E-co-innovation for making e-services
Living Labs as a human-centered digital ecosystem for
education with ICT
Noël Conruy...
Reunion Island is a tropical island in the South West of Indian Ocean
Where is Reunion Island?
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Natural and cultural diversity
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Enhancing assets of Reunion Island
Towards e-co-innovation
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What is a Living Lab?
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A Living Lab is a real-life test and experimentation environment
where ...
What are the problems to solve in 4P?
6
Partnership
How to get to know the future user needs and behaviours?
How to come u...
Knowing needs and behaviours
7
Eric von Hippel, MIT :
• Democratizing innovation (2005)
• Lead users
William Mitchell, MIT...
What do we do in a Living Lab ?
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A Living Lab applies 4 principal activities:
• Co-creation: C...
The ENoLL network
9
320 Living Labs have a European label in 2013
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To know more about Living Labs
In Europe : www.openlivinglabs.eu
In France : www.france-livinglabs.fr/
A didactic presenta...
La Reunion Living Lab
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Natural Heritage
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A Unesco’s world heritage for biodiversity: how to preserve it from human d...
Cultural Heritage
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A regional world heritage but how to preserve it from human globalization?
14
Lab
IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
Teaching & Learning applications
University of Reunion Island Living Lab for Teaching a...
Teaching knowledge
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Physics
Lab
Teach
Learning know-how
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Living
Physics
Lab
Teach
Learn
Playing seriously
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Virtual
Living
Physics
Lab
Teach
Play
Learn
Territorial and social innovation
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Collaborative platform
Content management
Virtual communit...
• Education (environment, arts, languages, …)
• Teaching & Learning by Playing
• Sustainable development with ICT
• Semiot...
• Sign Bases: know-how management
• Multimedia content engineering
• Classification and signification processes
• E-servic...
Creativity platform
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It is the co-working, learning and communication space for researchers a...
Example for music playing
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Multimedia Platform / Creativity Platform
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Production (business objects) Use (usage objects)
Co-design methodology
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Product
Service
Means
Building the
tool
Using the
tool as an
instrumen...
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From Knowledge management to …
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Sign management
University of Reunion Island Living Lab for Teaching and Learning
Sign
Inter...
25th of July 2013
Subject
Sign management
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For classical guitar pieces playing
Communication
Sign
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Sign management
Information
Subject
Form
Communication
Sign
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Sign management
Information
Subject
Data
(Object)
Content
Form
Communication
Sign
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Sign management
Information
Subject
You put the little finger of the left hand on the 7th f...
IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 31
Sign management
Information
Subject
Data
(Object)
You put the little finger of the left han...
The problem for learning classical music
Playing well a piece of music requires:
• Teaching: courses with a professor is t...
What is a musical sign?
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A sign is subjective: there are as many interpretations as subjects ...
Knowledge transmission
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Traditional teaching method in instrumental music
Instrumental learning
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The idea is to bring the professor at home to learn music pieces with ...
Idea - concept
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Imagine: your guitar resting perfectly on the thigh, you listen to “Forbidden...
E-guitare
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The e-service evolves by being co-designed by and with practitioners
Mock-up Produ...
First prototype
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The first DVD was conceived for learning in front of the television
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Interactive DVD (offline)
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http://e-guitare.univ-reunion.fr/
E-Teaching with E-guitare DVDs
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Multi-angle, animated scores, auto & custom loops, slow motio...
E-Learning with online FIGS
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Glosses system, contextual and time-related score discussions, c...
A mixed solution (DVDs online)
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http://e-guitar.univ-reunion.fr/
Sign sharing
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Sign bases are used by Teachers and Learners to share know-how on a Co-design p...
@-MUSE
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@nnotation platform for MUSical Education
Playing
Teaching Learning
Music
Sign management
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The aim is to play well a piece of music with the help of collaborative sign...
@-MUSE for E-piano
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• Music practice community
« texte »
• Multimedia annotation
• Knowledge ...
Prototype
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What is a biological sign?
48
Knowledge
(tacit)
A sign is subjective: there are as many interpretations as subjects (inter...
Sign management
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Subject
For corals classification and identification
Communication
Sign
Sign management
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Subject
Information
Form
Communication
Sign
Sign management
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Subject
Information
Data
(Object)
Content
Form
Communication
Sign
Sign management
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Subject
Information
Data
(Object)
Content
Form
Communication
Sign
Meaning
Kn...
Sign management
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Subject
Information
Data
(Object)
Content
Form
Communication
Sign
Meaning
Kn...
XPer2
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IKBS
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E-Teaching with IKBS
56
 Corresponding descriptive object and illustrationCurrent node of the decision tree 
Remaining d...
E-Learning with ISBS
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Creativity Platform
Learners + Players + TeachersInstrument = ISBS
Appli...
The sign tetrahedron (static)
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Knowledge
Communication
Form
Sense
Data (Object)
Information
I...
The signification process (dynamic)
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Volition
1
2
3
4
6
6
5
Action
Cognition
Communicate
Comm...
From a positivist AI attitude
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Industrial and technological
Traditional data mining approach ...
To a constructivist NI attitude
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Iterative and pragmatic
Know-how management approach for sha...
Sustainable Education
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Linear process
Induction – Deduction
Final interpretation
Iterative pr...
