The Grammar of Graphics, for ISKO UK
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The Grammar of Graphics, for ISKO UK

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Final version of the slide set for my talk at the September 2012 meeting of the UK Chapter of the International Society for Knowledge Organization: ‘The Shape of Knowledge’. These slides are ...

Final version of the slide set for my talk at the September 2012 meeting of the UK Chapter of the International Society for Knowledge Organization: ‘The Shape of Knowledge’. These slides are slightly different for the ones shown on the day, and have a re-recorded narrative.

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The Grammar of Graphics, for ISKO UK The Grammar of Graphics, for ISKO UK Presentation Transcript

  • with Conrad TaylorISKO UK seminar on ‘The Shape of Knowledge’ at the London College of Communication, 4 September 2012 1
  • Conrad Taylorwww.conradiator.comconradtaylorbcs.googlemail.com 2
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  • Memories of theNew Maths, Scotland,1960s…‘All lipe shends are umpty’Draw a the set ofVenn Diagramin which the shends the set ofabove statement things thatis true are umpty things that are lipe 7
  • the shapeof knowledge 8
  • Images via Wikipedia Commons: Wegmann (bushbaby), Nobu Tamura (Dienonychus, FireFly5 (Cuttlefish), Mpinedag (‘Lucy’) 9
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  • GraphicRepresentations of Data and Knowledge a form of information 11
  • Teaching about heart disease 12
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  • Storyboarding Web interaction 14
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  • ACTION-REFLECT:Based on ParticipatoryRural Assessment…‘Lines in the Dust’with found-objectmarkers…a Freireian approach topromoting literacy withempowerment. 17
  • www.youtube.com/watch?v=F5xzpuydxjA 18
  • graphic representations and visualisations:a flying history 19
  • Porphyry: diagramming ontologySupreme genus: Substance material immaterialSubordinate genera: Body Spirit animate inanimateSubordinate genera: Living Mineral sensitive insensitiveProximate genera: Animal Plant rational irrationalSpecies: Human BeastIndividuals: Socrates Plato Aristotle etc 20
  • Ibn al-NafisPictures ‘doctored’to assist with teaching,to assist memory 21
  • Ibn al-NafisAgricola De Re Metallica 1556 22
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  • Drawings, but with:– artificial points of view– simplification– labelling of parts– measurements– sequence of operations 24
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  • Note —a ‘vocabulary’of line typesand line weightsshading andhighlighting(here exploiting tints and solids of two ink colours) 26
  • Ebstorfer‘Mappa Mundi’a flat earth,a surrounding ocean,centred on Jerusalem 27
  • Ebstorfer ‘Mappa Mundi’ 28
  • Ebstorfer ‘Mappa Mundi’ 29
  • Tabula Rogeriana, drawn 1154by Mohammad Al-Idrissi, for King Roger II of Sicily 30
  • Tabula Rogeriana, drawn 1154by Mohammad Al-Idrissi, for King Roger II of Sicily 31
  • Astrolabe, an interactive diagram of the heavens 32
  • Ortelius’ Atlas of 1570 33
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  • Joseph Priestley — 1760 — ‘Timelines’ of biography, engraved & printed time as a line… 35
  • William Playfair invented theline chart, bar chart, pie chart 36
  • Charles Joseph Minard, 1869:celebrated multivariable schematic map / timeline diagramabout Napoleon’s advance on and retreat from Moscowin the winter of 1812–1813 37
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  • Charles Joseph Minard:‘From where in France does Paris get its supplies of different kinds & quantities of meat?’ 39
  • Charles Joseph Minard:‘From where in France does Paris get its supplies of different kinds & quantities of meat?’ – colour identifies which Départements are involved in the trade – those involved have a ‘meat pie chart’ associated – colour divided the pies by proportion of types of meat – size of pies reflects quantity 40
  • Charles Dupin, 1826:First ever choropleth map,highlighting regions withproblems of illiteracy 41
