Janice Perlman - Human Habitat 2013 Part 2 of 2
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Janice Perlman - Human Habitat 2013 Part 2 of 2

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O Papel Do Setor Informal No Sistema Urbano ...

O Papel Do Setor Informal No Sistema Urbano
Professora na Universidade de Berkley, fundadora e presidente da Organização sem fins lucrativos Mega-Cities Project, centrou a sua atividade profissional, durante mais de 20 anos nas favelas do Rio de Janeiro e, mais tarde, em aglomerados informais do mundo inteiro. Desenvolve trabalho e tem o objetivo de tornar mais humanizados, funcionais e salubres estes mesmos contextos que absorvem uma grande componente da migração de populações rurais para megacidades, sem lhes retirar identidade. Através de modelos de aprendizagem experimental e coletivos, visa ainda reduzir o espaço temporal entre o desenvolvimento de uma boa prática e a sua respetiva implementação.
Abstract da Conferência:
O Mega-Cities Project identificou e transferiu um conjunto de inovações urbanas que se encontram em processo de replicação e adaptação, criando as condições para influenciar políticas públicas. Transmitir este testemunho e conhecimentos para a próxima geração de responsáveis pelo planeamento urbano de cidades, assim conquistando a dedicação destes para a criação de cidades mais sustentáveis, salubres e acolhedoras. A nova etapa, denominada Mega-Cities/Mega-Change or MC2, poderá contar com o envolvimento de Lisboa. Abrange também o trabalho desenvolvido no âmbito do livro “FAVELA” nas perspetivas da investigação, da prática e políticas públicas a favor de uma sustentabilidade urbana inclusiva.
Dr. Perlman will discuss the Urban Innovations that The Mega-Cities Project has identified and transferred and what has been learned about innovation replication/adaptation and the conditions for scaling-up into public policy. Her current focus is the transition to the next generation of urban planners, practitioners, and policy-makers---seeking to involve them in the commitment to greener, healthier and more livable cities,. This new phase is called: Mega-Cities/Mega-Change or MC2 (pure “energy”). She will describe how Lisbon might become involved in this next phase of the global endeavor. The talk will also cover the main findings of her new book, FAVELA, and discuss the implications for research, practice and public policy for inclusive urban sustainability.

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    Janice Perlman - Human Habitat 2013 Part 2 of 2 Janice Perlman - Human Habitat 2013 Part 2 of 2 Presentation Transcript