Conclusion
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The Web of Signs rather that the Web of Things
Semiotic
Web
• Context of the Future Internet
• Personalization and usage are the rules
• Opening and democratizing innovation
• Acknow...
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Our Teaching-Playing-Learning Living Lab has to tackle both aspects of assessment
Evaluation...
Context of a new education paradigm
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Information
Volition
Immersive
Knowledge
Cognition
Seman...
Biodiversity / Music
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Biodiversity is to living beings what Music is to instruments
Citation ...
Special thanks
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ViBRANT Virtual Biodiversity Research and Access Network for Taxonomy
• The N...
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E-co-innovation and Living Labs for educational e-services

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This presentation about e-co-innovation for making e-services was made at the IEEE DEST conference on the 25th of July 2013 in Palo Alto, Silicon Valley: http://www.dest2013.digital-ecology.org
The video of the presentation is here:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iCn15ELCm8w
It presents the concept of Living Lab and the instance that we developped in Reunion Island in the domain of education with ICT. The example of instrumental e-learning in music teaching and learning is given to explain our methodology and use of a creativity platform. In this presentation and associated paper, we stress the importance on dealing with know-how rather than knowledge with another method called Sign management for annotating scores with videos. Lastly, we introduce the Semiotic Web as a new paradigm for making education e-services.

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  • I am Noel Conruyt and I work as a researcher in computer science at the university of Reunion island.I am also a biologist and a guitarist, so I want to apply computer science to the management of biodiversity and music. This presentation is about E-co-innovation for making e-services.Living Labs are a human-centered digital ecosystem for education with ICT. I will explain the concept of LL, and through an example in instrumental music learning, introduce the methodological approach that we have investigated (sign management), and a tool, the creativity platform for enhancing Teaching and Learning by Playing at University of Reunion Island.
  • On this slide, I just mention where we live on this planet: Reunion Island is a small tropical island in the South West of Indian Ocean, between Mauritius and Madagascar. It is a French overseas department.
  • Reunion Island is like a little planet in the middle of the ocean, with a population growing quickly towards 1 million of inhabitants on a small surface of 2500 km2. In purple, the Reunion National Park covers 40% of this area. Thus, Reunion Island can be viewed as a little laboratory of the world for managing resources with people. On natural diversity, the biodiversity heritage of Reunion is rated as one of the official “hot spots” in red. On cultural diversity, there are also singing and dance heritages of Reunion Island, called Sega and Maloya, and the second one was unscripted on the urgent safeguarding list of UNESCO.
  • In the paper, I introduced E-co-innovation as a new form of electronic and collaborative innovation that respects the ecology, the ecosystems, the education and the ethics and which has for stake the knowledge economy and society. It makes use of the co-working business approach and the co-learning usage approach with people, in order to co-design new products and services.Living Labs are a way to go in this sustainable direction.
  • Here are three definitions (lire). In the last definition what are the problems dealt with the 4Ps ?
  • I will propose a response to the first question.
  • The Living Labs come from MIT with the ideas of democratizing innovation and experiment product and services with end users in real living environments. For Eric Von Hippel, lead users are the real innovators, more than enterprises. They do it essentially for themselves and by pleasure. So we must identify them and follow their needs! William Mitchell made the proof of concept arise in the domain ofdomotics with PlaceLab. Hundreds of sensors were put in a home in order to observe and analyse lead users’ behaviourswhen they test solutions.
  • In Living Labs, a user-centric research methodology is adopted to get to know the future needs and behaviours of end-users. It applies four principle activities: co-creation, exploration, experimentation, and evaluation. Living Labs allow you to explore new e-services from artifacts and tools experimentedin a collaborative way, and assess their relevance when placed in real conditions of use in order that they become instruments (really used).
  • Since the start of the European network of LLs in 2006, 320 LLs were created and are supported by the European Commission in their digital agenda. We got our certification at the University of La Reunionin 2011.
  • Here are some links about Livings Labs.
  • In the frame of this European Network, we would like to co-design Reunion Island as a Living Lab of the World. More precisely, we want to educate people to the richness of their natural and cultural heritage that needs to be preserved.
  • Reunion Island is a little world that is facing big challenges in terms of managing biodiversity with the growth of population and tourism. How to preserve the natural environment from human degradations ? We make the hypothesis that each individual can preserve the richness of the common good, for example the marine or terrestrial heritage, only by better knowing and loving it! And for knowing something, the first step of the process is to recognize the living organisms that live on the territory … By analogy, when we say “Hello” to somebody, we are able to identify him with his name and his surname, and then take care of him. It is an education principle for living in good harmony in society and also in nature. So the skill to acquire is to know how to observe in order to identify correctly living beings.
  • The education problem is the same when dealing with cultural heritage, one can preserve the richness of a culture only by better knowing it. It is done by observing, manipulating, practicing, playing the activity, and of course understanding it with the help of professors. Here are three examples of this cultural heritage in Reunion Island: music, dance and cooking. They share the same gesture management problem for mastering an art: how to learn the good hand movement in order to get the nice sound in music, or how to catch the correct gesture for dancing well, and what are the tricks to get the nice taste for fine cooking of a dish? For our research in the domain of arts, we focused ourselves on knowing how to play well guitar or piano pieces.
