<ul><li>Know and understand the principles of adult learning </li></ul><ul><li>Become more effective teachers and/or facil...
<ul><li>Introduction: Malcolm Knowles’ Andragogy </li></ul><ul><li>The Andragogical Model – Adults as Learners </li></ul><...
Malcolm Knowles Most adult learning theories have been based on the work of  Malcolm Knowles , who theorized that adult le...
ADULTS ARE AUTONOMOUS AND SELF-DIRECTED
ADULTS ARE GOAL – ORIENTED.
ADULTS ARE RELEVANCY-ORIENTED.
ADULTS HAVE ACCUMULATED A FOUNDATION OF LIFE EXPERIENCES AND KNOWLEDGE THAT MAY INCLUDE WORK-RELATED ACTIVITIES, FAMILY RE...
ADULTS ARE PRACTICAL.
ADULTS NEED TO BE SHOWN RESPECT
Motivation is another aspect of adult learning. At least six factors serve as sources of motivation for adult learning:
<ul><li>Social relationships:  to make new friends, to meet a need for associations and friendships.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ex...
Unlike children and teenagers, adults have many responsibilities that they must balance against the demands of learning. B...
<ul><li>Lack of time </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of money </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of confidence or interest </li></ul><ul><li>La...
<ul><li>Requirement  for competence or licensing </li></ul><ul><li>An expected (or realized) promotion </li></ul><ul><li>A...
There are four critical elements of learning that must be addressed to ensure that participants learn. These elements are:
<ul><li>Motivation  -  Instructors can motivate students via several means:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set a feeling or tone f...
<ul><li>Reinforcement  – instructors can also motivate adult learners through reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positiv...
<ul><li>Retention  – Students must retain information from classes in order to benefit from the learning.  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Transference  – the ability to use the information taught in the course but in a new setting. </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Transference  is most likely to occur in the following situation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association </li></ul></ul...
Source:  Principles of Adult Learning by Stephen Lieb Senior Technical Writer and Planner, Arizona Department of Health Se...
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Principles of Adult Learning

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  • Principles of Adult Learning

    1. 2. <ul><li>Know and understand the principles of adult learning </li></ul><ul><li>Become more effective teachers and/or facilitators </li></ul>At the end of this short presentation, participants shall:
    2. 3. <ul><li>Introduction: Malcolm Knowles’ Andragogy </li></ul><ul><li>The Andragogical Model – Adults as Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating the adult learner </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning tips for effective instructors </li></ul>
    3. 4. Malcolm Knowles Most adult learning theories have been based on the work of Malcolm Knowles , who theorized that adult learners have distinct and unique characteristics. Andragogy – a term introduced by Malcolm Knowles, which describes the science of helping adults learn. Andragogical – learner centered method. Pedagogical – teacher centered method.
    4. 5. ADULTS ARE AUTONOMOUS AND SELF-DIRECTED
    5. 6. ADULTS ARE GOAL – ORIENTED.
    6. 7. ADULTS ARE RELEVANCY-ORIENTED.
    7. 8. ADULTS HAVE ACCUMULATED A FOUNDATION OF LIFE EXPERIENCES AND KNOWLEDGE THAT MAY INCLUDE WORK-RELATED ACTIVITIES, FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES AND PREVIOUS EDUCATION.
    8. 9. ADULTS ARE PRACTICAL.
    9. 10. ADULTS NEED TO BE SHOWN RESPECT
    10. 11. Motivation is another aspect of adult learning. At least six factors serve as sources of motivation for adult learning:
    11. 12. <ul><li>Social relationships: to make new friends, to meet a need for associations and friendships. </li></ul><ul><li>External expectations: to comply with instructions from someone else; to fulfill the expectations or recommendations of someone with formal authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Social welfare: to improve ability to serve mankind, prepare for service to the community, and improve ability to participate in community work. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal advancement: to achieve higher status in a job, secure professional advancement, and stay abreast of competitors. </li></ul><ul><li>Escape/Stimulation: to relieve boredom, provide a break in the routine of home or work, and provide a contrast to other exacting details of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive interest: to learn for the sake of learning, seek knowledge for its own sake, and to satisfy an inquiring mind. </li></ul>
    12. 13. Unlike children and teenagers, adults have many responsibilities that they must balance against the demands of learning. Because of these responsibilities, adults have barriers against participating in learning.
    13. 14. <ul><li>Lack of time </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of money </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of confidence or interest </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of information about opportunities to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling problems </li></ul><ul><li>Red tape </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with childcare and transportation </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Requirement for competence or licensing </li></ul><ul><li>An expected (or realized) promotion </li></ul><ul><li>A need to maintain old skills and learn new ones </li></ul><ul><li>A need to adapt to job changes </li></ul><ul><li>A need to adapt to new systems </li></ul><ul><li>The need to learn in order to comply with company directives </li></ul>What motivates adult learners? Typical motivations include:
    15. 16. There are four critical elements of learning that must be addressed to ensure that participants learn. These elements are:
    16. 17. <ul><li>Motivation - Instructors can motivate students via several means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set a feeling or tone for the lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set an appropriate level of concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set an appropriate level of difficulty </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Reinforcement – instructors can also motivate adult learners through reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When instructors are trying to change behaviors (old practices), they should apply both positive and negative reinforcement. </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>Retention – Students must retain information from classes in order to benefit from the learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of retention will be directly affected by the degree of original learning. Simply stated, if the participants did not learn the material well initially, they will not retain it well either. </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Transference – the ability to use the information taught in the course but in a new setting. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive transference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative transference </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>Transference is most likely to occur in the following situation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of original learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical attribute element </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Source: Principles of Adult Learning by Stephen Lieb Senior Technical Writer and Planner, Arizona Department of Health Services and part-time Instructor, South Mountain Community College from VISION, Fall 1991 Disclaimer: This presentation was put together for the benefit of the Trainers, Managers and Supervisors of Letstalk.com and not for the infringement of copy right laws. Greg Consulta Instructional Design Specialist
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