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  • 1. Towards a A Climate Risk Report High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Telecommunications-based Opportunities to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Climate Risk Pty Ltd provide specialist professional services to business and government on risk, opportunity and adaptation to climate change. Climate Risk  Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 2. Climate Risk Pty Limited (Australia) Level , 36 Lauderdale Avenue Fairlight, NSW 094 Tel: + 6  8003 454 Brisbane: + 6 7 30 453 Climate Risk Europe Limited Manchester: + 44 6 73 474 This report was prepared by: Dr Karl Mallon BSc PhD Gareth Johnston GC. Sust CSAP Donovan Burton B.Env.Plan (Hons) Jeremy Cavanagh B.Eng Design and layout by Bethan Burton BSc Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future: Telecommunications-based Opportunities to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Version 1.0 ISBN: 978-0-9804343-0-9 Disclaimer Climate Risk provides professional services in relation to climate change risks and opportunities. Our technical and professional staff endeavour to work to international best practice standards using experienced scientists, sector specialists and associated experts. This document is intended to stimulate ideas and generate discussion amongst business government and society about the role telecommunications can play in reducing carbon emissions. While the information contained is drawn from reputable sources in the public domain, Climate Risk cannot take responsibility for errors or inaccuracies within original source material. This report does not consider individual investment requirements or the particular needs of individuals, corporations or others and as such the report should not be relied upon as the basis for specific commercial decisions. Telstra and Climate Risk support a constructive dialogue about the ideas and concepts contained herein.  Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 3. Climate Risk Team Dr Karl Mallon Dr Karl Mallon is director of Science and Systems at Climate Risk Pty Ltd. He is a first class honours graduate in physics from the United Kingdom and holds a doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Melbourne. He has been the recipient of research scholarships from the British Council and European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN). Karl has worked in the field of climate change and energy since 99 and is the editor and co-author of ‘Renewable Energy Policy and Politics: A Handbook for Decision Making’ published by Earthscan (London). He has worked as a technology and energy policy analyst for various international government and non-government organisations. Karl was a member of the CSIRO’s Energy Futures Forum which reported in 006, as well as a director of the Australian Wind Energy Association between 003 and 005. Gareth Johnston Gareth Johnston is director of Corporate and Government Risk at Climate Risk Pty Ltd. Post graduate qualified in sustainability, with a background in land management and infrastructure development, Gareth focuses on emergent opportunities for Climate Risk clients. As founding CEO of a CSIRO energy technology company and executive director of an Australian management consulting company, Gareth has consulted to the largest Australian, European and Japanese utilities. His development work has given him exposure to local, state and federal governments across Europe and Australasia. Donovan Burton Donovan Burton is a Senior Associate with Climate Risk. Donovan heads Climate Risk’s Planning and Local Government section where he works closely with local government and industry to help develop climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. He has a degree in Environmental Planning and achieved a first class honours for his thesis on local climate change mitigation. Donovan is also a PhD candidate at Griffith University and has recently been announced as a Wentworth Scholar. Donovan’s recent research is on local scale adaptation where he is developing tools to quantify the impacts of climate change on human settlements. Jeremy Cavanagh Jeremy Cavanagh has a degree in electrical engineering from University Technology Sydney and postgraduate qualifications in sustainability. With over 0 years international telecommunications experience he has provided technical operations management for terrestrial and satellite service operators including AUSSAT and France Telecom. Jeremy is a recognised analyst of media technology innovation and has been published in DTV(US), TVB Europe and BEN (AUST). Jeremy provides technical planning and execution expertise which is used by international broadcasters including CNN, CBS, ITN, ITV and Channel 7. His work in telecommunications and broadcasting has been recognised internationally and he has shared in three US Emmy awards for technical excellence. i Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 4. Peer Reviewers Greg Bourne Greg Bourne is chief executive of WWF Australia and a member of the National Advisory Committee for Environment Business Australia. Greg was formerly Regional President of BP Australasia, part of a career in the oil and gas industry spanning over 5 years. Greg’s work in oil research and exploration included work in the United Kingdom, the USA, Latin America, Canada, Ireland, Brazil, China, Australia, Papua New Guinea and Middle East. During the middle of his career, Greg was also seconded to the Prime Minister’s Policy Unit at 0 Downing Street in 988 as Special Adviser on Energy and Transport. Greg took up his current position as CEO WWF- Australia in October 004. Greg is also Chair of the Sustainable Energy Authority of Victoria and a Member of the CSIRO Sector Advisory Council to the Natural Resource Management and Environment Sector. He was awarded the Centenary Medal for services to the environment. Dr Hugh Saddler Dr Saddler has a degree in science from Adelaide University and a PhD from Cambridge University. He is the author of a book on Australian energy policy, ‘Energy in Australia’ and over 50 scientific papers, monographs and articles on energy technology and environmental policy, and is recognised as one of Australia’s leading experts in this field. He is currently a member of the Experts Group on Emissions Trading, appointed by the Australian Greenhouse Office, of the ABS Environmental Statistics Advisory Group, and of the ACT Environment Advisory Committee. In 998 he was appointed an Adjunct Professor at Murdoch University. He is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Energy and a member of the International Association for Energy Economics. Between 99 and 995 he was a member of the Board of the ACT Electricity and Water Authority. In 995 he was a member of the Expert Selection Panel for the 995 Special Round of the Cooperative Research Centres Program (renewable energy technologies). Acknowledgements Climate Risk acknowledges the support of the following: Telstra staff especially Cassandra Scott and Virginia Harrison; Heritage Pacific staff Natalie Philp, Bianca Duncan and Stephen Harrison; Catholic Education Parramatta: Loddon Mallee Health Alliance. We would also like to acknowledge the expert advice from Peter Best and Corin Millais and the support from Ruth Tedder and Nicole Hercus. ii Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 5. Foreword The 007 Lowy Institute Poll found that tackling climate change is as important to Australians as improving standards in education - and more so than improving the delivery of health care, ensuring economic growth and fighting international terrorism. This Report is a first attempt at a nationwide quantification of the carbon savings and financial benefits resulting from using telecommunications networks to conserve energy and increase clean energy use at home, in the workplace and in ways we connect people, enterprises and communities. The analysis presented in this report finds that the telecommunications sector is uniquely placed to provide important services that can yield nationally significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Indeed a key finding is that many of the telecommunication solutions for living and working in a future carbon-constrained world can actually lead to cost savings for business and the consumer. There is scant information in the public domain that quantifies the opportunities presented by telecommunications to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report does. This report is not the last word on telecommunications and carbon emissions, but one of the first. We welcome a robust public dialogue around the ideas presented in the report – including critiques by national and international specialists who may provide more detailed insights and more refined ideas. Climate Risk, the authors of the report, and Telstra are committed to raising the level of public discourse and to capture and share learning that can result. This dialogue will, we hope, lead to a more comprehensive understanding of how we can work together to achieve the benefits of a high bandwidth, low carbon society. Time is of the essence as we find innovative solutions to reducing carbon emissions. We are delighted to offer this study into the marketplace of ideas and we invite you to share your reactions, insights and ideas with us and with each other through forums, the media and private discussions. Philip M. Burgess, Ph.D Group Managing Director Public Policy & Communications iii Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 6. Contents Executive Summary vi -xiii Part 1 1 Climate Change - The Challenge 1 The Global Consensus 1 What is the ‘greenhouse effect’? 