  • So, in our Laboratory of Informatics and Mathematics, we want to investigate the thematic of Teaching and Learning by Playing for co-designing better education services with ICT. What did we do already?
  • For teaching knowledge, our first field of activity was to enhance environmental sciences by better knowing the richness of Reunion National Park (volcano, cirques) … The Insular Tropical Environment and ICT program called ETIC allowed us to transmit knowledge, which is one way Teaching from specialists, with a Knowledge Based Management System called Iterative Knowledge Base System (IKBS). It was used to model, describe, classify, identify specimens for biodiversity management. The result is a Knowledge base that can be linked to information data bases when we know the name of the specimen. Then in the following ETIC program, called NEXTIC, we worked on the interoperability between these data and knowledge base modules.
  • Then, we focused ourselves on know-how rather than knowledge. Know-how is the living knowledge, not to teach, but to learn, because it can only be shown with multimedia. Know-hows are interpretations of specialists that are vital for knowledge acquisition and understanding by students for learning. For example, the activity of correctly observe and describe a specimen of coral reefs or tropical forest is a challenging process for getting a right identification. The activity of making the right gesture for playing a piece of music is also central for getting the beautiful sound and share emotions. These are practical knowledge to learn and we investigated them in the E-guitar project. For these know-hows in sciences and arts, we will speak about right interpretations of objects, which are biological specimens or musical pieces, by subjects, who are experts or amateurs.
  • Lastly, the Playing highlights the need to play seriously in order to learn properly. So we co-developed serious games (E-campus and E-fish) with voluntary and private partners to understand the use of virtual learning in the younger generation accustomed to video games. These learning games invite people to interact with information differently, by being immersed in the virtual environment that is also the real geographical one. This immersive Web can be reproduced on tablets and brought in the fields, then connected to real objects by using the Internet of things. It is the next big challenge to access to information in the virtual and real space dimension. All these projects form the content of our LL that is at the convergence of bio and cultural diversity and ICT.
  • Our vision is to co-design Reunion Island as a Living Lab of the World. We consider that the co-creation of e-services with students and professors in Reunion Island University is a territorial and social innovation.Our Living Lab in Teaching and Learning by Playing uses the concept of co-design for learning to innovate with people on the territory. In our research team, the shift of paradigm that we want to investigate is to pass from knowledge transmission (one way Teaching) to sign sharing (bidirectional Teaching and Learning by Playing). When applying ICT to this interpretation sharing strategy, all the above key-words must be considered seriously for co-designing e-services.
  • Our objective is then to Teach and Learn by Playing. The sharing of expertise is our aimin education for some specific domains such as managing biodiversity, performing an art (music, dance, etc.), speaking a language, welcoming tourists, or cooking … These niches can be enhanced with ICT in a sustainable manner by following some innovative methods for managing subject interpretations, what we call sign management of the semiotic Web. The final objective is to make e-services to share know-how with people.
  • How to reach such objectives? We propose to produce sign bases by managing know-how rather than knowledge bases. These new applications are made of interpretations of objects by subjects for knowing how-to-do things with multimedia content. This is a step further than knowing what are these things in formal and textual Knowledge bases. So, we must organize new decision help tools called Iterative Sign Base Systems by combining classification and signification processes in an iterative and constructivist process. The resulting e-services are co-designed on a creativity platform.
  • Our LL method makes both usage and business objects converge for co-designing e-services on a Creativity Platform. The method starts from an idea, then verbalize a concept, concretize a mock-up, evaluate it, and then build iteratively different prototypes that are significant for a real use. Lead-users who are practitioners are indeed the co-designers of these e-services.
  • On the creativity platform, we experimented for several years different kind of applications and tools (DVD, online platform, tablet) in order that they best feet user needs for bringing the professor at home to learn music pieces.
  • The Creativity Platform (or Co-design platform) is the physical meeting space for researchers, developers, entrepreneurs and users for co-working and co-learning the characteristics of e-services that are best suited to target desires (attitudes) and real use (behaviours) of end-users. It must not be confused with the Multimedia platform that allows to produce contents for e-services in a professional way.
  • In fact, knowledge management is necessary but not sufficient for learning to cook or to play pieces of music. Knowledge resides in the head of individuals or in books as here for recipes and scores. But we can manage know-how that is information exchanged between the teacher and the learner. The most important task is to practice the domain of interest with some teacher advice. There is still a difference between knowing the recipe of a dish and cooking it with its ingredients, or reading a score of music and playing it with the guitar or the piano, or having keys for identifying species and observe characters of specimens for getting the right name. Our role as computer scientists isto enhance the best practices of teachers in order to motivate learners to play these activities.
  • In our Living Lab, we introduced the notion of Sign management for dealing with Know-how on top of Knowledge, because we want to stress the importance of the qualitative interpretations of music pieces made by teachers. These interpretations can only be shown with multimedia contents. This is why we want to co-design tools that show the gesture of a professor for producing the right sound on an offline support as the DVD or on the Web.
  • For playing classical guitar pieces, our idea was to conceive a tool to get some advice of professors at home for playing a piece of guitar, for example with the score of Forbidden Games. The Teacher is thenthe expertSubject you have to communicate with for co-designing products and services.