  • Dr John Snow:Dot-map of fatalitiesfrom cholera in the1854 outbreakin Soho.Clustering suggesteda link to the Broad Stwater-pumpInvestigation ofoutliers & anomaliesconfirmed the link.Beginnings of scienceof epidemiology! 42
  • Detail of John Snow’s dot map: colour added 43
  • 44
  • Florence Nightingale’s ‘Coxcomb’ charts:causes of mortality among British soldiers in the Crimean War 45
  • Areas are proportionateto death by cause of:RED: woundsBLUE-GREY: ‘Preventable or Mitigable Zymotic diseases’BLACK: all other causes 46
  • The ISOTYPE approach to educational quantitative graphics:Otto and Marie Neurath 47
  • ISOTYPE multiplesof standardisedgraphics, largelydesigned byGerd Arntz 48
  • ISOTYPE multiples of standardised graphics, largely designed by Gerd ArntzSkuravy, c. 1932, cutting out linocut-printed symbols for paste-up assembly into chart artwork 49
  • Køpenhavnnetwork diagramfor the ‘S-Tog’urban rail service 50
  • 51
  • The ‘Linked and Open Data Graph’ — which just keeps getting more complicated… 52
  • The ‘Linked and Open Data Graph’ — which just keeps getting more complicated… 53
  • Where is the theory about what makesgraphic representationsof knowledge and data WORK? 54
  • literature review(& personalities) 55
  • Jacques Bertin ‘La Semiologie Graphique’ 1967 Michael Twyman ite ‘Schema for Stu dy of Jan V Wh Graphic Languages’ hs’‘Char ts an d Grap Doig Simmo 1980 n ds, Ed 1979 ‘Charts an d G Gene Zelaz raphs’ ny 1980 ‘Say it with C harts’ 1985 B Tversky ‘Cognitive Origins of fte Clive Richards Graphic Conventiions’ E dward Tu of ‘Diagrammatics’‘The Vis ual Display 1998 1995 e Quantitativ ’ Information 1998 56
  • Jacques Bertin ‘La Semiologie Graphique’ 1967 Michael Twyman ite ‘Schema for Stu dy of Jan V Wh Graphic Languages’ hs’‘Char ts an d Grap Doig Simmo 1980 n ds, Ed 1979 ‘Charts an d G Gene Zelaz raphs’ ny 1980 ‘Say it with C harts’ 1985 B Tversky ‘Cognitive Origins of fte Clive Richards Graphic Conventiions’ E dward Tu of ‘Diagrammatics’‘The Vis ual Display 1998 1995 e Quantitativ Robert Horn ’ Information ‘Visual Language’ L Wilkinson 1998 1998 ‘The Grammar o f Graphics’ 1999 Card, Mackinlay, Schneidermann (Eds) ‘Information Visualization’ 1999 57
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  • Jacques Bertin ‘La Semiologie Graphique’ 1967 Michael Twyman ite ‘Schema for Stu dy of Jan V Wh Graphic Languages’ hs’‘Char ts an d Grap Doig Simmo 1980 n ds, Ed 1979 ‘Charts an d G Gene Zelaz raphs’ ny 1980 ‘Say it with C harts’ 1985 B Tversky ‘Cognitive Origins of fte Clive Richards Graphic Conventiions’ E dward Tu of ‘Diagrammatics’‘The Vis ual Display 1998 1995 e Quantitativ Robert Horn ’ Information ‘Visual Language’ L Wilkinson 1998 1998 ‘The Grammar o f Graphics’ Alan MacEachren 1999 David McCandless ‘How Maps Work’ ‘Information Is 2000 Beautiful’ Card, Mackinlay, 200? Schneidermann (Eds) Colin Ware Yuri Engelhar ‘Information dt ‘Information ‘The Language o Visualization’ f Visualization’ Graphics’ 1999 2000 2002 60
  • Yuri EngelhardtThe Language of Graphics a framework for the analysis of syntax and meaning in maps, charts and diagrams University of Amsterdam Institute for Logic, Language and Computation 61
  • definitions, analyses 62
  • Graphic representation: a visible artifact on a more or less flat surface that was created in order to express information Yuri Engelhardt 63
  • Graphic representation: a visible artifact on a more or less flat surface that was created in order to express information Yuri Engelhardt 64
  • Compositionality of meaning Part of what a sentence means depends upon its separate words, and part depends on how those words are arranged Marvin Minsky 65
  • Compositionality of meaning Part of what a sentence means depends upon its separate words, and part depends on how those words are arranged Marvin Minsky ‘Frege’s Principle’   after the mathematician, logician & philosopher   Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege 66
  • Compositionality of meaning A grammar is the set of rules for combining symbols, whether the symbols are words or pictures. W K Horton (1994) The Icon Book: Visual Symbols for computer systems and documentation 67
  • Composite graphic objects:three samples – a map with information overlay – a graph of quantitative data – a network diagram 68
  • 69