1 The Complexity of Climate Change 2 What Does ‘Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change’ Actually Mean? 5 Understanding Emission Cuts 6 National Emissions and Per Capita Emissions 7 Adaptation and Mitigation 7 A Carbon Price 8 Emissions Trading 9 Part 2 10 The Emissions Signature of Broadband 10 Understanding Telecommunications Networks 10 The Balance of Network Impacts 16 Part 3 18 Identifying Carbon-Opportunities for Telecommunication networks 18 Step 1. Identifying Relevant Sectors 18 Step 2. Reviewing Current and Emergent Network Technology 19 Step 3. Major Carbon-Opportunities for telecommunication providers: Overlaying emission sources with network technologies 20 Viability and Implementation 23 Part 4 24 Major Carbon-Opportunities for Telecommunication Networks 24 Carbon-Opportunity 1: Remote Appliance Power Management 24 Carbon-Opportunity 2: Presence-Based Power 27 Carbon-Opportunity 3: De-centralised Business District 29 Carbon-Opportunity 4: Personalised Public Transport 33 Carbon-Opportunity 5: Real-time Freight Management 36 Carbon-Opportunity 6: Increased Renewable Energy 38 Carbon-Opportunity 7: ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing 45 Part 5 48 Quantifying the Opportunities 48 Remote Appliance Power Management 48 Presence-Based Power 49 De-centralised Business District 50 Personalised Public Transport 51 Real-time Freight Management 52 iv Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 7. Increased Renewable Energy 53 ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing 54 Total Impacts of Abatement Opportunities 55 Value of Avoided Carbon 56 Total Value of the Identified Opportunities 57 Attribution 57 Regulation 58 Timing 58 Part 6 60 Conclusions 60 Beyond Carbon Neutral 60 The Climate Challenge 60 Telecommunication’s Significance in Climate Change Mitigation 61 Part 7 64 References 64 Glossary 68 Appendix 1 73 Industry Example: Broadband and Urban Development - Genesis, Coomera Appendix 2 78 Industry Example: Next generation networks, Carbon and Education - Catholic Education Parramatta Appendix 3 81 Industry Example: Telstra - Change Through Leadership Appendix 4 84 Industry Example: The Health Sector, Climate Change and Telecommunication Networks Appendix 5: 89 Summary of Sectors and Applications Considered with Action v Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 8. Executive Summary The scale and scope of the telecommunication Key Findings sector’s operations unlock the ability to . This report provides an analysis 5. The estimated energy and travel aggregate multiple of the opportunities for Australian cost savings are approximately distributed initiatives society to achieve nationally $6.6 billion per year, and value of to achieve nationally significant greenhouse gas the carbon credits created may significant emissions abatement using telecommunication be between $70 million and $. savings. networks. billion subject to the future price of carbon. . The report identifies that the scale and scope of telecommunication 6. Some of these carbon- network services and users provide opportunities can be realised CARBOn- a unique opportunity to harness immediately; others are OPPORTuniTiES economies of scale to achieve contingent on the roll-out of Throughout this document meaningful emission reductions. a national fibre optic network carbon-opportunities is to residential and commercial used as a short hand for 3. Many of the carbon-opportunities consumers. ‘carbon dioxide emission abatement opportunities’ identified lead to energy and other which include an activity cost savings for commercial and 7. In combination with other that provides real and residential customers, and in some measures being implemented by measurable reductions cases will enable the on-selling Government, a deployment of in, or avoidance of, of newly created carbon creditsi the carbon-opportunities in the greenhouse gas and electricity management period 008 to 04 would have emissions. They do not include the use of offset commodities. the additional effect of stabilising mechanism to reduce national emissions in the period emissions. 4. The estimated abatement up to 04 in keeping with the opportunity calculated herein is findings of the IPCC and the Stern almost 5% (4.9) of Australia’s total Review, as shown in Figure i. national emissions, making the use of telecommunication networks one of the most significant opportunities The opportunities to reduce the national carbon outlined in this footprint. report result in total greenhouse gas reductions equivalent to approximately 4.9% of Australia’s total national emissions. i When pollution levels are capped, in some schemes, it may be possible to trade greenhouse gas pollution rights referred to as ‘carbon credits’. Currently NSW has a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme, the Federal Government has announced plans to introduce a national scheme in 0 and there are also voluntary abatement markets. vi Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 9. Figure i: Combined effect of telecommunication networks Carbon- Figure i. If the seven Opportunities carbon-opportunities identified in the report were deployed, over Business as usual the period 008 - 04, 850 Best estimate with effect of the effect would be a anticipated government stabilisation of national measures to reduce emissions emissions in the period 750 Kyoto target 0 - 04. Graph is a modification based on CR-Telecommunication 650 AGO 007a. Networks Scenario Emissions 550 MtCo2 -e 1990 levels 450 QuAnTiFyinG 350 EMiSSiOnS: MtCO2-e Mega-tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent 250 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 (MtCO-e) is the internationally recognised measure used to compare the emissions from the Year various greenhouse gases. This measure factors in differences in global warming potential and converts them to a carbon- dioxide equivalent. For example, the global warming potential for a Table i: Summary of emissions abatement from Carbon-Opportunities tonne of methane over 00 years is  times that of a tonne of carbon dioxide. Carbon-Opportunity (in order of size) MtCO2-e saving Percentage of national emissions increased Renewable Energy 10.1 1.81 Personalised Public Transport 3.9 0.70 Table i. Summary of De-centralised Business District 3.1 0.55 emissions abatement from carbon- Presence-Based Power 3.0 0.53 opportunities Real-time Freight Management 2.9 0.52 ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video 2.4 0.43 Conferencing Remote Appliance Power Management 1.8 0.33 Total 27.3 4.88 vii Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 10. Beyond Carbon Neutral The Climate Challenge THE KyOTO PROTOCOL AnD AuSTRALiA’S This report goes significantly beyond The latest statement from the TARGET ‘holding the line’ goals of corporate Intergovernmental Panel on Climate The Kyoto Protocol is carbon neutrality and carbon. Instead Change (IPCC 007) indicates the an agreement made it sets out a suite of opportunities next ten years are critical in meeting under the United Nations that would allow telecommunications the challenges posed by climate Framework Convention on Climate Change providers to play a leadership role in change. For the first time, scientists (UNFCCC). The main decarbonising the Australian economy and governments are now agreed that objective of the protocol and equipping the nation to prosper in global emissions must be stabilised is the “stabilization a carbon constrained future. All of the by 05 if climate change is to be of greenhouse gas strategies and opportunities are based effectively addressed. Similarly concentrations in the on avoiding the release of fossil carbon the global economic Stern Review atmosphere at a level that would prevent into the atmosphere; they are not based concluded that “to stabilise at dangerous anthropogenic on off-setting emissions. 450ppmii CO-e, without overshooting, interference with the global emissions would need to peak climate system.” The first Seven options are proposed to build on in the next 0 years“ (Stern 006, p. commitment period of the existing and next-generation networks. 