1. Mineral d
Mi l deposit prevention and removal with an
i i d l ih
Manufactured in the USA, United Kingdom, Thailand,
The Netherlands and Vietnam.
For pipe diameters up to 2.5 m
2. Scalewatcher™ Organization
B & D Ingenieursburo, The Netherlands (1983),
Manufacturing, Licensing, Research an Development
Scalewatcher North America Inc.
Pennsylvania, USA (1993)
Scalewatcher Vietnam LTD
Vietnam (March 2000)
Scalewatcher (Thailand) Co., LTD.
3. The problems
4. Problem solving with the
• Scalewatcher: F=qE + q
• F: Force on charge, q: Charged particle or charged ion, E: electric field, v: Velocity of
water, B: Magnetic field strength.
• Magnet: F=q vxB Newton
• Alloys: F=q.E Newton B
5. Charged particle surrounded by
opposite charged ions
• A charged particle in
the water will be
h ill b
opposite charged ions
6. Negatively charged particle
with electric double layer
Electric double layer
7. Negatively charged particle with
electric double layer
• By nature particles in the water are
negatively charged. Therefore they are
surrounded by positive ions. The
positive ions will attract negative ions
creating the so called electric double
layer. This is a stable situation and can
be made instable by the action of
Scalewatcher, initiating crystal growth
Sl t h i iti ti tl th
on the particle.
• Therefore there will be less free
mineral ions causing scaling on pipe
walls or other surfaces. The crystals
flow ith th
fl with the water down the drain.
td th d i
8. th ™
Scalewatcher™ promotes crystal forming in
Sl t t lf ii
the bulk of the water
• When calcium and bicarbonate ions are
combined, calcium carbonates and carbonic
bi d l i b d bi
acid are formed.
• Ca + 2HCO3 CaCO3 + H2CO3
(solid) (carbonic acid)
• The carbonic acid will further disassociate in
H2CO3 H2O + CO2
9. Scalewatcher™ promotes crystal
forming in the bulk of the water
• These crystals have less or no surface
charge and will therefore not adhere to pipe
walls or other surfaces. If the flow of water
is low the crystals may settle on the pipe
wall but the nature is soft instead of rock
10. Scalewatcher™ removes old
• Old scale layers of carbonate scales will
disappear because of the generation of
carbon dioxide bubbles, being able to
dissolve hard scale. This will temporarily
increase the hardness of the liquid and is an
indication that the treatment has effect.
• H20 + CaC03 + CO2 Ca+ + 2HCO3--
Water Scale layer Gas Calcium ion Bi Carbonate ion
11. Drop of water as seen under a
microscope. Not treated
• When the drop
evaporates l l super
saturation at the
interface will occur
i f ill
and dissolved minerals
Evaporated t drop
E p t d water d p
12. Drop of water as seen under a
• Near the edge of the
drop less precipitation
is seen due to the fact
that less mineral ions
are in solution. (Ions
already by the action
of Scalewatcher and
are distributed across
Interface shows less crystals (scaling)
13. Evidence of the theory
E id fh h
At the moment
signal was applied
to a super
14. General equipment i I d
G l i in Industry where
Scalewatcher can be used
• Cooling towers – Chillers • Evaporators
• Compressors • Condensers
• Water boilers • Aerators
• Fire tube steam boilers
• Plate heat exchangers
• Shell and tube heat
• Pipe lines
15. The Scalewatcher™ product
• Installation at paper factory Varel in Germany
16. Oil installation example in
17. Scalewatcher coil
• Two layers wrapped around the
pipe with the same winding sense.
Two layers will give a higher
induction in the liquid to be treated.
• Number of windings is usually
2x20 for liquids with low TDS.
18. Fire tube steam boiler
19. Fire b
Fi tube steam b il bl d
boiler blow down water of a F d
Corp. in Thailand
Total dissolved solids
14 000 00
Total dissolved solids
1 2 3 4
1: Before installation, 2: After 15 days, 3: After 30 days, 4: After 60 days
20. Effect on fire tube steam boilers
1. First few weeks more blow down needed to keep the boiler
within the recommended parameters of the boiler manufacturer.
2. When the boiler is cleaned by the treatment less blow down
3 Less corrosion.
4. Lower body temperature of the boiler (About 10 C less.)
5. Dryer steam
6. Less energy needed to operate the boiler.
7. In some cases boilers may be operated without the use of chemicals
In short: Less maintenance, savings on chemicals, energy and water.
“Scalewatcher fitted to boilers does not replace the need for regular monitoring of the boiler
and feed water. Water chemistry should be maintained within manufacturers recommendations.”
21. Water tube steam boilers
• Scalewatcher cannot replace
chemical water treatment of a water
tube steam boiler. When there is
still scaling despite the use of
chemicals, Scalewatcher can be
• The image shows the pre heater of
a water tube steam boiler with
Scalewatcher installed. Instead of
cleaning each month cleaning was
only necessary every two months.