  • June 2012 Daily blood glucose measurements20 a.m. — 34 a.m. — 42 Subject: Conrad Taylor p.m. — 32 p.m. — 40 millimoles per litre measured by portable monitor a.m. — 36 Early morning measurements p.m. — 34 Early evening measurements15 a.m. — x Onset of new targets for p.m. — y insulin injection10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 70
  • PCT proposal to remove the Walk-in Centre service at Tollgate Lodge Healthcare Centre – an issues mapprepared by Conrad Taylor to assist discussion BREAKDOWN OF TYPES OF USAGE OF WALK-IN SERVICES (incomplete) BREAKDOWN OF WALK-IN CENTRE USERS BY ORIGIN To be seen without Small casualties and Frontline services for Unregistered patients Visitors from afar Registered locally an appointment minor emergencies Health Protection e.g. in the community response vaccination Elsewhere in the UK At Tollgate Lodge Those who Homeless, To be seen in the could easily transient, evenings or at Paediatric ‘worry’ cases register hard-to-reach EU, other countries with City & Hackney surgeries weekends at short notice reciprocal arrangements Are WiC usage records coded, Other PCT surgeries such that reasons for use can Rest of the world For a second opinion Wound dressings be extracted and analysed? Which of these user-types can be satisfied by expanding local GP services? Which of these can be replaced adequately by expanding local GP services? Which types would suffer disproportionately if walk-in service withdrawn? How can the other usages be met, while not overloading Homerton Hospital or causing discomfort, travel problems and distress to patients? What alternative forms of provision can ensure the vulnerable are looked after? Do WiC usage records clearly identify where patients are ALTERNATIVE MINOR ACUTE CARE SOLUTIONS IN THE COMMUNITY? registered with a GP? What are benefits/demerits How to expand North Hackney Adequate alternative provision (see yellow boxes below) of NHS Direct? GP services? must be in place BEFORE WiC services are withdrawn; even then, some WiC provision may still be justified. What benefits/demerits of Quicker appointments GP/nurse teleconsultations? By what strategy, methods What is the PCT strategy for It is probable that a GP-led Evening appointments and incentives will the PCT meeting those health needs walk-in local service at the GUARANTEE the expansion of Walk-in Centre users which point of community need is of North Hackney GP services CANNOT adequately be met still the best way to meet Weekend appointments to satisfy registered patients by expanding North Hackney certain kinds of minor but seeking consultations at short GP services? acute health needs. notice, evenings or weekends? What access do out-of-hours and locum GP services have Where do out-of-hours and to the patient medical record? locum GP services fit in? (and how will the unmet need in other-PCT GP services be met?) 71
  • a composite graphic object consists ofa graphic space graphic objects graphic relations 72
  • a composite graphic object consists ofa graphic space graphic objects graphic relations object-to-object relations object-to-space relations 73
  • a composite graphic object consists ofa graphic space graphic objects graphic relations object-to-object relations object-to-space relationsRelations are achieved (represented) visually using ‘gestalt principles’and techniques such as proximity, similarity, common region (enclosure),connectedness, good continuation (alignment), assumed closure 74
  • 75
  • June 2012 Daily blood glucose measurements20 a.m. — 34 a.m. — 42 Subject: Conrad Taylor p.m. — 32 p.m. — 40 millimoles per litre measured by portable monitor a.m. — 36 Early morning measurements p.m. — 34 Early evening measurements15 a.m. — x Onset of new targets for p.m. — y insulin injection10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 76