  • Then, you get the formal notation of the music piece in scores that are put into form in brochures and digitalized. It is syntactical information.But how to convert it into practical knowledge? You need explanations of the Professor.
  • Today, there are a lot of interpretations that have been captured on YouTube. One can easily decide which one he prefers. And this is the starting point for anybody wanting to play an instrument: we want to reproduce emotions that we experienced when hearing a lovely interpretation. For myself, it was the interpretation of Forbidden Games by N. Yepes that inspired me to play classical guitar. This content part of the sign is made of multimedia objects.
  • Lastly, the best way to learn guitar pieces is to access to fingering advice from music teachers who have the qualitative knowledge to explain the technical gestures for producing the correct interpretation.
  • So, we co-designed different kinds of tools that respond to different needs: the e-guitare offline DVD for teaching music pieces, the Flash Interactive Guitar Saloon (FIGS) for learning technical advice of professors with Webcams online, and a mobile system that augment written notations (scores) with multimedia contents (annotations), called @-MUSE.
  • For mastering musical instruments such as the classical guitar or piano, the playing and interpretation of pieces is considered as the central part of the educational process in music schools. But this learning activity faces a lot of technical and interpretation difficulties that are not well explained in music scores. Of course, professors can show how to solve them in personalized courses. Fingering and comments are the traditional ways of teaching with written annotations in scores. However, in the new ICT era for social education, new ways of Teaching and Learning by Playing are emerging. For example, transmedia for content management should be at the core of new instrumental e-learning processes. The advent of different supports for reaching a qualitative e-learning service, and the use of new approaches such as sign management based on a creativity platform can enhance the role of professors and students for sharing their know-how and questions.
  • A Sign is the interpretation of an Object by a Subject at a given time and place, which takes into account its content (data, fact, event), its form (information), and its sense or meaning (knowledge). There are as many interpretations as subjects, and some are better than others. Lets take an example in instrumental teaching and learning of music pieces with the famous “forbidden games” piece on the guitar. The challenge is to play well this piece of music with the help of new e-services. How can Sign management help for this activity?
  • Learning by playing is often based on gesture reproduction by imitating the professor.So, it is important for pedagogy to show how to do the right movement in order to be able to decompose it into instructions and understand the produced result in consequence.
  • Here is the process of learning a piece of music. The fact is that you forget a lot of technical aspects shown by the professor when you come back to your home.
  • Here is an example of the interface, with buttons for switching from one camera to another, slow down, and getting a piece of advice (hint).This view is composite in order to observe both hands simultaneously. There is the karaoke on score notes and finger positions on the tablature.
  • As there was a need for discussion, our next e-learning solution was to share live interpretations (glosses) from different types of subjects. Here is a capture of the interface of the Online system called Gloss2U.On the left is the view of the professor because he is the reference in terms of content and time code.Under him, we see the available glosses for the music piece.When we click on one of them, we switch on the right to the video of the user who posted a gloss (it is me here).In this dialog, I posted two questions about left and right fingering on a portion of the piece that can be seen between the markers of the teacher ‘s video.And we can see that the professor answered to me (there is one reply to my gloss).
  • The education process must also become bi-directional between teachers and learners to be more attractive and efficient. It is why a famous guitarist, Andrès Segovia, said that in his career students were his best teachers!
  • With the arrival of tablets, a new solution is experimented in the frame of a PHD, called @-MUSE for annotating digital scores with multimedia contents (videos) embedded in MusicXML format.
  • The project is called E-piano. The musical signs are made of emotional content (performances), technical symbols (scores) and tacit knowledge (rational and cultural know-how). These elements can be manipulated through score annotation, which is a common practice in piano learning.
  • In this context, sign bases are more efficient than knowledge bases because they show examples and not only describe them.Sign bases will be enhanced by multimedia technologies (3D, HDTV), which are the best means to show examples from teachers and answer questions of learners for a better education service.Multimedia annotations help to build the sense of objects interpreted by subjects, for example the right motion that produces the beautiful sound …This process is called meaning (sense acquisition) or signification (sign construction) from the human side of learning.On the machine learning side, it is called conceptualization (concept acquisition) or classification (class construction).
  • But this experience on the prototype for the piano is also interesting guitarists as it is shown here!
  • A Sign is the interpretation of an object by a subject at a given time and place, which takes into account its contents (Data, facts, events), its form (Information), and its meaning (Knowledge).A sign is subjective: there are as many interpretations as subjects (interpreters).We will illustratethis signification approach on corals of the Mascarene archipelago, and more precisely on teaching and learning the group of Pocilloporidae. It is one of the fourteen families of scleractinians (hard corals) found in coral reefs of our South West Indian Ocean region.
  • Here is another example in the domain of coral systematics, which consists in classifying and identifying specimens with descriptions. Indeed, we don’t know the real number of named species, going from 600 to 800, and depending on a long experience of specialists in the coral reefs. First, sign management starts from the subject, the expert or interpreter that knows well the coral domain to investigate and wishes to communicate it to other biologists by teaching how to identify names of specimens.
  • This expert wrote his thesis on corals of the Mascarene archipelago in 1982, and his monograph of species is renown as one of the best semi-structured information documents that needs to be enhanced in order to learn about systematics and ecology of these marine animals in the region.
  • There are also regional scientific data to enhance, such as specimens found in museum collections, or results of field investigations, and images and videos taken in situ.
