+ Connor Howe, computer components By Connor Howe
+ CPU A CPU is the brain of the computer which issues commands and it stands for central processing unit. It communicates with all components and gives them desired commands. This Is because the CPUs main function is to execute a series of stored instructions. CPU speed is measured in hertz, megahertz and gigahertz. Its size is measured in bits, the higher the bits the faster the processor. the most common CPU sizes are 8, 16, 32 and 64-bit processors. The CPU is found in the ZIF socket on the motherboard and on top of that is a layer of thermal compound and a heat sink.
+ Memory (ROM) ROM: (Read Only Memory)ROM can be found on the motherboard. ROM contains commands that can only be accessed by the CPU such as the boot sequence and the data on ROM cannot be erased. There are two more advanced types of ROM these are:- EPROM = EPROM is Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. EPROM can be erased by exposing it to UV light from a mercury-vapor light source. EPROM comes in sizes from 2Kbit – 32Mbit and 256 bytes – 4 MB.- EEPROM = EEPROM is Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. EEPROM can be erased and reprogrammed electronically. EPROM usually had to be removed from the system to be erased whereas EEPROM can be erased while in circuit.ROM EEPROM EEPROM
+ Memory (continued) RAM: (Random Access Memory)RAM stores the data that you are using and can be increased to speed up and enhance the performance of your computer. RAM only stores the data while power is connected to it, so therefore if the power is removed the data is lost. There are two main types of modern RAM these are:- SRAM = SRAM is Static RAM. In SRAM data is stored using the state of a Flip-Flop. SRAM is more expensive but requires less power and is faster than DRAM. SRAM is usually used as Cache memory for the CPU in modern computers.- DRAM = DRAM is Dynamic RAM. DRAM stores data by using a capacitor with an integrated circuit. DRAM is volatile memory and unlike SRAM which has four to six transistors, DRAM has only one which allows DRAM to reach high densitys. Flash Drive: (Memory Sticks)Flash Drive memory is used in memory. Memory sticks are a non-volatile memory type, this means they dont need power to store data and draw what power they need from the machine they are plugged into and they also have a solid state driveRAM Memory Stick
+ Memory (continued 2) Permanent storage: Some examples of permanent storage are. - Hard Drive, - ROM, - Removable drives, - Internet storage. Temporary storage: Some examples of temporary storage are. - RAM / Cache Memory.
+ Adapter / Expansion Cards Adapter cards or expansion cards are used to expand the capabilities of a computer. Some examples of these adapter cards are:- Graphics card = the graphics / video card controls the graphic capabilities of the computer, it can also be upgraded to meet the requirements for a task, CPU and/or RAM. The video cards have ports on them that will connect them to a monitor or television- Sound card / Audio card = the sound card controls the sound quality emitted. the audio card will have an earphone and a microphone socket and most newer audio cards will have a digital audio port.- Input / output card = you can get different I/O ports on different cards, some of the most common ports are firewire, serial, parallel and USB. Some of these are Plug and Play such as USB.- NIC’s = Network Interface Cards ( NIC’s ) are what is used to connect to the internet. NIC’s can be upgraded to increase bandwidth, improve access to the internet and faster speeds. There are two types of NIC, these are Wired NIC’s which have Ethernet ports on them and Wireless NIC’s. Wireless NIC’s are used for computers to be able to connect wirelessly to a wireless ISR/router. graphics card sound card I/O card NIC card
+ Adapter cards (extended) PCI card = PCI cards are used in computers and some examples of these are video cards, network cards, sound cards and modems. PCIe = PCI Express is a expansion card designed to replace older PCI cards. improvements PCIe has over PCI are:- Better performance scaling,- More detailed error detection and reporting system,- Lower I/O pin count, smaller physical footprint. On board cards are integrated onto the motherboard and are usually found in laptops.
+ Adapter cards (extended 2) PCMCIA = Personal Computer Memory Card International Association is an organization consisting of around 500 companies that have developed PC cards. There are three types of PC cards, these are:1. Type 1 cards are for adding ROM or RAM.2. Type 11 cards are used for fax modem and modem cards.3. Type 111 cards are used for portable disk drives. CARDBUS = a CARDBUS is an advanced type of PC card and is a type of PCMCIA. They are mainly used in portable computers like laptops and notebooks.
