Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Jj leahy expo
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Jj leahy expo

2,052
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,052
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
66
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 2 nd Generation biomass conversion - biorefining J J Leahy –University of Limerick
  • 2. 2 nd Generation biomass conversion
    • 2 nd Generation; new sustainable indigenous industry based on carbohydrate biomass of which a major component is lignocellulosic biomass
    • Nonfood biomass  transport fuel, fuel additives, chemicals (plastics, food ingredients, medical products)
  • 3. 1 st Generation biomass conversion
    • Vegetable oils  biodiesel
    • Biomass starch  ethanol
  • 4. Biomass Sugar/starch crops Lignocellulosic Biomass Oil plants extraction Vegetable oil hydrolysis sugar fermentation Bio-ethanol pyrolysis gasification Anaerobic digestion hydrolysis refining Catalytic upgrading syngas Catalytic reforming Bio-oil Motor fuels & Chemicals biogas methane sugar fermentation esterify biodiesel Bioalcohol
  • 5. Biofuels: a significant opportunity for Ireland
    • Resources: grass, biomass, agricultural residues
    • Global B iofuels Market: $160b in 2012 - growth of 13.0% p/a to 2017
    • Global Biorefining Market: multi-sectorial, e.g. 20% of sales in global chemical industry = $250b, c. 400,000 jobs.
    • Need to integrate Ireland into EU strategy and maximize business opportunities
    • Technologies, feedstock prices and policy framework
  • 6. Ireland’s response
    • Policy: Cleantech focus by Agencies
    • IDA/EI: Competence Centre for Biorefining and Bioenergy
      • Grass and algae (desk studies) as feedstock, ethanol as primary fuel target. Near to market or technology importation to establish Irish-based activity
    • need to develop strategic research base focused on next generation technologies, to attract key industrial players and to position Ireland for success
  • 7.  
  • 8. Next Steps
    • Address strategic gaps: field to wheel
    • Engage key industrial players through cutting edge research
    • Exploit competitive advantages:
      • Future feedstock development
      • Future transport usage
      • Novel, high-value co-products
      • Sustainable procesess
    • Education sector - Graduates, IP, leveraged funding,
    Significant economic and commercial impacts
  • 9. Need to select “good” varieties of plants? Novel varieties of Ryegrass, Miscanthus and Sweet Sorghum easier to bioprocess Smarter biofuels - Butanol: major advantages– production? Biogas methane: flexible fuel but production efficiency low? Processes based on novel enzyme technologies or chemical routes (catalysis) Demonstration-scale production New Irish businesses: 2nd and 3rd G biogas and butanol technologies
  • 10. Co-products and residues Bioenergy alone not sustainable – dependent on nature &value of co-products Residues minimized, converted to added value products
    • D-xylose (C5) conversion to bioplastic
    • Biochar production process from residues
    • Novel non-GM protein supplement for animal nutrition
  • 11. University of Limerick Biorefining research
    • Thermochemical processing of biomass through pyrolysis and thermal gasification to 2 nd generation biofuels and biochar
    • Chemical hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to levulinic acid
  • 12. University of Limerick
  • 13. Catalytic Conversion
    • Nonfood biomass  levulinic acid  fuel additives, chemicals
    • Biomass derived bio-oil  fuels, chemicals, hydrogen
    • Biomass derived chemicals (by-products)  fuels , hydrogen
    • Vegetable oils  biodiesel
    • Biomass  ethanol
  • 14. Carbolea
    • Research group comprised mainly of chemists, chemical engineers;
    • Group consist of 2 professors 2 Senior faculty, 2 CPI research fellows; 5 post-docs & 10 PhD students
    • Research goes from field to engine & back to field
    • Extensive involvement in 1 st generation biofuels
      • 3 EU; several national programs; currently involved with ESB on fleet trials
      • Waste cooking oil & tallow feedstocks
      • Modifying the low temperature behaviour of Biodiesel
      • Effect of biofuel deployment on fleet management.
    • 2 nd Generation; new sustainable indigenous industry based on carbohydrate biomass of which a major component is lignocellulosic biomass
  • 15. Thermochemical-pyrolysis NONFOOD BIOMASS (grasses or residue from fermentation, etc) lignin (15-30%), cellulose (35-50%), hemicellulose (15-25%) Pyrolysis Gases, Char, Bio-oil T=450-550 o C, Residence time <2s, Heating rates 10 3 -10 4 K/s 70-80% yield
  • 16. Bio-oil Properties
    • Mixture >300 compounds
    • acetic acid 1-32%, formic acid 1-20%, phenols, aromatics, water, etc.