  • Knowledge is the result of negotiating pieces of information from different subjects of the community by analyzing and synthesizing them. The quality of knowledge determines qualitative decisions for action. Here is the synthetic description of Genus Pocillopora extracted from information and data collected by Gerard Faure during his career at University of Reunion Island.
  • So, our aim in computer science for sign management on corals is to manage these data, information and knowledge in order to communicate the experts’ best practices to the coral community and finally to act properly by sharing signs for a responsive education in an uncertain world. We can notice that Knowledge management with ICT is not the solution because one cannot manage knowledge that is between the ears of individuals. One can only manage know-how and interpretations that are communicated and made explicit between subjects (experts, amateurs) through forms and contents. We are at the service of the experts, who are the best persons for interpreting things, i.e. defining data objects, attributes and values in a descriptive model, then describing cases and giving them a species name. The role of computer scientists is to assist them in this knowledge acquisition task. The objective is here to describe each specimen for being able to identify its name, thanks to previous classification trees made by two different computer aided systematics tool, such as Xper2 and IKBS.
  • XPer2 is a knowledge base management system dedicated to the identification of taxa. Here for example are the 53 genus that can be found in the Mascarene archipelago, and which can be discriminated by using five descriptors: the first question is the overall colony growth form with 11 states.
  • IKBS is a knowledge base management system dedicated to the classification and identification of specimens. It uses an iterative knowledge acquisition process (descriptive model,cases and validation) for the expert to build codified knowledge in a reflexive manner. The descriptive model is also an observation guide for describing biological objects, and makes use of the descriptive logics in life Sciences. These descriptive logics (the way to design descriptors as objects, attributes or values, the decomposition architecture, the choice of viewpoints, other types or relations such as specializations) must not be confused with description logics of the Semantic Web (RDF, OWL) because they are the rules of thumb of experts for making descriptive models (ontologies) and describing cases. For facilitating the understanding of objects, attributes and values, an illustrated glossary is built with the descriptive model.The objective of IKBSin Biodiversity Informatics is to help biologists classify and identify a specimen correctly from an expert viewpoint by using onto-terminologies (ontologies + thesaurus). The processing method uses dissimilarity measures dedicated to structured descriptions in order to build classifications, and then allows for identification tasks with decision trees and case-based reasoning.
  • But the challenge of recognizing the name of a specimen for anybody is to interpret correctly the objects, attributes and values defined by the expert. This observation capacity needs help. It is why multimedia contents are necessary to illustrate characters (objects, attributes, values) in order to show the observation know-how of specialists under the binocular. For each character that is part of a question in the decision tree, the interpretation of end-users must be the same as the one of the expert for a given specimen to identify.
  • For the future of our platform, we need to extend the reflexive approach of IKBS dedicated to knowledge transmission of experts to a more collaborative approach with people for sign sharing: the idea is to share interpretations of observations with learners on a Creativity platform in the frame of our Living Lab in Teaching and Learning. Living Labs are a growing community in the world that promotes an open and user-centered co-design philosophy for making e-services.
  • We define a Sign as the interpretation of an Objet by a Subject in given place and time, which take into account altogether its content (Data, Object), its form (Information), and its meaning (Knowledge).
  • Then, we introduce the process of Signification, literally the construction of the Sign, also called Semiosis or meaning making.Semiosis takes the various components of the Sign in a certain order to solve a problem: The Subject making an Interpretation must at first pay attention to his environment (1, desire) and look for Information to act in a certain direction (Volition). Then, the facts and the events (Data, Objects) are captured and allow him to position in space and in time to prepare an Action (2, do). Then the individual Knowledge is activated in his memory to compare the current situation with past experiences, elaborate a hypothesis (3, know) to make a decision (Cognition). The Signification communicates then the Interpretation (4, decide) in an iterative way, either by memorizing it for oneself (5, reflection), so becoming a personal know-how, or by communicating it to the other individuals as Information in the environment (6, make know). As we can see it, the spiral of the Sign is a continuous process included in the tetrahedron of the Sign. Consequently, the Signification is the key psychological process focused on technology uses, and which gives sense to practice research and development with people in a Living Lab by applying Sign management (Semiotic Web) on a Creativity Platform.
  • In traditional AI for Knowledge management, the approach is mostly centred on technologies. It is a positivist and realistic attitude in the epistemic paradigm of scientific discovery. This is the case for data mining to discover and transmit knowledge. The Classification approach uses quantitative indices such as dissimilarity measures coming from data analysis or information gain coming from machine learning for classification (meaning constructing classes or making clusters), naming them (they become concepts) and then use them for identification purpose with discrimination or decision trees. Classification follows the industrial paradigm of linear technological innovation with a final interpretation.
  • The second approach that we want to promote for sharing signs rather than transmitting knowledge is called sign management. It is more user-centred than the precedent one for managing know-how with ICT, for example on biodiversity management and music e-learning.Sign management is based on the signification process (construction of signs) and comes from pragmatic learning theories, i.e. umwelt (Uexküll), activity (Vigotsky), and semiotics (Peirce). It is a human machine interaction process that follows the living beings paradigm: signification or semiosis is to give sense to our perceptions, actions, and understanding of situations. Therefore, it is an ergonomic and qualitative approach that is mostly constructivist and iterative, like in the natural ecosystems where living organisms use the abduction principle (make hypotheses) to innovate continuously to survive in the environment.