93). Reducing greenhouse emissions Kyoto Protocol requires The realisation of opportunities requires major commitments from industrial nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions outlined in this report would result in both the public and private sectors as by at least 5 per cent telecommunications providers assisting well as the government. below 990 levels by 0. Australian businesses and households Australia received a 08% achieving total greenhouse gas In 005 Australia’s net annual target above 990 levels. reductions equivalent to approximately emissions totalled 559 mega-tonnes 4.9% of Australia’s total national of CO equivalent (MtCO-e) from all GREEnHOuSE GASES emissions. Some of the opportunities activities, which equates to .4% of (GHG) identified in the consumer space can the global total. In the short term, Greenhouse gases be achieved using existing network it appears that Australia will stay are those gaseous services and others are contingent on close to its Kyoto Protocol target of constituents of the the roll-out of fibre to the node (FTTN) no more than an 8% increase above atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic (man broadband infrastructure. Overall 990 emission levels (AGO 007b). made), that contribute the initiatives identified in this report However, the underlying trend is that to increasing the global present the opportunity for one of the Australian emissions will increase at mean temperature of the single largest reductions in Australia’s about .3% per year. earth. Greenhouse gases carbon footprint by an Australian including water vapour corporation. The use of fossil-fuels in stationary- (HO), carbon dioxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NO), energyiii and transport applications methane (CH4), and ozone Companies seeking to maximise is the nation’s major source of (O3) are the primary their carbon emission reduction emissions. The trend is not declining greenhouse gases in the could leverage the existing and next- or stabilising, but continuing to grow Earth’s atmosphere. There generation networks already built by significantly. If deep cuts in emissions are a number of entirely Telstra. are to be achieved, emissions from the human-made greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, energy sector are Australia’s greatest such as the halocarbons greenhouse challenge. and other chlorine- and bromine-containing ii Associated with a 50% chance of exceeding oC warming above pre-industrial levels. substances. iii Stationary energy includes emissions from electricity generation, the use of fuels in manufacturing, construction and commercial sectors, and residential heating. It excludes transport fuels. viii Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 11. Telecommunication’s Significance Secondly, devices and appliances which The underlying trend in Climate Change Mitigation are on, but not being unused, may is that Australian also waste large amounts of electricity emissions are Telecommunication operators are a (estimated herein as 5%), we refer to forecast to increase major conduit for new technology and this as ‘orphaned’ energy. We have at about 1.3% per infrastructure. Australia has the only identified two relevant commercial year. national wireless broadband network in opportunities: the world. Carbon-Opportunity: Remote The scale and scope of the Appliance Power Management telecommunication sector’s operations unlock the ability to aggregate multiple Broadband can provide both the nATiOnAL EMiSSiOnS distributed initiatives to achieve monitoring and control of electrical AnD PER CAPiTA EMiSSiOnS nationally significant emissions networks down to the electric Greenhouse gas savings. The anticipated greenhouse switch box or even plug socket and emissions vary emission constraints coincide with the in addition facilitate analysis and considerably, especially government’s plans for next-generation management elsewhere on the between developed networks, which provides synergies for network. Standby switching can be countries and developing new emission reduction opportunities. centralised to allow electricity to be countries, both at a halted to devices on standby, such as national level and per person. Australia has the This report identifies seven carbon- a phone that has finished charging, highest emissions per opportunities appropriate for Australian a TV that has not been used for an capita of any developed businesses and households, which hour, or a hot water system which is country (OECD) with the have the potential for viable carbon on, even though no one is in the house. equivalent emissions abatement using existing and next- While this is not appropriate for all of 6 tonnes per person generation networks. These carbon- devices, it is applicable to many. carbon dioxide per year. China is one of the worlds opportunities have relevance for biggest greenhouse energy consumption in buildings, road Annual Saving: The estimated gas polluters, but this transport, renewable energy production emissions saving of Remote is largely due the high and aviation. Appliance Power Managementiv is .8 population. On a per MtCO-e, or 0.33% of total national capita basis a Chinese Buildings emissions. The financial value of the person is responsible for about .5 tonnes per year. avoided electricity spending is $70 Today electricity consumption in homes million and the value of the carbon and the workplace accounts for one fifth credits would be in the range of $8 of total national emissions (ABS 007, million to $9 million. AGO 007b); in both locations there are two significant sources of energy Carbon-Opportunity: Presence- With Presence-Based wastage. Firstly, standby power, in Based Power Power the supply which numerous appliances that appear of energy follows to be ‘off’ are still consuming energy, It is very common for any energy the person, not the typically this accounts for over % consuming devices to be left on even appliance. of electricity use in an average home. though the user may not be present. iv Assumes broadband-based Remote Appliance Power Management solutions are used to reduce standby emissions by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and commercial buildings. ix Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 12. However, the supply of energy can be of national emissions. Overall, freight THE VALuE OF CARBOn made dependent on the presence of vehicles are empty for 8% of the Greenhouse gas a person. For example, most office kilometres travelled (ABS 005). emissions trading will be meeting rooms remain air-conditioned operational in Australia while no one is using them and For all of these emissions we have by 0. This will create computers stay on when the person identified three commercially-viable a cost for the right to emit greenhouse gas pollution. is at lunch. Significant reductions in opportunities: Reciprocally it will create energy consumption can be achieved a value for greenhouse if devices are deactivated when people Carbon-Opportunity: De- gas abatement. The walk away, and turned back on when the centralised Business District value of greenhouse person returns. This ‘Presence-Based gas abatement will Power’ can use a person’s mobile phone Broadband-enabled homes, suburbs depend on the cuts in emissions specified by or company identification tag to register and regional centres can either the government and will their presence meaning the supply of remove or significantly reduce the be set by the market. In energy is linked to the presence of the emissions generated by people this report we use a range person, not just the appliance. travelling to and from work. At one of possible carbon prices end of the spectrum, people would be from $0 to $50 per tonne Annual Saving: The estimated working from home one day a week or of carbon dioxide based on analysis by the CSIRO and emissions saving of Presence-Based more; at the other end, people would ABARE. Power v is 3.0 MtCO-e, or 0.53% of total be working in suburban or regional national emissions. The financial value centres where minor commuting is of the avoided electricity spending is involved. In the latter case, people $70 million and the value of the carbon would continue to enjoy employment credits would be in the range $9 million in a national or international company to $50 million. with no career disadvantage. A hybrid is the telework business centre, open to staff from many different businesses Transport and placed in locations close to where Today road transport produces nearly 70 people live but able to offer all of the MtCO–e of emissions per year, around amenities of a large office. 