22. Shell and tube heat exchanger
Process water inside tubes 180 ºC
Cooling water outside tubes ambient temperature
Completely clean after b i
C ltl l ft being
Scaling after six months without SW
treated with SW during six
23. Plate heat exchanger
• Plate heat exchangers are difficult
to treat caused by the high heat
transfer rate. On a circulation
system Scalewatcher will have a
better effect than on a one pass
• If process allows 50 % more plates
should be used to get a better
T b evaporator as used in the sugar
t d i th
• Scalewatcher needs a good
flow of the liquid in order
to remove and prevent
• An evaporator evaporates
the liquid in the tubes in
order to concentrate the
liquid and therefore not
much flow can be expected.
• Field experiments showed
less scaling which was
easier to clean.
25. One pass cooling tower in Egypt
Before treatment After two months of treatment
26. Cooling tower largest building in London
One coil wrapped
over two pipes
Diam 1000 mm
27. Cooling t
C li tower and chiller Conrad building in
d hill C d b ildi i
Cooling tower internals after four months of Scalewatcher treatment running on 5.4 coc.
No need to ever clean the tower again.
28. Typical cooling tower installation
29. Agua 949 – Plaza la Silla
T i l cooling tower installaton
li t i t ll t
Evaporation and wind
Make up Cooling
TDS of 16 grains Exchanger
per gallon, 2’’
Each cooling tower losses 1,500 liters per day because of
evaporation. The evaporation leaves calcium on the cooling
towers. The calcium rises the water TDS. This water goes
directly to the Heat Exchanger.
30. Effect on water usage cooling
31. Effect on cooling towers
• No chemicals needed to prevent scaling.
• Slime will disappear, therefore the bacteria count will be less. It is
not recommended to stop the chemical treatment completely.
• Water saving between 50 to 90 % is possible.
• The cooling tower can run on a higher TDS level.
• Differential temperature will return to the value when the cooling
tower was in use for the first time.
In short: Savings on water, chemicals and maintenance.
Example: A 500 tons cooling tower (Fort Fisher Aquarium in North
Carolina, USA, reported a saving of $17,000 on water alone in one
32. Evaporative condenser
E ti d
33. Evaporative condensers
E ti d
34. Evaporative condenser
E i d
No treatment 34
35. Evaporative condenser
No treatment 35
36. Evaporative condenser
After three months of treatment 36
37. Test on flotation unit oil
production p platform
38. Test on flotation unit oil
Unit manually cleaned from hard Unit not cleaned and treated
Flotation unit rock scale
oc sca e wt
with SW. Sca e so t and easy to
Scale soft a d
opened for remove
Copright Scalewatcher North 38
39. Effect on corrosion
• Heat Exchangers
• ScaleWatcher has been installed on critical heat exchangers in Pure Gases Factory
Pakistan with very g
y good result. Previously the heavy scaling coupled with chloride
y y g p
pitting, caused downtime and expensive replacement of tube bundles almost every year.
But no scaling or pitting has been observed in over 8 years since the installation of
ScaleWatcher units. [User is a high tech organization run by engineers]
• Application D
A li i Data
• Heat Exchangers type : Shell and Tube type
• Material SS-316L
• Media inside the tubes : Hot fluid
• Cooling media in shell :
• Problem : Excessive scaling and chloride pitting
• Cracking of tubes due to stress chloride
• cracking (SCC)
• All fifteen units are working with excellent result since 1997 without any scaling,
pitting or cracking.
Performance last verified by user on 1st March 2005
Eff t on corrosion
• Dutch water authorities tested our device to
investigate whether the number of metal ions
increased when using the device on zinc and
copper pipes. (Health concern)
• Less metal ions were found, hence less
corrosion. N objections anymore when
i No bj i h
consumers wanted to use the product.
42. Scalewatcher™ anti rust
• Rust is common in iron pipes. With this
treatment rust will disappear.
43. Scalewatcher™ anti rust
• Within two to three
weeks rust di
and is replaced by a
black i l i l
bl k insulating layer,
protecting the iron
My message to you…
y g y
Energy and water savings will be beyond imagination
when Governments enforce by law to use this type of
treatment for cooling towers, evaporative condensers
and fire tube steam boilers. If every house uses this type
of treatment, energy savings will be tremendous.
45. The products
Industrial economic model for pipes
up to 200 mm, weatherproof.
For small cooling towers, buildings,
46. The products
Industrial unit for heavy Industry, indoor use.
For pipes up to 400 mm.
Industrial unit for heavy Industry, outdoor use.
For pipes up to 2500 mm.
Cooling towers of power plants or large buildings.
47. Unit used for 2 x 2 m pipes at
largest building in London
48. Unit for hazardous environments, such as oil