  • The challenge of sign management for educating people is to combine both classification and signification approaches. Sign management includes decision help tools for allowing experts to codify their descriptions (by representation of objects) and share their meaning with other actors (with significations of subjects). So we need Semantic Web to represent objects and Semiotic Web to signify these representations to other subjects. Objects are not only given, they are interpreted dynamically in a constructive manner by subjects. The difference of interpretations between people justifies the pedagogical effort of experts for sharing signs rather than transmitting their knowledge!
  • in the context of Future Internet, we must put the subject rather than the object at the center of the educational process, and enhanceSemiotic Web (the semantics of humans) rather than Semantic Web (the semantics of machines).
  • Because in the context of Future Internet with ultra-high speed broadband networks, the technology must be at the service of human content and not the contrary. Since the Web 2.0, personalization and usage are the rules for making e-services. Individuals innovate for themselves. In this new era, it is urgent that qualitative experiences be acknowledged in both scientific and artistic domains, because we must build a sustainable life by educating citizens to the richness of their natural and cultural heritage.
  • For biodiversity management, the challenge of our new Iterative Sign Base System (ISBS) is to become a module of our Information management system for defining ontologies and terms, describing pieces work, classifying them with machine learning techniques, and identifying the name through a multimedia interactive questionnaire. It is a real playing activity that aims at delivering an instrument in users’ hands for monitoring biodiversity in the fields, with actors of the National Park of Reunion Island.
  • The social semantic immersive and service Web form the semiotic Web by showing know-how (human performances) on top of written and formalized knowledge (machine representations). This endeavor matches recommendations of European Union for an open, smart and inclusive innovation pragmatic action. The last pillar of such a vision with ICT is to render this pathway for Future Internet desirable. A Semiotic platform is thus an objective that should not be missed in the frame of our Living Lab methodology for a better education of people.
  • Here is a citation of Bernard Chevassus-au-Louis who was a President of the National Museum of Natural History in France. Biodiversity is to living beings what music is to instruments.The quality and richness of Biodiversity in Nature is related to the sound interaction of organisms in an ecosystem that must not be destroyed.The quality and beauty of Music in Culture is related to the harmony of sounds in an orchestra with collaborative instruments playing together. But this is the same idea for a solo player who must cope with the polyphony of voices when interpreting a piece of music.The common vision of these domains is that one only protects what one knows and loves. This requires a qualitative teaching and learning process to develop the motivation of practitioners. This is valuable objective in an ecologic, ethic and socio-economic perspective.
  • A special thank also to the European Vibrant FP7 project that supports this presentation. Thank you also for your attention!
  • E-co-innovation and Living Labs for educational e-services

    1. 1. E-co-innovation for making e-services Living Labs as a human-centered digital ecosystem for education with ICT Noël Conruyt LIM, University of Reunion Island DEST’2013 presentation, 25th of July, Palo-Alto, California UR.LL.TL University of Reunion Island Living Lab for Teaching and Learning by Playing
    2. 2. Reunion Island is a tropical island in the South West of Indian Ocean Where is Reunion Island? 2IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    3. 3. Natural and cultural diversity 3IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Enhancing assets of Reunion Island
    4. 4. Towards e-co-innovation 4IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    5. 5. What is a Living Lab? 5IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 A Living Lab is a real-life test and experimentation environment where users and producers co-create tools, services, and new uses. Living Labs are well suited to new ICT innovation ecosystems that are open, smart and inclusive in the knowledge society of the European Horizon 2020: http://s3platform.jrc.ec.europa.eu/living-labs Living Labs have been characterised by the EC as PPPP: Public-Private-People Partnerships where public and private actors, enterprises, associations, individuals practice user- driven open innovation.
    6. 6. What are the problems to solve in 4P? 6 Partnership How to get to know the future user needs and behaviours? How to come up with innovative products and services? How to take advantage of future Internet? How to come up with the right business model? How to export know-how and do business outside of the territory? Public PeoplePrivate IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    7. 7. Knowing needs and behaviours 7 Eric von Hippel, MIT : • Democratizing innovation (2005) • Lead users William Mitchell, MIT • In situ observation of end-users • Sensors at home (PlaceLab) IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    8. 8. What do we do in a Living Lab ? 8IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 A Living Lab applies 4 principal activities: • Co-creation: Co-design of products and e-services by motivated end-users (lead-users) and producers • Exploration : discovering emerging usages, behaviours and market opportunities • Experimentation : implementing live scenarios within communities of practice • Evaluation : assessment of concepts, products and e- services according to sociologic, ergonomic, economic and cognitive criteria.
    9. 9. The ENoLL network 9 320 Living Labs have a European label in 2013 IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    10. 10. To know more about Living Labs In Europe : www.openlivinglabs.eu In France : www.france-livinglabs.fr/ A didactic presentation in French: http://www.geoffroigaron.com/2011/10/evenements/living-lab-101/ At Reunion : sites.google.com/site/noelconruyt/Home/URLLTL IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 1010
    11. 11. La Reunion Living Lab IEEE-DEST 1125th of July 2013
    12. 12. Natural Heritage 12IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 A Unesco’s world heritage for biodiversity: how to preserve it from human degradations?