4% of total national emissionsvi. Three quarters of Australians drive to work; Annual Saving: The estimated of these only 4% share a car (ABS emissions saving of De-centralised 005). Though significant attention Business Districtsvii, from reduced has focused on making traffic flows travel emissions only, is 3. MtCO-e more efficient, this often only increases or 0.55% of total national emissions. traffic volumes. Meaningful emissions The financial value of the avoided fuel abatement requires the provision of spending is $. billion and the value of more compelling alternatives to car use. the carbon credits would be in the range $30 million to $50 million. Major emissions also result from the movement of freight totalling about 5% v Assumes network enabled Presence-Based Power solutions are used to reduce ‘orphaned’ energy emissions by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and commercial buildings. vi Much of this is caused by the sheer size of the nation. Other continentalised nations, such as the US and Canada, also have comparatively high transport-linked emissions. This may also affect vehicle type and choice. vii Assumes that De-Centralised Workplaces are used by 0% of employees who have telework suitable jobs, and their commuting emissions are reduced by at least 50%. x Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 13. Carbon-Opportunity: Personalised or 0.5% of total national emissions. Public Transport The financial value of the avoided fuel Wireless-broadband can facilitate public spending is $. billion and the value of transport on demand. Personalised the carbon credits would be in the range Public Transport allows the user to $9 million to $50 million. order public transport provided by an integrated network of multi-occupant Renewable Energy taxis, minibuses, buses and trains, which starts at the front door. The Today Australia’s energy supply is personal efficiency of Personalised dominated by fossil fuels. However REnEWABLE EnERGy Public Transport can exceed that of deep cuts in Australian emissions COnSTRAinTS using the private car, with faster speeds will require a transition to low and Europe, US states and door-to-door, greater flexibility and zero emission sources of power developing countries lower costs. Further, Personalised supply. Despite being plentiful, low- like India and China have Public Transport can greatly increase cost renewable energy sources like established very high targets for renewable the catchment of other public transport wind power are hampered by the energy. The Australian options, such as bus and rail, resulting in variability of the supply; this has in government has recently significant opportunities for greenhouse part prompted restriction of new wind announced a target for gas abatement. farm development in South Australia about 30,000 gigawatt and has been used in the advocacy hours of electricity Annual Saving: The estimated of higher-cost nuclear generation. per year to come from renewables. Some of the emissions saving through Personalised The report identifies a means by most successful renewable Public Transport viii is 3.9 MtCO-e which next- generation networks can energy sources, like wind per annum, or 0.7% of total national dismantle such barriers to renewable power, produce constantly emissions. The financial value of the energy uptake. varying amounts of avoided fuel spending is $.6 billion and energy. Properly the value of the carbon credits would be managing this variation Carbon-Opportunity: increased can limit the amount of in the range $39 million to $00 million. Renewable Energy renewable energy which can be installed in certain Carbon-Opportunity: Real-time Australia’s extensive broadband locations or increase the Freight Management networks allow a link to be made value of such energy. between renewable energy supplies Wireless-broadband allows freight and and active load management of freight vehicles to be monitored in real heating, cooling and other appliances in time. Consolidating this information buildings and homes across Australia. allows more freight to be assigned to This can be used to create ‘virtual’ unladen, or underladen, vehicles. Real- energy storage to effectively neutralise time Freight Management creates an aspects of short-term variability, turning The report identifies a integrated clearing house for multiple such renewables into ‘stable and means by which next suppliers of freight services. predictable generation’. This in turn generation networks would enable renewables to contribute can dismantle barriers Annual Saving: The estimated an increased component of the to renewable energy emissions saving of Real-time Freight electricity supply. uptake. Managementix is .9 MtCO-e per annum, viii Assumes that wireless broadband-facilitated Personalised Public Transport is able to capture 0% of car-based commuters and assumes that the relative emission intensity of public transport is 90% lower than personal car travel in the urban environment. ix Assumes that Real-time Freight Management effectively avoids 5% of unladen truck kilometres. xi Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 14. Annual Saving: The emissions to 6.5MtCO-e per annum when the abatement from using Increased increased warming effect of aviation Renewable Energy x is at least 0. emissions at altitude or ‘up-lift’ is MtCO-e or .8% of total national included). Excluding up-lift, the avoided emissions, though this could be emissions are equivalent to 0.43% of considerably higher. The financial total national emissions. value of the avoided fuel spending is $86 million and the value of the carbon The financial value of the avoided Because aviation credits would be in the range $00 spending on air travel is $. billion and emissions occur million to $300 million. the value of the carbon credits are in the at altitude the range $4 million to $0 million. warming effect is approximately 2.7 Aviation times higher. Real World and Industry Examples Aviation emissions are amongst the fastest growing in the energy sector. For each of the carbon-opportunities Domestic aviation alone produces identified above, the report provides 5. million tonnes of CO per year and international examples of current international aviation using fuels applications of the required technology procured in Australia give rise to or systems. approximately twice these emissions. Yet because aviation emissions occur To illustrate the opportunities and Each of the industry at altitude the warming effect is as barriers in achieving the carbon cuts examples demonstrate much as .7 times higher. Based on from the use of Telstra’s existing that there have already international studies about 50% of short and next-generation networks, four been carbon emission haul air travel may be for business industry perspectives have been savings through the use of ICT networks. In many (Mason 000). presented: cases this has been a side effect of reducing costs or Carbon-Opportunity: ‘On-Live’ High . Housing: The Genesis residential improving productivity. Definition Video Conferencing housing development in South These examples show East Queensland considerable scope Long-distance, short-duration travel to apply the carbon- opportunities identified can be effectively replaced with ‘in- . Education: Catholic Education in this report to create person’ high-definition, high fidelity, Parramatta which administers 7 much deeper emission online conferencing that is significantly schools abatement in these sectors more efficient in cost, time, energy and and also to unlock costs emissions. 3. Business: Telstra which has savings in energy, fuel and approximately 36,000 full-time infrastructure. Annual Saving: The emissions saving equivalent employees in Australia of ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencingxi services in avoided 4. Health: Information domestic and international air travel Communications Technology (ICT) is .4 MtCO-e per annum through networks in regional and rural health direct fuel use reduction (equivalent services x Assumes that one-third of homes and commercial buildings are broadband enabled and that they have agreed to have their discretionary (non-time-sensitive) loads managed by Telstra. Assumes that on average, 5% of the total loads across residential and commercial buildings are discretionary at any one time. xi Assumes /3 of business air travel can be replaced by ‘On-Live’ meetings using high speed, high definition video links. xii Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 15. Figure ii: Breakdown of abatement contribution from seven Carbon- Figure ii. Annual Opportunities avoided emissions from each of the identified ‘On-Live’ High Definition carbon-opportunities Video Conferencing (MtCO-e). 