    • CAXIAS FAMILY Father, travel salesman died when Djanira was 9 Illiterate 1st Husband Passed on 3 years ago Owned Land & stocks Mother, washer women died when Djanira was 7 Illiterate Djanira (66); 25 siblings 2nd Husband Finished High School at age 33 School Cafeteria/Social Worker Raquel (24) Complete Junior High Housewife Lives with 2 children & 4 grandchildren Marco Antonio (45) In. High School Health Office Jane Marcia (41) 3 yrs. of school Housewife Marta Janete (40) Pedagogy Degree Govt. Housing Depart. Jorge Luis (39) Lawyer girlfriend lives with him Celia Regina (38) In. High School Hospital Clerk Almir (35) 3 yrs. of school Disabled/ sells sweets Raldo (33) Completed Junior High Transportation Inspector Janice (32) 5 yrs. of school Sick/Pest Control (SUCAN) Roberto (27) In. High School Sanitary Worker (SUCAN) Marcio (22) “Attends High School” expecting baby Sandro (19) Scholarship for prep course Kelly (22) “Attends H.S.” Has baby Joicy (7) Rafael (15) Diana (11) Primary School Student Luciano (16), Juliete (12), Felipe (6) Jacquelin e (8) Adopted Primary school Stefani (7) Primary School Bruna (15) Student Paulo (18) “Student” cannot find job Mathew (1) Students 1
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    • Found 41% of Original 750 people WHERE ARE THEY NOW? TYPE OF SAMPLE FORMAL SECTOR Original Interviewees 37% 25% 34% 36% 16% 44% G-children LEADERS PUBLIC HOUSING Children RANDOM FAVELA 32% 13% 51% Original Interviewees 11% 21% 61% Children 24% 17% 56% G-children 28% 6% 58% 3
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    • HELIO GRANDE BECAME “GENTE” from Catacumba to Botafogo—thru social networks 6
    • LIVING CONDITIONS IMPROVED 4 - Point Comparisons 43% 94% 97% 97% brick homes bathroom inside the 54% 78% house 73% electricity 98% 99% OIs 1969 OIs 2001 Filhos Gkids 98% 97% 96% 7
    • DOMESTIC GOODS UP 3 Generations compared 68% telephone 88% 89% 39% video 69% 68% 50% washig 67% 63% machine car computer Ois Kids Gkids 14% 29% 34% 10% 22% 25% 8
    • EDUCATIONAL MOBILITY Over 4 Generations Father OI Children Gchildren Illiterate 72% 45% 6% 0% Elementary school inc 25% 18% 9% 6% Elementary school comp 2% 20% 11% 3% Junior high school inc 0% 12% 23% 14% Junior high school comp 0% 2% 14% 21% High school inc 0% 1% 8% 20% High school comp 0% 0% 21% 25% University inc 1% 0% 4% 8% University comp or more 0% 1% 4% 3% 9
    • Educational Gains Did Not Fully Translate Into Better Jobs 85% of children had more education than their parents but only… 56% of children had better jobs than their parents. 10
    • Income returns to education lower for favelados Income Years of Schooling Compiled by Valeria Pero from the 2000 Census 11
    • JOBS/WORK =“most important factor for “successful life” 66% Good job/career 50% Education 36% Health 30% Income/salary 12% Good housing 10% Family Harmony 9% Moral qualities 9% Faith Security 5% 3% 12 Children - 2001
    • INCREASED STIGMA and EXCLUSION Belief that discrimination exists regarding: 84% Residence in Favela 80% Skin Color Appearance 74% 60% Birthplace outside Rio 56% Residence in Baixada 53% Gender Residence in North Zone Res. in Public Housing 52% 45% Original Sample - Random 13
    • STIGMA PERSISTS ACROSS 3 GENERATIONS 84% 86% 78% Residence in Favela 80% 77% Skin Color 45% Appearance Birthplace outside Rio 41% 57% 60% 57% 74% 76% OI Children Gchildren 14
    • VIOLENCE IS WORST CHANGE OVER 35 YEARS Have you or anyone in your family ever been a victim of: 56% robbery 46% mugging attack murder attempt of attack breaking and entering police extorsion 7% extorsion rape sexual abuse 1% 1% 24% 20% 17% 15% VIOLENCE LEVELS 15% ARE EQUAL ACROSS GENERATIONS & LOCATIONS 15
    • FEAR & INSECURITY Fear of what? 1969-LOSS OF HOME 2009- LOSS OF LIFE Removal/ Eradication by the policies of the dictatorship  cross-fire  police  narco-trafico 16
    • Trapped between drug gangs and police 37% 40% 30% 29% 18% 20% 10% 0% police helped 13% drug dealers police drug dealers harmed Updated on September, 2003 17
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    • SHARP DECLINE of COMMUNITY UNITY Are the people in your community united or is there a lack of unity among them? 60% 60% 55% 50% 58% 49% 40% Very united Lacks unity 30% 20% 10% 15% 13% 10% 5% 0% OI 1969 OI 2001 Ch Gch 21
    • DEMOCRACY DID NOT FULFILL ITS PROMISE The Hope: Direct vote Greater bargaining power Greater Voice Inclusion Community Better quality of life 22
    • CHANGES POST DICTATORSHIP Got better Got worse • • • • • • • • • Transportation Housing Sanitation Access to education Health Services Security Economic situation EXCLUSION POWER to negotiate 23
    • INCREASED BELIEF IN DEMOCRATIC IDEALS “Every Brazilian should participate” 66% 88% 90% 34% OI 1969 OI 2001 Child Gchild 24 Updated on October, 2004
    • INCREASED BELIEF THAT “CAN INFLUENCE GOVERNMENT” 49% 51% 30% 19% OI 1969 OI 2001 Child Gchild 25 Updated on October, 2004
    • BUT---DECREASED FAITH IN GOVERNMENT GOODWILL Agree that "the government tries to solve our problems" 70% 60% 50% 61% 40% Agree 30% 38% 20% 10% 26
    • BELIEF-BEHAVIOR DISCONNECT Most Extreme in Youth YOUTH ARE: LEADING TO: • Better educated • More “tuned in” • Believe more in democratic ideals • Know about citizens’ rights • More cynicism • More aware of corruption • Therefore, LEAST PARTICIPATORY 27
    • WILL YOUR LIFE BE BETTER IN THE NEXT 5 YEARS? 95% 88% 64% Better Worse 3% 15% OI Children 1% Gchildren 28 Updated on October, 2004
    • MEGA-CITIZENS BUILDING THE CITY OF TOMORROW 29
    • STORY FROM THE POLICY PERSPECTI VE 30
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    • DEMOLITION = PRIMARY POLICY RESPONS 1960s- 1980s…and now again 33
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    • CITY of GOD-CIDADE DE DEUS -1969 39
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    • CONJUNTO de QUITUNGO - 1973 BAIRRO SOCIAL 41
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    • TRIAGE HOUSING- PACIENCIA 43
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    • STORY FROM THE GLOBAL PERSPECTI VE 52
    • GROWTH WILL BE CONCENTRATED IN SLUMS 2012: 1 billion squatters, 1/6 world population 2030: 2 billion squatters, ¼ world population 2050: 3 billion squatters, 1/3 world population
    • MOSCOW ISTANBUL LOS ANGELES CAIRO BEIJING SHANGHAI DELHI KARACHI MEXICO CITY MUMBAI DHAKA CALCUTTA LAGOS JAKARTA RIO DE JANEIRO SAO PAULO BUENOS AIRES SEOUL TOKYO OSAKAKOBE MANILA
    • now….ON-SITE SLUM UPGRADING BRAZIL: PAC---2007 [Favela-Bairro] INDIA:JNNURM- 2006 RAY PEARL Pucca House + Capacity-building +Sharing what works