MICROBIOLOGY: THE SCIENCE<br />
WHAT IS MICROBIOLOGY?<br />  Microbiology is the study of very small living organisms – organisms called microorganisms or...
WHY STUDY MICROBIOLOGY?<br />  1. We have, living on and in our bodies, <br />      indigenous microflora (or indigenous<b...
  2. Some of the organisms that <br />      colonize our bodies are known as  <br />      opportunistic pathogens.<br />  ...
  3. Microorganisms are essential for life on <br />      this planet.<br />      For example, some microbes produce<br />...
  4. Many microorganisms are involved in the<br />      decomposition of dead organisms and the<br />      waste products ...
  5. Some microorganisms are capable of<br />      decomposing industrial wastes<br />      (oil spills, for example).<br ...
  6. Many microorganisms are involved in<br />      elemental cycles.<br />      The study of the relationships between<br...
  7. Algae and bacteria serve as food for tiny<br />      animals.<br />      Tiny marine plants and algae are called<br /...
  8. Some microorganisms live in the intestinal<br />      tracts of animals, where they aid in the<br />      digestion o...
  9. Many microorganisms are essential in <br />      food and beverage industries.<br />      The use of microorganisms i...
  10. Some bacteria and fungi produce <br />        antibiotics that are used to treat patients<br />        with infectio...
  12. Microbes have been used as “cell models.”<br />        The more that scientists learned about<br />        the struc...
  13. Microorganisms cause two categories <br />        of diseases: infectious diseases and<br />        microbial intoxi...
PIONEERS IN THE SCIENCE OF MICROBIOLOGY<br />  1. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)<br />      >He is referred to as the <...
      >He created what today are known as<br />        single-lens microscopes or simple<br />        microscopes.<br />  ...
      >The idea that life can arise spontaneously<br />         from nonliving material is called the <br />         theor...
      >Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall finally<br />        disproved the theory of spontaneous<br />        generation and...
  2. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)<br />      >A French chemist, Pasteur  <br />        discovered what occurs during <br />  ...
      >Pasteur discovered forms of life that <br />         could exist in the absence of oxygen.<br />      >Pasteur deve...
      >Pasteur discovered the infectious agents<br />         that caused the silkworm diseases that<br />         were cr...
      >Pasteur championed changes in hospital<br />         practices to minimize the spread of<br />         disease by p...
      >Pasteur developed a vaccine to prevent<br />         rabies in dogs and successfully used the<br />         vaccine...
  3. Robert Koch (1843-1910)<br />      >A German physician, Koch made many<br />         significant contributions to the...
      >Koch discovered that Bacillus anthracis<br />         produces spores, capable of resisting<br />         adverse c...
      >Koch developed methods of cultivating<br />         bacteria on solid media-the Petri dish<br />         in which t...
        The term pure culture refers to a <br />        condition in which only one type <br />        of organism is grow...
      >Koch discovered the bacterium<br />        (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that<br />        causes tuberculosis and t...
Koch’s Postulates<br />   An experimental procedure that proves a<br />   specific microorganism is the cause of a <br /> ...
  2. The microorganism must be isolated from<br />      the diseased animal or human and grown <br />      in pure culture...
  4. The same microorganism must be <br />      recovered from the experimentally infected<br />      animals and grown ag...
EXCEPTIONS TO KOCH’S POSTULATES<br />  1. Certain pathogens will not grow in or on<br />      artificial media in the labo...
  2. Many pathogens are species-specific,<br />      meaning that they infect only one species<br />      of animal.<br />...
  3. Synergistic infections, which are caused <br />      by the combined effects of two or more<br />      different micr...
  4. Certain pathogens become altered when <br />      grown in vitro.<br />      Some become less pathogenic, whereas<br ...