2.4 MtCO2-e Remote Appliance Power Management 1.8 MtCO2-e Increased Renewable Energy 10.1 MtCO2-e Presence-Based Power 3.0 MtCO2-e The IPCC have concluded that global emissions must not continue to increase past 2015 if the global mean temperature De-centralised Business District increase is to be 3.1 MtCO2-e contained between 2.0 and 2.4oC above pre-industrial levels. Real-time Freight Personalised Public Management Transport 2.9 MtCO2-e 3.9 MtCO2-e Figure iii: Aggregated value for each of the Carbon-Opportunites Figure iii. Each of the carbon-opportunites 2.5 creates value from Carbon@ $20 tCO2-e avoided fuel use or Saving/Value increased energy value, 2.0 as well as revenue from carbon credits created and other ancillary Billions dollars 1.5 services. $A per year 1.0 0.5 To stabilise at 450ppm CO2- 0.0 e, without overshooting, global on enc ion Bu De- por ic en ht is ed er le w d en e s bl g em nc Po ase t em ig En ab t gy r it t t in lis ic er an u Pe nfe fin ag Fre ag lia Tr P tr w emissions would ss ra -B ed an pp ne e ne nt ce an e D Co D is M im si ce Re M A en o h al need to peak in er te de ig -t es d al w o Vi e’ H se Pr Po Rem Re rs ea the next 10 years v cr Li In n- ‘O [before 2016] (Stern 2006, p. 193). xiii Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 16. Part 1 Climate Change - The Challenge binding targets that may lead toward a convergence in per capita emissions. In this chapter we explore the basic For example, Australia’s per person rationale for a low carbon society. We emissions are approximately 0 times present an overview of climate change that of the average Chinese citizen and science and mitigation strategies. the highest in the developed world. Nevertheless, the societal pressure Global warming could The Global Consensus for unilateral actions in many shrink the global In this report we assume that Australia, countries means that measures to economy by 20%, along with most other countries, is reduce emissions are gathering but taking action starting down a path toward a carbon pace on almost every continent, and now would cost just constrained future. Australia is no different. There is 1% of global gross now bi-partisan political support for domestic product This starting assumption is founded greenhouse gas emissions trading, on the science behind climate change, energy efficiency standards and the - Stern 2006 the rapid evolution of public opinion expansion of renewable energy. All around the world and the actions of these present opportunities for the and commitments occurring in the telecommunications sector as we shall political domain. There is now a global explore in this report. consensus that climate change is a challenge that will have to be addressed What is the ‘greenhouse effect’? The scientific convention forthwith. is for global warming The atmosphere is semi-transparent levels to be expressed This consensus extends to the business to solar energy, allowing some relative to pre-industrial community which is increasingly sunlight to reach and warm the levels, nominally set recognising the risks posed by climate Earth’s surface, absorbing the rest as 850. Temperature change and seeking the opportunities as infrared radiation, and emitting it increases are different created by a carbon constrained society. back to Earth or out into space. This across the globe, lowest at the equator and radiation budget is adjusted as the highest at the poles, Any solution to climate change will concentration of greenhouse gases consequently the require international agreement, change in the atmosphere. scientific convention is which has not yet been achieved. In to refer to global average any international agreement Australia This natural ‘greenhouse effect’ keeps temperature increases. will likely be a target taker, rather than the average surface temperature on Unless otherwise stated these conventions are a target setter. Unlike the USA, the Earth at a comfortable 4°C. To get a adhered to in this report. EU, China, India or Brazil, as one of sense of its importance, our nearest the world’s smaller emitters Australia neighbour, the Moon has an average is unlikely to play a central role in the temperature 3°C lower than Earth. architecture and targets established Although the Moon is about the same in future international agreements. distance from the Sun as Earth, it does However, as one of the world’s not have an atmosphere, and no natural highest per capita emitters, Australia ‘greenhouse effect’ to keep it warm. is highly vulnerable to international  Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 17. The composition of our atmosphere is warming or ‘enhanced greenhouse crucial for trapping heat to the levels effect’ we now have to address. In which Earth’s ecosystems and human essence the CO that was taken out of civilisations are now adapted. The the atmosphere by plants over hundreds atmospheric composition is 78% of millions of years is now being nitrogen, % oxygen, 0.93% argon as released back into the atmosphere in a well as some other trace gases. One matter of decades. of these trace gases is carbon dioxide, comprising 0.04%. The Complexity of Climate Change Almost all (99%) of air is made up of The United Nations sums up climate simple double molecules – oxygen change science as follows: (O) and nitrogen (N) – which neither In essence, the CO2 emit nor absorb infrared radiation. “The average temperature of the Earth that was taken out of Molecules with more than two atoms of has been increasing more than natural the atmosphere by different elements - like water vapour climatic cycles would explain. This plants over hundreds of (HO), carbon dioxide (CO), or methane episode of “global warming” is due millions of years is now (CH4) – can trap heat by emitting more to human activity. It began with the being released back infrared radiation back to Earth (Figure industrial revolution, two centuries into the atmosphere in a ). These are known as the greenhouse ago, and accelerated over the last 50 matter of decades. gases. years. Fossil fuel burning is mostly responsible, because it releases While carbon is a trace element in the gases (particularly carbon dioxide) air, vast amounts are cycled between that trap infrared radiation. This the Earth and the atmosphere by “greenhouse effect” creates a whole geological and biological processes, system disturbance, that we call climate and transferred by plant growth into change”. (UNEP 005) the oceans, soils, and forests. Millions of years in favourable geological The climate change process and risks conditions have turned decaying plant are part of a complex interaction with matter into the carbon-rich fossil fuels human activities and the physical we know as oil, coal and gas. dynamics that define the global climate itself. The complexity of these Burning fossil fuels releases carbon interactions is explained in Figure . dioxide back into the atmosphere. Here the carbon dioxide acts as a particularly Over the past century, average global effective heat radiator because of its temperatures have increased by molecular structure. The amounts in approximately 0.74°C (Figure 3) and the atmosphere are so small they are scientific evidence suggests this will measured in parts per million (ppm), continue (IPCC WGI 007). but a slight change in CO concentration makes a large difference to the heat If, as predicted by current IPCC balance. The increased CO adds to the projection models, there is a doubling natural greenhouse effect of the Earth of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the – and causes the human induced global average global temperature is expected  Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 18. Figure 1: An overview of the mechanism and scale of the greenhouse effect Figure . The diagram illustrates the process Some solar radiation is Radiation escapes the of warming which is reflected by the atmosphere atmosphere into driven by incoming and the Earth’s surface space solar radiation which is trapped by the atmospheric greenhouse gases. Solar radiation passes through GREENHOUSE GASES the atmosphere Greenhouse gases trap and reflect infrared radiation back to Earth, causing the Some solar energy is Some of the energy ‘greenhouse effect’ absorbed by the is given out as Earth’s surface infrared radiation to rise between 2°C – 4.5°C by 2100, by between 0.4°C to °C by 030 and with extremely serious implications between °C to 6°C by 070 (Preston & for the global environment, society Jones 006) (Figure 4). and economy (IPCC 007a; Stern 006; Houghton 004). According to the Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO), climate change will place Climate Change in Australia considerable strain on Australia’s coastal communities including sea The past century has seen Australia level rise and increased storm surges, experience an average warming of changes to marine and coastal 0.7°C and a significant reduction of biodiversity and changes to fisheries coastal precipitation that is reducing (Voice et al. 006). the water supplies of our urban settlements and agricultural regions Relevant impacts for Australia, based (Preston & Jones 006). This warming on a range of research include: trend is set to continue with predictions that relative to 990 levels, average • Reduced urban water supplies or Australian temperatures could increase increased costs (CSiRO 2006). 3 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 19. Figure 2: The complexity of interactions that influence climate change and Figure . The climate its impacts change processes and risks are part of a complex interaction with human activities and the physical dynamics that define the global climate itself (UNEP/GRID-Arendal 006). Soucrce: UNEP/GRID Arendal 006 4 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 20. Figure 3: The changing global average temperatures since 1850 Figure 3. There is a discernable increase in global temperatures since 900 as the black line with multi-year 0.6 smoothing shows (Brohan et al. 006). 