    • Advantages: transportable, storable, much higher energy density than biomass and cleaner
    Disadvantages: corrosive (pH=2.5), unstable, immiscible with petrofuels, low heating values
  • 17. Bio-oil vs Transport Fuels
    • Bio-oil Gasoline Diesel
    • Carbon chain
    • length up to 100 5-10 12-20
    • branched alkanes, linear alkanes
    • aromatics
    • H/C ratio ~ 1.3 1-2 ~2
    • O/C ratio 0.5 0 0
    Upgrading of bio-oil is necessary
  • 18. Hydrodeoxygenation of Bio-oil Bio-oil Hydrocarbons (naphtha equivalent) Diesel Refining, catalysts Hydrodeoxygenation, Mesoporous silica supported catalysts Bio-oil + H 2  Hydrocarbons + H 2 O 350-400 o C
  • 19. Bio-oil + R-OH  Upgraded Bio-oil + H 2 O Esterification R 1 COOH + R-OH <-> R 1 COOR + H 2 O Acetalization Acid catalysts Acid catalysts, 50-80 o C Acid catalysts Esterification R 1 CHO + 2 R-OH <-> R 1 CH(OR) 2 + H 2 O
  • 20. Gasification pyrolysis Feedstock analysis Feedstock selection & optimisation Biosyn gas Alcohol synthesis Bioethanol higher alcohols Catalytic upgrading Liquid hydrocarbon fuels Char Bio oil Biochar Activated carbon Catalytic Upgrading Diesel Miscible Biofuels Platform Chemicals Gas cleaning & conditioning Chemical Hydrolysis (Solid Acid Catalysts) Pretreatment (Ionic Liquids) Platform Chemicals & optimisation Lignin Residue Sugars Liquid Transport Fuels Alternatives to Petrol-Derived Products Fermentation Catalysis
  • 21. Gasification Temperature Fluidising velocity Inert material Characteristics Residence time Particle size Moisture Mineral content Fixed carbon volatiles Feedstock parameters Process variables Gas quality
  • 22.  
  • 23. Gasification of Bio-oil Bio-oil Steam and autothermal reforming, >700 o C Supported metals Fischer-Tropsch Process (FT), supported Co or Fe catalysts Methanol Methanol to gaso- line process (MTG) Diesel CO + H 2 Gasoline Cu/Zn/Al 2 O 3 catalysts, high pressure Bio-oil + H 2 O (+ O 2 )  CO + H 2  Hydrocarbons + H 2 O Dimethyl ether (diesel substitute) zeolites synthesis gas
  • 24. Hydrogen
    • Clean fuel
    Present industrial production: coal natural gas (CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , etc) + H 2 O  H 2 + CO, steam-reforming naphtha CO + H 2 O  CO 2 + H 2 , water-gas shift reaction 50 million tons per year
  • 25. Hydrogen from Bio-oil Water soluble Bio-oil Steam and autothermal reforming, supported metals, >600 o C H 2 + CO 2 + some CO Preferential oxidation process (PROX), supported metals H 2 + CO 2 Energy Low temperature fuel cell Bio-oil + H 2 O (+ O 2 )  CO 2 + H 2 YIELDS – up to 90% Bio-oil H 2 O extraction Hydrogen production from bio-oil looks attractive
  • 26. Hydrogen from Chemicals Derived from Biomass Steam reforming over supported metals and oxides as catalysts H 2 + CO 2 Formic acid, HCOOH Ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH Glycerol
  • 27. Levulinic acid –platform chemical & primary goal of DIBANET (UL led FP7) CROPS ARGICULTURAL RESIDUES CELLULOSIC SLUDGES WOOD STARCH WASTE PAPER MOLASSES THE BIOFINE PROCESS LEVULINIC ACID FORMIC ACID FURFURAL LIGNEOUS CHAR DOWNSTREAM CONVERSION SPECIALTY CHEMICALS COMMODITY CHEMICALS HERBICIDES PESTICIDES ENERGY FUELS AUTOMOTIVE FUELS FEEDSTOCKS “ BIOMASS” PRODUCTS
  • 28. Chemical hydrolysis of cellulose to LA Cellulose Sugars Intermediates I HMF Intermediates II Levulinic Acid (50wt %) First Stage Plug Flow Reactor Second Stage Back Mixed Reactor Fast Reaction (Seconds) Slow Reaction (Minutes) Tars (30 wt%) Formic Acid (20 wt %)
  • 29. BIOREFINERY YIELDS 50% Cellulose 30% Hemicellulose 20% Lignin TYPICAL MOLAR YIELDS (OF THEORETICAL) TYPICAL MASS YIELDS (PER TONNE OF FEED) LEVULINIC ACID FORMIC ACID FURFURAL LIGNEOUS CHAR 70% 70% 70% 100% (MASS) 0.25 0.10 0.15 (VARIES) 0.45
  • 30.
    • Thank you for listening
    • Questions?