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Micro1microbiologythescience 1

  1. 1. MICROBIOLOGY: THE SCIENCE<br />
  2. 2. WHAT IS MICROBIOLOGY?<br /> Microbiology is the study of very small living organisms – organisms called microorganisms or microbes.<br /> Microorganisms that cause disease are called<br /> pathogens.<br /> Microorganisms that do not cause disease are<br /> called nonpathogens.<br />
  3. 3. WHY STUDY MICROBIOLOGY?<br /> 1. We have, living on and in our bodies, <br /> indigenous microflora (or indigenous<br />microbiota) and, for the most part, they<br /> are beneficial to us.<br />
  4. 4. 2. Some of the organisms that <br /> colonize our bodies are known as <br /> opportunistic pathogens.<br /> Although such organisms do not usually<br /> cause us any problems, they have the <br /> potential to cause infections if they gain<br /> access to a part of our anatomy where they<br /> do not belong.<br />
  5. 5. 3. Microorganisms are essential for life on <br /> this planet.<br /> For example, some microbes produce<br /> oxygen by the process known as<br /> photosynthesis.<br />
  6. 6. 4. Many microorganisms are involved in the<br /> decomposition of dead organisms and the<br /> waste products of living organisms.<br /> They are referred to as decomposers or<br /> saprophytes. <br />
  7. 7. 5. Some microorganisms are capable of<br /> decomposing industrial wastes<br /> (oil spills, for example).<br /> This is called bioremediation.<br />
  8. 8. 6. Many microorganisms are involved in<br /> elemental cycles.<br /> The study of the relationships between<br /> microbes and the environment is called<br /> microbial ecology.<br />
  9. 9. 7. Algae and bacteria serve as food for tiny<br /> animals.<br /> Tiny marine plants and algae are called<br /> phytoplankton, whereas tiny marine<br /> animals are called zooplankton. <br />
  10. 10. 8. Some microorganisms live in the intestinal<br /> tracts of animals, where they aid in the<br /> digestion of food and, in some cases,<br /> produce substances that are of value to<br /> the host animal.<br /> For example, the E. coli bacteria that live in<br />the human intestinal tract produce<br />vitamins K and B1.<br />
  11. 11. 9. Many microorganisms are essential in <br /> food and beverage industries.<br /> The use of microorganisms in industry is<br /> called biotechnology.<br />
  12. 12. 10. Some bacteria and fungi produce <br /> antibiotics that are used to treat patients<br /> with infectious diseases.<br /> 11. Microbes are essential in the field of<br /> genetic engineering.<br />
  13. 13. 12. Microbes have been used as “cell models.”<br /> The more that scientists learned about<br /> the structure and functions of microbial<br /> cells, the more they learned about cells in<br /> general.<br />
  14. 14. 13. Microorganisms cause two categories <br /> of diseases: infectious diseases and<br /> microbial intoxications.<br /> An infectious disease results when a<br /> pathogen colonizes the body and <br /> subsequently causes disease.<br /> A microbial intoxication results when a<br /> person ingests a toxin that has been<br /> produced by a microorganism. <br />
  15. 15. PIONEERS IN THE SCIENCE OF MICROBIOLOGY<br /> 1. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)<br /> >He is referred to as the <br /> “Father of Microbiology.”<br /> > At various times in his life he was a <br /> fabric merchant, a surveyor, a wine <br /> assayer, and a minor city official in <br /> Delft, Holland.<br />
  16. 16. >He created what today are known as<br /> single-lens microscopes or simple<br /> microscopes.<br /> >In many specimens he observed a variety<br /> of tiny living creatures, which he called<br /> “animalcules.”<br />
  17. 17. >The idea that life can arise spontaneously<br /> from nonliving material is called the <br /> theory of spontaneous generation or<br />abiogenesis.<br /> >This theory was debated and tested from<br /> 1650 to 1850.<br />
  18. 18. >Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall finally<br /> disproved the theory of spontaneous<br /> generation and proved that life can only<br /> arise from preexisting life.<br /> >This is called the theory of biogenesis, <br /> first proposed by a German scientist <br /> named Rudolf Virchow in 1858.<br />
