United We Respond


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This describes how one group decision can be made from many individual expert opinions given an emergency crisis.

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United We Respond

  1. 1. United We Respond: One Community, One Voice Connie White Starr Roxanne Hiltz Murray Turoff NJIT
  2. 2. Motivation <ul><li>Emergency Situations cross boarders exceeding local resources </li></ul><ul><li>Newly formed groups suffer from Threat Rigidity where pertinent information is lost </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Delphi can create and sustain a group ‘voice’ for Community of Practice </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Responders can consists of local, state, national and international responders </li></ul><ul><li>CERT civilian emergency response team </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer groups (firefighters, civilians) </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi </li></ul><ul><li>Thurstone’s Law of Comparative Judgment for group consensus </li></ul><ul><li>End result is ‘collective intelligence’ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Community of Practice (CoP) <ul><li>‘groups of people who share a concern, a set of problems , or a passion about a topic, and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by interacting on a ongoing basis.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Wenger </li></ul>
  5. 5. Community of Practice <ul><li>‘ House the valuable knowledge and practice of how things really get done in an organization’ </li></ul><ul><li>CoP is a natural gathering of individuals who have synergistic effect. </li></ul><ul><li>CERT, FEMA civilian corps, military </li></ul><ul><li>Not hierarchical, but collegiate collaborative decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize Community Response Grid </li></ul>
  6. 6. Collaboration <ul><li>Roles: Human roles built into software </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols: Processes for establishing results </li></ul><ul><li>Structure: Knowledge structures such as Delphi to organize and provide modeled relationships, provide visualizations, scaling methods, etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dynamic Delphi <ul><li>Member identity is anonymous: pen names or real names can be used </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone can vote or have say on any topic </li></ul><ul><li>Votes can be changed based on merits of arguments, new information, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dynamic Delphi <ul><li>Anyone can participate in any part of decision model </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction is Asynchronous </li></ul><ul><li>Participants don’t have to be co-located </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Feedback that is real time </li></ul>
  9. 9. Group Consensus <ul><li>Thurstone’s Law of Comparitive Judgment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pair-wise comparison breaking down decisions into atomic unidimensional data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duress, Sleep Depravation, Multiple Expert Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplifies complex problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessens information overload </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Information Feedback RealTime <ul><li>Creates Visual Scale of group opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Allows individuals to know where they stand against group opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Informs others where all stand on any issue, group opinions, group consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Tells where each individual item stands relative to other items </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dynamic Decision Model
  12. 12. Dynamic Decision Making <ul><li>Any idea can be submitted by any group member anytime on a list </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous vote on any proposed item </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone can vote, change their vote, choose not to vote or hold vote until more information comes in </li></ul><ul><li>Only best solutions are utilized and voted on </li></ul>
  13. 13. Information Overload Reduced
  14. 14. Visual Feedback
  15. 15. Visual Feedback Interpretation <ul><li>Indication of strong areas of agreement or disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Shows clusters of items indicating perceived equivalences based on some dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Give a rank order of items on semantic differential where rank is relative </li></ul>
  16. 16. Expectations? <ul><li>More experts produce collective intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible decision model reflecting human mind </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in Information Overload and complexity in decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Better decisions, better outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Environment </li></ul>
  17. 17. Future Research <ul><li>Build and test system on emergency responders </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source software to reduce cost and increase usability – digital divide </li></ul><ul><li>Domain is non-specific and can be used in many situations </li></ul>
  18. 18. Any Questions, Comments, Critiques, or Criticisms? Thank you! Connie, Roxanne, Murray