0.4 Temperature 0.2 anomaly (oC) 0.0 - 0.2 - 0.4 - 0.6 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Year • Rural and agricultural community • Destabilisation and regional conflict economic dislocation (nelson 2006). in the Pacific including mobilisation of environmental refugees • increase in extreme weather events (Edwards 1999). (CSiRO 2006). What Does ‘Avoiding Dangerous • Sea level rise and storm surge Climate Change’ Actually Mean? impacts on coastal settlements (Church 2006). The latest IPCC report suggests that atmospheric CO concentration alone • A southerly movement of mosquito- (i.e. not including other gases) has borne diseases including Ross River increased from pre-industrial levels Fever (Lyth 2006). of 80 parts per million (ppm) to 380 ppm in 005, which “exceeds by far the • Disruption of food security (Preston natural range over the last 650,000 years 2006). (80 to 300 ppm) as determined from ice cores.” (IPCC WGI SPM 007). • Loss of biodiversity including extinction of endemic species The term ‘dangerous’ climate change (Williams 2005). was introduced in the 99 United Nations Convention on Climate • Reduced ecosystem services Change (UNFCCC), from which the including water quality and Kyoto Protocol was born. It calls for availability; and decreased natural stabilisation of greenhouse gases to: pollination of crops (Houghton 2004; Pittock 2005; Flannery 2005). “prevent dangerous anthropogenic 5 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 21. Figure 4: Forecast average temperature increases in Australia Figure 4. The changing mean temperatures around Australia based on modelling by the CSIRO. 2030 2070 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Temperature Temperature increase (oC) increase (oC) interference with the climate system.… the UNFCCC to prevent dangerous Such a level should be achieved within a anthropogenic interference with time frame sufficient: the climate system, overall global temperature increase should not • to allow ecosystems to adapt exceed ºC above pre-industrial levels” naturally to climate change; (European Council 004). • to ensure that food production is not Understanding Emission Cuts threatened, and; There is a general The recent IPCC statement on emissions agreement that • to enable economic development to abatement potential concludes that dangerous changes proceed in a sustainable manner”. temperatures could be stabilised below will occur with .4 oC provided that emissions stop warming in the (UNFCCC 99) increasing by 05 and are then reduced vicinity of 2oC above by between 60-95% by 050 (IPCC pre-industrial The UNFCCC and IPCC refer to, but WGIII 007). This is the first time that levels. do not define, ‘dangerous climate scientists and governments, through change’. There is a general agreement the IPCC, have nominated a deadline that dangerous changes will occur with beyond which emissions cannot warming in the vicinity of oC above pre- continue to grow if certain levels of industrial levels. climate change are to be averted. The European Union has formally Greenhouse gas emissions accumulate resolved that: in the global atmosphere and will therefore have to be managed by “to meet the ultimate objective of international agreement. However,  Converted from the range 50-85% relative to levels in the year 000, and assuming that global emissions have increase by approximately 0% between 000 and 007 6 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 22. emissions cuts will have to be gas polluters, but this is largely due the implemented at a national level. high population. On a per capita basis a Chinese person is responsible for about The latest figures released by the .3 tonnes per year. Australian government (AGO 007b) indicate that forecast emissions even Adaptation and Mitigation ‘with measures’ will not see any stabilisation before 05, nor any Strategies to deal with climate change reduction within the foreseeable future generally consist of two elements: (Figure 5). adaptation and mitigation (Pittock 005). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate National Emissions and Per Capita Change (IPCC) defines adaptation as Emissions an ‘adjustment in natural or human Greenhouse gas emissions vary systems in response to actual or considerably, especially between expected climatic stimuli or their effects, developed countries and developing which moderates harm or exploits countries, both at a national level and beneficial opportunities’ (Metz et al. per person (Figure 6). Australia has 00, p.708). Mitigation is defined by the the highest emissions per capita of any IPCC as ‘an anthropogenic intervention developed country (OECD) with the to reduce the sources or enhance the equivalent emissions of 6 tonnes per sinks of greenhouse gases.’ (Metz et al. person carbon dioxide per year. China 00, p. 76) is one of the worlds biggest greenhouse Figure 5: Australian current and projected annual net greenhouse gas Figure 5. Australia emissions may meet its Kyoto Target, but government Business as usual projections indicate that 850 emissions will not have Best estimate with the effect of anticipated government been stabilised (AGO 750 measures to reduce emissions 007a). Kyoto target 650 Emissions growing at Emissions 1.3% per year 1990 levels ‘WiTH MEASuRES’ MtCo2-e 550 The term ‘with measures’ 450 refers to government initiatives with allocated budgets, timetables and, 350 if necessary, supporting legislation which are used 250 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 to adjust projections of future emissions. Year 7 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 23. Figure 6: Variation in national emissions across the world Figure 6. Though Australia has comparatively low emissions at a national level, on a per capita basis its emissions are amongst the highest in the world due in part to high levels of coal use, fugitive emissions from fossil fuel extraction, energy intensive industries such as metals and minerals processing and land use activity that causes large amounts carbon to be unlocked as forests are cleared (OECD 006). The connection between adaptation for control. In some cases pollutants and mitigation is often overlooked. are banned, in other cases regulation Environmental lag time means that is used to specify the legal amount climate change is not only already of a pollutant that can be released underway, but several decades of into the environment. A more recent increased warming are unavoidable. innovation is the use of trading markets Human beings must adapt to current to control emissions, such as those in and future changes that are already the US used to control sulphur dioxide locked in. Mitigation strategies can emissions (which causes acid rain). It only reduce the speed, magnitude and is also possible to introduce pollution severity of future impacts and may taxes which force up the cost of the seek to ensure that the future climatic polluting technology to the point where change that occurs is within our capacity alternative technologies become viable. to adapt (Pittock 005). In a summary for the IPCC advocate that adaptation For greenhouse gas emissions, key and mitigation need to be considered mechanisms under development are: together in any climate change response (Banuri et al. 00, p.5). a. ‘emission caps’ which place a legal limit on the amount that a country may emit; A Carbon Price The regulation of pollutants has a long b. carbon taxes which are designed to history in developed countries and there place a cost on pollution; and are many established mechanisms 8 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 24. c. emissions trading in which the total In some cases, it may be possible to rights to emit greenhouse gases create a tradeable abatement commodity, under a national cap can be bought, often referred to as a ‘carbon credit’. An sold and traded. existing example of a tradeable carbon credit in the Australian market is the ‘Renewable Energy Certificate’ which Emissions Trading is regulated by the federal government. There is now bi-partisan support for The types of abatement that will be the introduction of emissions trading in tradeable will depend on the rules of the Australia. Under this system a cap will be Emissions Trading Scheme which are yet placed on the amount of emissions that to be established, however abatement can be released across the country, and which is not tradeable will still have the rights to emit will be given out and/or a value consistent with the ‘price of auctioned. As the cap gradually reduces carbon’. This report uses carbon prices over time the market value for the right to developed by the CSIRO, ABARE and the emit will gradually increase. In this way Energy Futures Forum based on several the emissions trading scheme creates emission scenarios in Australia (Figure 7). a ‘price of carbon’ which reciprocally creates a value for greenhouse gas abatement. Figure 7: Projections for carbon prices for several emission cut scenarios modelled by the CSIRO and ABARE 200 Scenario 3 Scenario 2d Figure 7. The CSIRO Scenario 2c recently convened Scenario 2b an Energy Futures 150 Scenario 2a Forum of major energy Scenario 1 industry participants and stakeholders to $A CO2-e develop long term 100 scenarios affecting Australia’s energy future. The scenarios were modelled by the 50 CSIRO and ABARE. These results are used as the basis for the three carbon price points 0 used herein, namely $0, $0 and $50 dollars 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 per tonne CO-e (CSIRO, 006). Year 9 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 25. Part 2 The Emissions Signature of Content Broadband All electronic content is comprised of data. Data is measured in bits– kilobytes Telecommunications is a large user (KB), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB) of energy. The most recent survey of and terabytes (TB). Data requirements Australian businesses indicates that vary widely among different kinds of their Information and Communications media content. For example: Technology (ICT) use is responsible for about 7.9 MtCO-e, or about .4% • Text-based email contains about 0- of national emissions (ACS 007). 