  19. 19. 2. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)<br /> >A French chemist, Pasteur <br /> discovered what occurs during <br /> alcoholic fermentation. <br /> >Through his experiments, Pasteur <br /> dealt the fatal blow to the theory of <br /> spontaneous generation.<br />
  20. 20. >Pasteur discovered forms of life that <br /> could exist in the absence of oxygen.<br /> >Pasteur developed a process <br /> (today known as pasteurization) to kill<br /> microbes that were causing wine to spoil.<br />
  21. 21. >Pasteur discovered the infectious agents<br /> that caused the silkworm diseases that<br /> were crippling the silk industry in France.<br /> >Pasteur made significant contributions to<br /> the germ theory of disease-the theory<br /> that specific microorganisms cause<br /> specific infectious diseases.<br />
  22. 22. >Pasteur championed changes in hospital<br /> practices to minimize the spread of<br /> disease by pathogens.<br /> >Pasteur developed vaccines to prevent<br /> chicken cholera, anthrax, and swine<br /> erysipelas (a skin disease).<br />
  23. 23. >Pasteur developed a vaccine to prevent<br /> rabies in dogs and successfully used the<br /> vaccine to treat human rabies.<br />
  24. 24. 3. Robert Koch (1843-1910)<br /> >A German physician, Koch made many<br /> significant contributions to the germ<br /> theory of disease.<br /> He proved that Bacillus anthracis was<br />truly the cause of anthrax.<br />
  25. 25. >Koch discovered that Bacillus anthracis<br /> produces spores, capable of resisting<br /> adverse conditions.<br /> >Koch developed methods of fixing,<br /> staining, and photographing bacteria.<br />
  26. 26. >Koch developed methods of cultivating<br /> bacteria on solid media-the Petri dish<br /> in which to culture bacteria on solid <br /> media, and agar (a polysaccharide <br /> obtained from seaweed) as a solidifying<br /> agent.<br /> These methods enabled Koch to obtain<br /> pure cultures of bacteria.<br />
  27. 27. The term pure culture refers to a <br /> condition in which only one type <br /> of organism is growing on a solid <br /> culture medium or in a liquid culture<br /> medium in the laboratory; no other<br /> types of organisms are present.<br />
  28. 28. >Koch discovered the bacterium<br /> (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that<br /> causes tuberculosis and the bacterium<br /> (Vibriocholerae) that causes cholera.<br /> >Koch’s work on tuberculin (a protein<br /> derived from M. tuberculosis) ultimately<br /> led to the development of a skin test<br /> valuable in diagnosing tuberculosis.<br />
  29. 29. Koch’s Postulates<br /> An experimental procedure that proves a<br /> specific microorganism is the cause of a <br /> specific infectious disease.<br /> 1. A particular microorganism must be found<br /> in all cases of the disease and must not be<br /> present in healthy animals or humans.<br />
  30. 30. 2. The microorganism must be isolated from<br /> the diseased animal or human and grown <br /> in pure culture in the laboratory.<br /> 3. The same disease must be produced when<br /> microorganisms from the pure culture are<br /> inoculated into healthy susceptible<br /> laboratory animals.<br />
  31. 31. 4. The same microorganism must be <br /> recovered from the experimentally infected<br /> animals and grown again in pure culture.<br />
  32. 32. EXCEPTIONS TO KOCH’S POSTULATES<br /> 1. Certain pathogens will not grow in or on<br /> artificial media in the laboratory (in vitro).<br /> Such pathogens include viruses, rickettsias,<br />chlamydias, and the bacteria that cause<br /> leprosy and syphilis.<br />
  33. 33. 2. Many pathogens are species-specific,<br /> meaning that they infect only one species<br /> of animal.<br /> For example, some pathogens that infect<br /> humans will only infect humans.<br /> Because human volunteers are difficult to<br /> obtain and ethical reasons limit their use,<br /> the researcher may only be able to observe<br /> the changes caused by the pathogen in<br /> human cell cultures.<br />
  34. 34. 3. Synergistic infections, which are caused <br /> by the combined effects of two or more<br /> different microorganisms, are very difficult<br /> to reproduce in the laboratory.<br />
  35. 35. 4. Certain pathogens become altered when <br /> grown in vitro.<br /> Some become less pathogenic, whereas<br /> others become nonpathogenic.<br /> Thus, they will no longer infect animals<br /> after being cultured on artificial media.<br />
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