  • PCT proposal to remove the Walk-in Centre service at Tollgate Lodge Healthcare Centre – an issues mapprepared by Conrad Taylor to assist discussion BREAKDOWN OF TYPES OF USAGE OF WALK-IN SERVICES (incomplete) BREAKDOWN OF WALK-IN CENTRE USERS BY ORIGIN To be seen without Small casualties and Frontline services for Unregistered patients Visitors from afar Registered locally an appointment minor emergencies Health Protection e.g. in the community response vaccination Elsewhere in the UK At Tollgate Lodge Those who Homeless, To be seen in the could easily transient, evenings or at Paediatric ‘worry’ cases register hard-to-reach EU, other countries with City & Hackney surgeries weekends at short notice reciprocal arrangements Are WiC usage records coded, Other PCT surgeries such that reasons for use can Rest of the world For a second opinion Wound dressings be extracted and analysed? Which of these user-types can be satisfied by expanding local GP services? Which of these can be replaced adequately by expanding local GP services? Which types would suffer disproportionately if walk-in service withdrawn? How can the other usages be met, while not overloading Homerton Hospital or causing discomfort, travel problems and distress to patients? What alternative forms of provision can ensure the vulnerable are looked after? Do WiC usage records clearly identify where patients are ALTERNATIVE MINOR ACUTE CARE SOLUTIONS IN THE COMMUNITY? registered with a GP? What are benefits/demerits How to expand North Hackney Adequate alternative provision (see yellow boxes below) of NHS Direct? GP services? must be in place BEFORE WiC services are withdrawn; even then, some WiC provision may still be justified. What benefits/demerits of Quicker appointments GP/nurse teleconsultations? By what strategy, methods What is the PCT strategy for It is probable that a GP-led Evening appointments and incentives will the PCT meeting those health needs walk-in local service at the GUARANTEE the expansion of Walk-in Centre users which point of community need is of North Hackney GP services CANNOT adequately be met still the best way to meet Weekend appointments to satisfy registered patients by expanding North Hackney certain kinds of minor but seeking consultations at short GP services? acute health needs. notice, evenings or weekends? What access do out-of-hours and locum GP services have Where do out-of-hours and to the patient medical record? locum GP services fit in? (and how will the unmet need in other-PCT GP services be met?) 77
  • ‘Symbology’ the search for the visual morpheme, the ‘primitive graphic object’ 78
  • ‘Symbology’ the search for the visual morpheme, the ‘primitive graphic object’ 79
  • ‘Symbology’ the search for the visual morpheme, the ‘primitive graphic object’ 80
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  • signification- carrying variables 84
  • Jacques Bertin La Semiologie Graphique 1967 English editionTranslated by William J BergUnivrsity of Wisconsin Press 1983 85
  • Jacques Bertin’sretinal variables2PD:  the two dimensions  of the graphic planeSi:  sizeV:  ‘value’ – tint, tone?T:  ‘grain’ or ‘texture’C:  colourOr:  orientationSh:  shape 86
  • Bertin’spositionalvariable 87
  • ‘Colour’ and‘Value’…a distinction that isbehind the times? 88
  • ‘Value’ in the world of print is made of tints (dot patterns &c) of the ink colour.This cartoon wasshaded with tintedadhesive ‘Letratone’films. 89
  • 24-bit RGB= 16,777,216 coloursColour and valuereplaced by Hue andBrightness andSaturation… 90
  • Linda Reynolds study for UK Air Traffic Control:Beyond the green vectorscope — how to make use of display colour? 91
  • Contiguous zones:can use very small changes in colour Backgrounds: desaturated colour is best 92
  • Colour for identification offoreground objects:   few, well-differentiated colours 93
  • With computed transparency,we can overlay corridors on the mapwithout hiding borders underneath 94
  • It may be possible with today’sgraphic systems to modulatetransparency in real time 95
  • Optional display featurescan be called up or dismissedas the need requires 96
  • Linda Reynolds :Colour Displays and how to makethe most of themhttp://www.ingenia.org.uk/ingenia/articles.aspx?Index=106 97
  • ‘Texture’ and ‘Orientation’… ‘Texture’ may be a mis-translation of Bertin’s ‘grain’ Orientation:more significant as symbols (e.g. for wind direction) than as shadings 98
  • Hachure: texture to indicate land relief 99
  • Hachure: texture to indicate land relief 100
  • Texture used in colour map printingusing ‘special’ colours (not CMYK process) 101
  • Colour and texture combineto give a range of relief heightsand depths 102