5 KB of information Emissions arising from Telstra’s operations account for about 0.% • An SMS contains only .5 KB for a of Australia’s total emissions (Telstra 60 character SMS 006). While this may seem negligible in comparison to other sectors, a major • A medium-sized novel contains expansion of networks and usage could about 5 MB of information lead to significant changes in emissions. In this section we seek to establish how • A song contains about 5 MB of significant. We do not consider life- information cycle emissions or embodied energy (e.g. the energy or materials used • A 3-minute, high-quality music to make a modem), which although video clip contains around 60 MB of significant are dwarfed by the energy information flows in the ICT sector. • A movie at DVD quality contains around 7-0 GB of information for Understanding dual-layer discs Telecommunications Networks Telecommunication networks and • A library contains -30 or more TB of broadband are best understood by information considering three key elements: Content data can be stored on devices, . Content – such as emails, music or for example the hard drive of a videos as well as the applications computer, the memory of an iPod® or and services that are needed to the address book in a mobile phone. access this content; Data can also be stored in a network or on server, for example much of the . Networks – the systems that transfer information available on the Internet like content from one place to another; videos on YouTube™ and the photos on and FaceBook™. 3. Devices – such as computers, Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and mobile phones. 0 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 26. networks Devices Telecommunication networks carry Devices include computers, modems, content from one place to another. wireless turbo cards, mobile phones, Networks connect landline telephones, PDAs – effectively anything that plugs mobile phones and computers. They into a network to receive and send data. also connect consumers to businesses Information and businesses to businesses, both in The speed at which content can be Communications Australia and overseas. accessed is determined by the amount Technology appears of content, network and the devices to have been The performance of networks can using the network. causing significant be thought of like the performance decreases in the of water pipes. Big pipes carry more The capacity of the device is part of energy intensity of water than small. Transferring data the overall performance of the system, economic activity is like transferring water which need for example, there may be a lot of across the wider a network of pipes, and the quality network capacity to handle a digital economy. of the architecture and size of the file, but unless the device has the pipes will determine the volume and capacity to process the data quickly, speed at which data is carried. In a the overall performance will be limited. telecommunications network the size of For example, if a video conference is pipes or network capacity is known as occurring between a mobile phone and ‘bandwidth’. computer, the capacity of the mobile device and the computer will contribute Unlike a water system, data needs to to the clarity of the video. flow in two directions. The amount of bandwidth coming “in” (called Broadband “download”) has traditionally been greater than the amount of bandwidth Broadband is sufficient data going “out” (called “upload”), as transmission speed to utilise there are more users who want to get applications, services or content content than create content. However effectively relative to the user’s access this is changing with businesses and device or capabilities (KPMG 004). consumers starting to “upload” larger packets of information or data – for Broadand covers systems running example, large video files (like videos over fixed connections such as copper, placed on YouTube™) and e-mail coaxial cable or fibre optic cables as attachments (like digital photographs) well as wireless links such as those that are now routinely sent out (or mobile devices use (e.g. 3G or the Next “uploaded”). In this way networks are G™ wireless network). evolving as the Internet becomes more like a two-way highway.  Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 27. Three Ways to Consider the Issue - energy consumed per dollar of GDP - decreased by more than half (997 and Emissions effects from ICT networks are 998 saw decreases of 3.7% and 3.9% considered in three ways. respectively). Except for the oil shocks of the 970s, this discontinuity in the . A review of a macro-economic connection between growth and energy assessment of the effects of ICT on was unprecedented in post-war US national emissions in the USA. economic history. . A review of energy demand impacts The critical change that occurred during from ICT network operation in the this period was the introduction of the United Kingdom and the secondary internet, which was being deployed impacts on broadband-based alongside the PC systems introduced customer activities. in the previous part of the decade. Major economic growth was occurring 3. A review of the status and trends for online. Expansion of ICT deployment did energy consumption (and therefore require increased energy, in 00, office emissions profile) of relevant ICT equipment across the US used 3% of devices. total electricity (Roth 00, p. 43). Macro-economics of iCT from the The conclusion from these macro- uSA economic studies of broadband energy issue is: if energy in ICT use was In the USA ICT brought about a partial increasing, yet the energy intensity of decoupling of economic growth from the economy was decreasing, then ICT energy consumption. In order to explain appears to have been causing significant this interaction we need to consider the decreases in the energy intensity of period prior to the major expansion of economic activity across the wider ICT in the US. economy. From 99 to 996, US economic growth Power use for ICT has continued to averaged 3.4 % a year while energy increase through the broadband use grew by .4% a year (Romm 00) revolution. Analysis in 006 notes an - consistent with the opinion that a increase in energy demand from home/ growing economy needs ever more consumer ICT (Roth 006, p. 53-54), energy. However from 996 to 000, ascribed to PCs and related equipment Romm reports an apparent anomaly being 60% to 00% more than in in US energy statistics. The US GDP previous studies, with most of the growth increased to over 4% a year, but additional demand arising from devices during the same period, energy demand being left on overnight. This is an issue only increased by .% a year. The we will consider in more detail later in energy intensity of economic growth the report.  It should be noted that weather related factors may have accounted for some of the changes not exceeding 0.5% (Romm 00).  Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 28. Looking forward, while ICT networks network energy use, customer energy and applications need energy it appears use and waste. The authors suggest that they can realise much greater that indirect impacts on energy use are reductions in energy use across the 4 to 7 times higher than direct energy wider economy. use (as defined in Figure 9). Clearly the critical issue is the extent to which the The uK Broadband Environmental ‘secondary’ and ‘tertiary’ effects are Audit positively or negatively correlated with broadband. Similar concerns about burgeoning energy use from broadband application The BT report claimed that teleworkers in the United Kingdom led to British for the British Airports Authority had Telecom (BT) commissioning British saved approximately 00 kilometres environment group Forum for the Future of car travel each week. The report to assess the environmental impacts of projected that teleworking could cut broadband (Forum of the Future 004). peak-hour travel by between .6% The results are summarised in Figure 8. and 5.4% by 00. The report’s view is somewhat ambivalent: there is the The Forum found that the top four “potential for environmental savings”, negative impacts were climate change, but they “can only be realised through Figure 8: Environmental impacts of broadband use in the UK Figure 8. Forum for the Future concluded that broadband use would Environmental Climate Economic have negative impacts Waste change on climate change, Office use SMEs consumer energy use, network energy use and Scoring waste (Forum of the Transport Regional Development Future 004). 