Imagine a single dot on a ping pong
ball. How would you describe its
It would be quite difficult. The same is
true of locations on the Earth's surface.
Geographers have solved this problem
by creating latitude lines and longitude
Latitude: (parallels) imaginary lines going
from the east to the west (right to left), but
dividing the globe north to south.
They are called parallels because they never
touch. These lines are measured in degrees.
Equator: an imaginary line that divides the
earth into northern and southern hemispheres.
It is the zero degrees latitude.
Important Latitude Lines
Tropic of Cancer: 23 ½°N north of the equator. The farthest
point north at which the sun can shine directly overhead.
Tropic of Capricorn: 23 ½ °S south of the equator. The
farthest point south at which the sun can shine directly
Arctic Circle: 66 ½° N the frigid zone located directly on the
center of the north pole.
Antarctic Circle: 66 ½° S the frigid zone located directly on
the center of the south
Lines of Latitude & Climate
Now, color p10 in your
Int’l Date Line Defined
International Date Line – an imaginary
line on the Earth’s surface at 180°
longitude, mostly through the Pacific
Ocean, to the east of which the calendar
date is one day earlier than to the west
Since its beginning, the
International Date Line has
zigzagged to avoid spitting
apart countries into two
days. It bends through the
Bering Strait to avoid
placing far northeastern
Russia in a different day
than the rest of the country.
time zone – The method of tracking the 24
hours throughout the 360 degrees of the
earth’s circumference. Each time zone
generally equals 15 degrees longitude.
standard time zone – a region in which the
same time is used
daylight saving time – a plan in which clocks
are set one hour ahead of standard time for a
specific time for a specific period of time
More Key Terms
A.M. ante meridiem (Latin) – “before
P.M. post meridiem (Latin) – after noon