  • In print, you can use whatever colours you can mix!…in this example, Black plus a special Green defined as Pantone 363 103
  • Some reprographic systems will represent Bertin’s Value and Colour using overlaid dot-tints or ‘screens’ from component ink systems such as CMYKDisplaying solid colours, not tints, preserves the ability to render fine details 104
  • Coarse texturesuseful for coarseprint techniques! 105
  • Adobe Illustrator let me create ameaningful symbolic texture andfill areas with it… 106
  • ‘Size’… 107
  • Size as a signifier: not without its problems do we compare area or height? how to relate a large height-significant component to a small location? 108
  • Size as a signifier: not without its problems do we compare area or height? how to relate a large height-significant component to a small location?‘Countable variants’: ISOTYPE-style array can also have problems of ‘fitting’ Might the ‘spread-out’ version be confused for a proper dot-map? 109
  • Shapes are poor signifiersof value, but work wellas distinguishable symbolsSimmonds, et al.warn against symbols thatare hard to distinguish innormal reading conditions 110
  • What is Texture and what is Symbol? 111
  • The stuff that connects things! Particularly important for qualifying linkages in network diagrams:    Mind maps    Organisation charts    File plans    Hierarchical taxonomies    Ontologies    Debate / argument maps    Entity–Relationship Diagrams    State diagrams … and more… 112
  • ‘Retinal variables’ for lines? Line thickness and colour Shape, direction of line Duplication ‘Terminals’ Various dot patterns 113
  • CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM PURCHASE ORDER PARTY 114
  • CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM PURCHASE ORDER PARTY # Line number # PO Number # Party ID ● Quantity ● Order date ● Name ● Actual price 115
  • CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM PURCHASE ORDER PARTY # Line number # PO Number # Party ID ● Quantity ● Order date ● Name ● Actual price PERSON ● Surname ❍ Qualification COMPANY ● Registration 116
  • CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM part of PURCHASE ORDER issued to PARTY # Line number # PO Number # Party ID ● Quantity ● Order date ● Name composed of vendor in ● Actual price PERSON ● Surname ❍ Qualification COMPANY ● Registration 117
  • CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM part of PURCHASE ORDER issued to PARTY # Line number # PO Number # Party ID ● Quantity ● Order date ● Name composed of vendor in ● Actual price PERSON ● Surname for for ❍ Qualification bought via bought via COMPANY ● Registration PRODUCT SERVICE # Product code # Service code ● Description ● Description ● Unit price ● Rate per hour 118
  • CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM part of PURCHASE ORDER # Line number # PO Number ● Quantity ● Order date composed of ● Actual price for for bought via bought via 119
  • 120
  • Debategraph.org 121
  • Debategraph.org 122
  • animation, interaction,computation 123
  • Animated presentation… …to change the viewer’s focus 124
  • Animated presentation… …to change the viewer’s focus 125
  • Animated presentation… …to build up layers of knowledge about a graphic 126
  • World Health Organisation – interactive map, incidence by country ofdeath rate from Non Communicable Disease (males)See http://www.who.int/gho/map_gallery/en/index.html for this and other Global Health Observatory maps 127
  • World Health Organisation – interactive map, incidence by country ofdeath rate from Non Communicable Disease (males)See http://www.who.int/gho/map_gallery/en/index.html for this and other Global Health Observatory maps 128
  • Gapminder.org Hans RoslingGapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 129
  • Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 130
  • Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 131
  • Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 132
  • Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 133
  • Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 134
  • Conrad Taylor www.conradiator.com conradtaylorbcs.googlemail.comthe endother talks from the ISKO UK eventsat http://www.iskouk.org 135