    13. 13. Cultural Heritage 13IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 A regional world heritage but how to preserve it from human globalization?
    14. 14. 14 Lab IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Teaching & Learning applications University of Reunion Island Living Lab for Teaching and Learning
    15. 15. Teaching knowledge 15IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Physics Lab Teach
    16. 16. Learning know-how 16IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Living Physics Lab Teach Learn
    17. 17. Playing seriously 17IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Virtual Living Physics Lab Teach Play Learn
    18. 18. Territorial and social innovation 18IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Collaborative platform Content management Virtual communities Know-how enhancement User-driven open innovation Diversity Serious games Multimedia Living Labs Game-based learning Common goods Expertise Creativity ICT Web Signs Co-designing Reunion Island as a Living Lab of the World Teach Play Learn
    19. 19. • Education (environment, arts, languages, …) • Teaching & Learning by Playing • Sustainable development with ICT • Semiotic Web : focus on Subject interpretations • Making e-services to share know-how with people Objectives of our Living Lab 19IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    20. 20. • Sign Bases: know-how management • Multimedia content engineering • Classification and signification processes • E-services on a creativity platform with a methodology of co-design Means of our Living Lab 20IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    21. 21. Creativity platform 21IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 It is the co-working, learning and communication space for researchers and developers, entrepreneurs and users, aimed at defining collectively the characteristics of e-services in order to ensure the most direct correspondence between expectations and use.
    22. 22. Example for music playing 22IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    23. 23. Multimedia Platform / Creativity Platform 23IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Production (business objects) Use (usage objects)
    24. 24. Co-design methodology 24IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Product Service Means Building the tool Using the tool as an instrument Resources P R O D U C T I O N P R O C E S S U S A G E P R O C E S S Confidence acquisition Appropriation process Skills acquisition Project management Business Objects Usage Objects Roadmap to tool mastering Know-how to use Know-how to do Roadmap to tool building Creativity Platform Instrument use Tool engineering Objectives Vision Plan Sense Identity Tasks ActivityAssessment
    25. 25. 25IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 From Knowledge management to …
    26. 26. 26IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Sign management University of Reunion Island Living Lab for Teaching and Learning Sign Interpretations
    27. 27. 25th of July 2013 Subject Sign management IEEE-DEST 27 For classical guitar pieces playing Communication Sign
    28. 28. IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 28 Sign management Information Subject Form Communication Sign
    29. 29. IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 29 Sign management Information Subject Data (Object) Content Form Communication Sign
    30. 30. IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 30 Sign management Information Subject You put the little finger of the left hand on the 7th fret and make an arpeggio with the right hand, you begin by playing together the annular on the first string and the thumb on the 6th string, then play the major on the 2nd string and the index on the 3rd string. You repeat 3 times the same sequence ami before moving to the second measure. Data (Object) Knowledge Content Form Communication Sign Meaning
    31. 31. IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 31 Sign management Information Subject Data (Object) You put the little finger of the left hand on the 7th fret and make an arpeggio with the right hand, you begin by playing together the annular on the first string and the thumb on the 6th string, then play the major on the 2nd string and the index on the 3rd string. You repeat 3 times the same sequence ami before moving to the second measure. Content Form Communication Sign Meaning Knowledge
    32. 32. The problem for learning classical music Playing well a piece of music requires: • Teaching: courses with a professor is the best solution in music schools, but good professors are rare • Scores: classical music relies on descriptive representations of music, called notation that is difficult to learn • Learning: how to capture the right gesture that produces the nice sound? • Fingerings: the professors show their know-how in live courses but can only write their comments with a lead pencil on scores, called annotations. IEEE-DEST 3225th of July 2013
    33. 33. What is a musical sign? 33IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 A sign is subjective: there are as many interpretations as subjects (interpreters) Musical sign Content Form Meaning Knowledge (made explicit) Data (play) Information (score) You put the little finger of the left hand on the 7th fret and make an arpeggio with the right hand, you begin by playing together the annular on the first string and the thumb on the 6th string, then play the major on the 2nd string and the index on the 3rd string.