+ Storage devices Internal = the main type of internal storage device is the hard disk drive. The hard drive is a form of permanent storage that stores data even when power is lost. A hard drive in made of one or more magnetic material coated disks that spin quickly. A hard drive’s size is measured in bytes, on average starting from 1oo,ooo,ooo bytes (100 MB) to 1,000,000,000,000 bytes (1 TB). External: = the most common forms of external storage devices are external hard drives and flash memory drives (memory sticks). External hard drives are small, portable and compact but still have a large storage capacity. Portable hard drives are USB so therefore are plug and play. External hard drives are commonly used for data storage, disk cloning, backing up (data recovery) and can be used for storing and running operating systems such as windows and Linux. The more expensive drives can have biometric security built in to them. Another example of external memory is a flash drive (memory stick) which has been previously covered in the presentation.Hard Drive External Hard Drive
+ Storage devices (extended) SATA = Serial ATA is a computer bus interface that is used to connect a host controller (HBA) to a storage device (hard drive). SATA devices communicate by using a high speed serial cable and was initially designed to replace PATA. PATA = PATA is an interface that is used to connect storage devices into computers. PATA cables have a maximum length of 18 inches and has been greatly replaced by SATA. SCSI = Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) is a common interface that is used for connecting hard drives but can be used to connect other peripheral devices such as CD/DVD drives. SCSI also has a peer-to-peer interface. Solid State Drive (SSD) = a flash memory drive (memory stick) is and example of a solid state storage device and another main example is a solid state hard drive. A solid state hard drive is much like a normal hard disk drive but alternatively to the rotating magnetic coated disks the SSDs use non-violet micro-chips, and therefore have no moving parts. SSDs are silent, less susceptible to physical shock but are more expensive when compared to HDDs. SATA PATA SCSI SSD
+ Storage devices (extended 2) Partitioning = partitioning is where you split a Hard Drive into segments which are in themselves separate hard drives. In one hard drive you can make four partitions and on each partition you can have different operating systems. One partition is always a primary partition and it is the primary partition that contains the Boot files/Sequence (mgrboot, ntldr). There can also be only one extended partition which can be divided again into logical partitions. Some down sides to partitioning are that the space on the hard drive is reduced and the overall disk performance is reduced. Formatting = disk formatting prepares a HDD for storing data. Low level formatting is basic medium level preparation, and the process of making a new file system is referred to a high level formatting. Disk-Partition
+ Input and Output Devices (input) Input devices are peripherals that put information or commands into the computer. Some examples of input devices are:- Key Board = a keyboard uses a GUI interface and is used to input text into a computer. Keyboard are connected to a computer by USB but they used to be connected by PS2.- Mouse = a mouse also uses a GUI interface and is used to navigate from place to place via a curser in a commuter. Mice are connected to a computer by USB but they used to be connected by PS2.- Game controller. ( wii remote) = some game controllers plug directly into a console but more modern game controllers are wireless. Some controllers connect via Bluetooth and have buttons which you use to control the console. some other controllers control the console by the way they are moved, the signals given off are picked up by a camera that tells the console what to do.- Video inputs. (digital cameras ) = a digital camera takes and stores pictures. The image is stored as a file and when the camera is connected to the computer usually via USB the image can be copied, printed and edited.- Audio input (microphone) – a microphone picks up your voice and puts it into the computer via USB or the microphone socket on the audio adapter card..- Touch Screen (tablet computers) = a touch screen device has a clear touch sensitive panel, the panel give the device instructions depending on where you touch it.- biometric scanners = there are three main types biometric scanners that you would get on a computer or laptop, these are fingerprint scanners, retinal scanners and voice scanners. These scanners measure and read certain physical attributes and the result is then combined with your desired password to works as a security lock system.
+ Input and output devices (output) Output devices are peripherals that give out data and information in picture form or via audio some examples of these devices are:- Printer = all printers create hard copies of computer files onto paper. Certain printers are specialized for performing specific tasks, some printers specialize in photo printing. These printers print with a higher DPI therefore enhancing the picture quality but consequentially the PPM is dramatically reduced when compared to an office printer which is designed primarily to have a high PPM. All-in-one printers have three main features, these features are to print, to copy and to fax. Printers are connected to computers by USB but used to be connected by serial.- Monitor = monitors display digital images. There are three types of monitors that are defined by the technology used in them. The first type is a CRT monitor which has coloured tubes inside that glow to create an image on the screen. The second is an LCD monitor is made of liquid crystals, an electric current aligns the liquid crystals to either not allow or allow certain amounts of light through to create an image. The third is an LED monitor, these monitors consist of a large amount of small LED lights that light up in different colours, different brightnesss and at different times to create an image. Monitors are most commonly connected to computers via VGA.- Speaker / headphones = speakers and headphones are output devices that output sound from the computer. Headphones and speakers are plugged into the audio ports on an adapter card in a computer or into the USB port.Printer Monitor Speaker/headphones
Floppy drive CD-ROM Power cable PATA cable HDD Mother BoardPSU Expansion cards/slots CPU / Heat Sink RAM slots