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# Micro2microscopy

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### Micro2microscopy

1. 2. <ul><li>USING THE METRIC SYSTEM TO EXPRESS THE </li></ul><ul><li>SIZES OF MICROORGANISMS </li></ul><ul><li>>The basic unit of length in the </li></ul><ul><li>metric system, the meter (m), is </li></ul><ul><li>equivalent to approximately 39.4 inches. </li></ul>
2. 3. <ul><li>>A meter may be divided into 10 (10 1 ) </li></ul><ul><li>equally spaced units called decimeters; or </li></ul><ul><li>100 (10 2 ) equally spaced units called </li></ul><ul><li>centimeters; or 1,000 (10 3 ) equally spaced </li></ul><ul><li>units called millimeters; or 1 million (10 6 ) </li></ul><ul><li>equally spaced units called micrometers; or </li></ul><ul><li>1 billion (10 9 ) equally spaced units called </li></ul><ul><li>nanometers. </li></ul>
3. 4. <ul><li>MICROSCOPES </li></ul><ul><li>>A microscope is an optical instrument </li></ul><ul><li>that is used to observe tiny objects, often </li></ul><ul><li>objects that cannot be seen at all with the </li></ul><ul><li>unaided human eye. </li></ul>
4. 5. <ul><li>Simple Microscopes </li></ul><ul><li>> A simple microscope is defined as a </li></ul><ul><li>microscope containing only one </li></ul><ul><li>magnifying lens. </li></ul>
5. 6. <ul><li>Compound Microscopes </li></ul><ul><li>> A compound microscope is a microscope </li></ul><ul><li>that contains more than one magnifying </li></ul><ul><li>lens. </li></ul><ul><li>>Hans Jansen and his son Zacharias are often </li></ul><ul><li>given credit for being the first to construct </li></ul><ul><li>and use a compound microscope. </li></ul>
6. 7. <ul><li>>Photographs taken through the lens system </li></ul><ul><li>of compound microscopes are called </li></ul><ul><li>photomicrographs. </li></ul><ul><li>>The compound microscope is also referred </li></ul><ul><li>to as a compound light microscope </li></ul><ul><li>because visible light (from a built-in light </li></ul><ul><li>bulb) is used as the source of illumination. </li></ul>
7. 8. <ul><li>>Two magnifying lens systems: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ocular lens- X10 magnifying power </li></ul><ul><li>2. Objective lenses- X4, X10, X40, & X100 </li></ul><ul><li>>Total magnification is calculated by </li></ul><ul><li>multiplying the magnifying power of the </li></ul><ul><li>ocular by the magnifying power of the </li></ul><ul><li>objective being used. </li></ul>
8. 9. <ul><li>>Resolving power is the distance between 2 </li></ul><ul><li>objects at which they cease to be seen as </li></ul><ul><li>separate objects. </li></ul><ul><li>>Objects can be examined with the </li></ul><ul><li>compound light microscope that are as </li></ul><ul><li>much as 1,000 times smaller than the </li></ul><ul><li>smallest objects that can be seen with the </li></ul><ul><li>unaided human eye. </li></ul>
9. 10. <ul><li>>Other Types of Compound Microscopes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Brightfield microscope– another name </li></ul><ul><li>for the compound light microscope </li></ul><ul><li>2. Darkfield microscope- illuminated </li></ul><ul><li>objects are seen against a dark </li></ul><ul><li>background; used to diagnose syphilis </li></ul><ul><li>3. Phase-contrast microscope- used to </li></ul><ul><li>observe unstained living microorganisms </li></ul>
10. 11. <ul><li>4. Fluorescence microscope- contains a </li></ul><ul><li>built-in ultraviolet (UV) light source </li></ul>
11. 12. <ul><li>Electron Microscopes </li></ul><ul><li>- use an electron beam as a source of </li></ul><ul><li>illumination and magnets to focus the beam </li></ul><ul><li>> Two Types of Electron Microscopes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transmission electron microscope </li></ul><ul><li>2. Scanning electron microscope </li></ul>