    34. 34. Knowledge transmission 34IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Traditional teaching method in instrumental music
    35. 35. Instrumental learning 35IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 The idea is to bring the professor at home to learn music pieces with advices from him Teacher suggests a new piece Piece presentation Student learns progressively at home Teacher corrects mistakes, gives advices Focus on Interpretation Technical aspects solved? No Yes Play the piece in public
    36. 36. Idea - concept 36IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Imagine: your guitar resting perfectly on the thigh, you listen to “Forbidden Games” while watching the hands of the teacher on the television. Close-ups, slow motion, back-ups, replays, everything is possible while you can learn to play along with the teacher. In order to assist you, sheet music lights up each note as it is being played: all of this on full screen, high- definition video and natural stereo sound! In addition, the teacher’s advice is associated with the notes and the measures in play, in the form of visual and verbal commentary. A Knowledge base is a qualitative DVD to transmit know-how from Teachers to Learners
    37. 37. E-guitare 37IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 The e-service evolves by being co-designed by and with practitioners Mock-up Product - ServicePrototypes
    38. 38. First prototype 38IEEE-DEST The first DVD was conceived for learning in front of the television 25th of July 2013
    39. 39. Interactive DVD (offline) 39IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 http://e-guitare.univ-reunion.fr/
    40. 40. E-Teaching with E-guitare DVDs 40IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Multi-angle, animated scores, auto & custom loops, slow motion, pedagogical advices
    41. 41. E-Learning with online FIGS 41IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Glosses system, contextual and time-related score discussions, collaborative approach
    42. 42. A mixed solution (DVDs online) 42IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 http://e-guitar.univ-reunion.fr/
    43. 43. Sign sharing 43IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Sign bases are used by Teachers and Learners to share know-how on a Co-design platform
    44. 44. @-MUSE 44IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 @nnotation platform for MUSical Education Playing Teaching Learning Music
    45. 45. Sign management 45IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 The aim is to play well a piece of music with the help of collaborative sign bases
    46. 46. @-MUSE for E-piano 46IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 • Music practice community « texte » • Multimedia annotation • Knowledge inference (automatic annotation)
    47. 47. Prototype 47IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    48. 48. What is a biological sign? 48 Knowledge (tacit) A sign is subjective: there are as many interpretations as subjects (interpreters) Biological sign Content Form Meaning Information (publication) Data (play) IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    49. 49. Sign management 49IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Subject For corals classification and identification Communication Sign
    50. 50. Sign management 50IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Subject Information Form Communication Sign
    51. 51. Sign management 51IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Subject Information Data (Object) Content Form Communication Sign
    52. 52. Sign management 52IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Subject Information Data (Object) Content Form Communication Sign Meaning Knowledge
    53. 53. Sign management 53IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Subject Information Data (Object) Content Form Communication Sign Meaning Knowledge
    54. 54. XPer2 5425th of July 2013IEEE-DEST
    55. 55. IKBS 5525th of July 2013IEEE-DEST
    56. 56. E-Teaching with IKBS 56  Corresponding descriptive object and illustrationCurrent node of the decision tree  Remaining descriptions at the current node   Corresponding specimens for comparison 25th of July 2013IEEE-DEST
    57. 57. E-Learning with ISBS 5725th of July 2013IEEE-DEST Creativity Platform Learners + Players + TeachersInstrument = ISBS Application = Sign base Know-how Knowledge Business Objects Dev & Content Engineers & Infographists Semiotics Methodology Expert Editors Biomatician Usage Objects Users in a Living Lab Producers Tool = IKBS www.openlivinglabs.eu/livinglab/university-reunion-island-living-lab-teaching-and-learning Iterative co-design approach
    58. 58. The sign tetrahedron (static) 58IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Knowledge Communication Form Sense Data (Object) Information Interpreter (Subject) Sign
    59. 59. The signification process (dynamic) 59IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Volition 1 2 3 4 6 6 5 Action Cognition Communicate Communicate Interpretation Knowledge Data (Object) Information Subject Sign Know-how Subject Sign Interpret
    60. 60. From a positivist AI attitude 60IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Industrial and technological Traditional data mining approach for transmitting knowledge Data analysis Machine Learning Formal and statistical Induction - Deduction Interpretation New knowledge
    61. 61. To a constructivist NI attitude 61IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Iterative and pragmatic Know-how management approach for sharing signs Human computer interaction Information and communication Ergonomic and qualitative Abduction - Induction – Deduction Continuous interpretations Knowing
    62. 62. Sustainable Education 62IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Linear process Induction – Deduction Final interpretation Iterative process Abduction - Induction – Deduction Continuous interpretations Making a consensus between Objects are given Objects are constructed by subjects
    63. 63. Conclusion 63IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 The Web of Signs rather that the Web of Things Semiotic Web
    64. 64. • Context of the Future Internet • Personalization and usage are the rules • Opening and democratizing innovation • Acknowledge skilled interpreters • Enhance scientific and artistic know-how • Ecological innovation • Towards a semiotic Web for education? Conclusion 64IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013
    65. 65. 65IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Our Teaching-Playing-Learning Living Lab has to tackle both aspects of assessment Evaluation of the tool with end-users Focus group, questionnaires Qualitative results => Co-designing e-services for them to become instruments Evaluation of users with the tool Surveys, statistical analysis Quantitative results => Focus on the qualitative learning of users Conclusion
    66. 66. Context of a new education paradigm 66IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Information Volition Immersive Knowledge Cognition Semantic Data Action Service Subject Interpretation Social Sign Signification Semiotic Web Open Inclusive Smart Desirable Wisdom
    67. 67. Biodiversity / Music 67IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 Biodiversity is to living beings what Music is to instruments Citation from Bernard Chevassus-au-Louis Sustainable education through enhancing quality of Teaching and Learning
    68. 68. Special thanks 68IEEE-DEST 25th of July 2013 ViBRANT Virtual Biodiversity Research and Access Network for Taxonomy • The Natural History Museum, London • Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Crete • Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences • Oxford e-Research Centre • Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam • Julius Kühn-Institute • Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin • University of Amsterdam • The Open University • Karlsruher Institut für Technologie • Vizzuality • PENSOFT Publishers • Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6 • Global Biodiversity Information Facility • Freie Universität Berlin • Université de la Reunion • University of Trieste x3x2 The ViBRANT Consortium

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