passion and the kind of discernment that is attained with and through love and vision.” Martha C Nussbaum ”...passion is inseverably linked to reason. Emotion is not just a perturbation of reason but a vital part of it.”
  • 39. SOME OF OUR GOALS To offer a city structure robust enough to meet the unknown demands of the future. To our knowledge, the net-and-block city has the best chances of fulfilling this. Its network structure and clear distinction between public – semi-public – semi- private - private space have proven more durable, rational, adoptable and generally useful than the diffuse and spatially open plans that we have been testing in our suburbs since the 60’s.
  • 40. TIONAL MORE RATIONAL
  • 41. PART 2
  • 42. PHOTO : L BYGDEMARK
  • 43. Other scale references
  • 44. MILANO on the Western Harbour in Malmö
  • 45. LISBOA on the W HARBOUR
  • 46. 1850
  • 47. 198
  • 48. PARIS – THE HIDDEN SECRETS BETWEEN THE BOULEVARDS
  • 49. I N THE GR AN D SCALE – ORD ER AND C LARITY I N T H E S M A L L S C A L E, A R I C H E R O R D E R -- C O M P L E X I T Y, I N D I V I D U A L I T Y, M Y S T E R Y, I N T I M A C Y
  • 50. SOME OF OUR GOALS Clear identities on the various levels of the city – city, district, block, building – we see as desirable. The comprehensibility of one’s neighbourhood as “my home territory” and “a small town in a big city” yields a higher quality of life, like in the arrondissements of Paris. We also saw a main task in providing links to the upcoming stages in Västra Hamnen, i.e. continuity in city block structure, street network, linking buildings in the park, numerous bridges.
  • 51. SOME OF OUR GOALS To provide opportunities for an urban environment that, beyond the requisite order and comprehensibility, also offers a richer order: richness of information, surprise, many unique and evocative urban rooms, dramatic and exciting contrasts of the magnificent and the intimate.
  • 52. To provide opportunities for an urban environment that, beyond the requisite order and comprehensibility, also offers a richer order: richness of information, surprise, many unique and evocative urban rooms, dramatic and exciting contrasts of the magnificent and the intimate.
  • 53. ZOOM
  • 54. ZOOM
  • 55. Modell: Ewa Westermark Bo01
  • 56. JOHAN RÅDBERG 1988
  • 57. LUND 1974 ROSENGÅRD, MALMÖ 1974
  • 58. FOTO LARS BYGDEMARK
  • 59. The urban structure is very old - it is ancient. The urban form is planned today, built today. The motive of the urban form is the aim to the respond to the needs of man. The urban form is not a sum of suboptimizations, but our synthesis of all the different demands that are put on it - sun, wind shelter, land use efficiency, security, quietness, car access, intelligibility, sensual abundance, to name a few of them. Inspiration comes from antiquity, the middle ages, the renaissance, the baroque, the twentieth century and our time. The scale has its prototypes in typical north European towns, among them Malmö - low, dense, intimate, efficient in land use. In Bo01 the average number of floors is three, and the land use factor is about 100%. The architecture reflects how the developers and their architects are understanding the concepts of the good dwelling and its sustainable construction, in this given time and place.
  • 60. Stadsplanens struktur är uråldrig. Dess form är planerad idag, byggd idag. Dess motiv är att svara mot människans behov. Den utgör ett försök till avvägning mellan stadsbyggandets alla krav – sol, lä, markutnyttjande, trygghet, tystnad, biltillgänglighet, begriplighet, sinnlig rikedom, för att nämna några. Inspiration till boplatsens utformning kommer från antik, medeltid, renässans, barock, 1900-tal och vår tid. Skalan har förebilder i typiska nordeuropeiska städer, bl a Malmö - låg, tät, intim, yteffektiv. Antalet våningar är i genomsnitt tre, nettoexploateringstalet är ca 1. Arkitekturen speglar byggherrarnas och arkitekternas syn på den goda bostaden och det hållbara huset, i denna tid och plats.
  • 61. LARS-ERIK SIVERTSSON
  • 62. DAVID WIBERG
  • 63. www.malmo.se
  • 64. KLAS THAM Architect & Planner SAR MSA klas.tham@spray.se Professor em of Architecture at Lund University klas.tham@arkitektur.lth.se

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