5 4 Economic growth Products and services 3 2 Consumer Productivity energy use 1 Network Education energy use Government/citizen Health interaction Positive impacts Work/life balance Social ties Negative impacts Social Abuse of the internet Family life & community 3 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 29. Figure 9: Definition of direct and indirect impacts from broadband usage Figure 9. Forum for the Future concluded that the key aspects for assessing the ‘whole’ impact of networks will Direct Primary Production, maintenance and disposal include the secondary of equipment and tertiary impacts (Forum for the Future 004). Indirect Primary Direct impacts of end-user equipment use e.g. home electricity use Secondary Associated with the ongoing use and application of broadband Tertiary Wider social and economic changes resulting changes in behaviour and corporate The overall conclusion was that the policy.” It contends that even with delivery of environmental outcomes telework and reduced commuting, car “could swing either way” but that the use would continue to grow, presumably key element affecting this swing would due to other unrelated factors. be the associated [customer] behaviour and corporate policy. The report also notes that telework could reduce office space demands by To some extent this conclusion 5%, which clearly has commensurate is in contrast with the US results, impacts on energy demands in which indicated that a fundamental commercial workplaces. The critical dematerialisation of energy observation in the context of this report use happened even without an is that even the projected direct and environmental objective. Since this indirect emissions associated with report was released, the process of broadband expansion represent only ‘unintended’ dematerialisation has a “tiny percentage of UK emissions… continued. For example, energy secondary and tertiary impacts are likely demand is significantly reduced in the to be much greater, e.g. an increase in transition from motor driven physical transport intensity is ten times more storage (e.g. the CD) to chip storage. significant for CO emissions than all Nonetheless, it is clear that coordination primary broadband impacts.” could have a critical role in enabling an intended outcome regarding 4 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 30. carbon emissions, and a lack of such To drive incremental change, the EU an objective could lead to a swing to has issued a code of conduct setting out negative outcomes. power consumption targets for a wide range of broadband equipment under Status and Trends in underlying 0 watts per device (Table ) (European Devices Union 006). As broadband devices evolve, their specifications show An increase in The energy trajectory of the devices that significant reduction in energy usage transport intensity underpin broadband is influenced by despite increased processing capacity. is ten times more incremental and step changes. significant for Step changes are major shifts which CO2 emissions Incremental changes are those in which often accompany a switch in underlying than all primary the same device becomes steadily more technology, such as CD to MP3, or tube broadband impacts. efficient. Often this is achieved by more to flat screen monitor. Reductions (Forum of the Future expensive technologies being pulled in energy usage typically follow step 2004) into the market as economies of scale changes. are achieved, and this can be aided by technology standards or targets. Table There is ongoing technology push and  shows the evolution in energy demand pull in the ICT space. Cisco Systems, between two successive product a leading provider of data network specification years and the incremental equipment, point out that data routing changes delivered. equipment (used by organisations such Tier 1: Tier 2: Table . Power Equipment 1.1 - 31.12.2007 1.1. - 31.12.2008 Consumption Targets of end use equipment Off On Off Standby On for networks (European Union 006 ). ADSL/VDSL-modem uSB powered 0W 1.5 W 0W 0W 1.5 W ADSL/modem (Ports: 1 DSL, 1 Ethernet 10/100, 1 0.3 W 6.0 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 4.0 W uSB Device, 1.1/2.0 firewall), Cable Modem, PLC modem VDSL-modem (max ports: 1 DSL, 1 Ethernet 10/100, 0.3 W 8W 0.3 W 2.0 W 6.0 W 1 uSB 1.2/2.0 firewall) Each additional function of the following: WLAn 802 2.0 W 2.0 W 11h/g, WLAn 802 11a FXO, FXS/VolP, hubswitch for several ports, DECT, Bluetooth WLAn access points 0.3 W 6.0 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 6.0 W VolP Device 0.3 W 5.0 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 5.0 W Small printer server 0.3 W 5.0 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 5.0 W Small hubs and switches 0.3 W 5.0 W 0.3 W 2.0 W 5.0 W 5 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 31. as Internet Service Providers) has seen are possible (see Figure 0) and an increase of data throughput of 33% are now coming through to the in 0 years for the same amount of market. However these ongoing power (Cisco 005). reductions are occurring at a time when the volume of use is increasing Not only can step changes reduce the significantly. energy intensity of ICT devices, but they also result in ‘smarter’ devices. In 4. The most significant impacts early 007, Sky (the UK’s largest satellite from networks will be in how the broadcaster) released a satellite set-top- networks are used by business box with automatic functionality to turn and residential consumers and itself off completely, rather than go into the consequent impacts on their standby mode when not being used. emissions footprint. These impacts will be at least an order of magnitude The most significant larger than any direct impacts opportunities to The Balance of Network Impacts from energy related to using ICT reduce emissions The key conclusions from a networks. from networks consideration of the greenhouse gas is through the impacts of network use are as follows: 5. There is very little evidence that leveraging of the ability of networks to leverage emission reductions . The previous research presented emissions cuts has been deliberately in the wider society indicates that there is evidence attempted thus far. Society via the use of of a strong link between wide emissions and abatement network enabled telecommunication networks have not been made a central applications. and a reduction in the intensity of part of the decision-making for society-wide/economy-wide energy network outcomes in the global use and therefore greenhouse gas telecommunications sector. There emissions. have been however significant attempts to reduce energy . The assumption that the use and consumption in order to reduce extensive growth of ICT networks operation and infrastructure costs gives rise to major increases in and so emissions reductions have energy consumption is not valid. occurred as an ‘unintended’ but The large rise in ICT use in the beneficial side-effect. US was a major part of economic growth during a period when 6. There are warnings from some the energy intensity of economic analysts that without intent and activity actually decreased. coordination the positive outcomes seen thus far could swing the 3. The trends in new technologies other way into increased relative around energy consumption in emissions. For example the current data networks indicate that energy trend towards flat screen monitors consumption reductions of 90% may decrease monitor emissions if 6 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 32. LCD screen monitors are adopted, or The key conclusion, in the context of increase emissions if plasma based this report, is that although the direct monitors are chosen instead. impacts of broadband are large, they are dwarfed by the secondary and 7. One of the major conclusions to tertiary impacts that they stimulate in be drawn from reports just a few the wider society. The most significant years old is the profound inability opportunities to reduce emissions from to second-guess future technology networks is through the leveraging change and therefore not to assume of emission reductions in the wider that the future will be based on society via the use of network enabled the past or present. If technology applications. developments are guided by governments or corporations, future changes in performance and use are likely to have a lower emission signature than would otherwise be the case. Figure 10: Analysis of ICT energy use Figure 0. Industry research into reducing the energy demand 300 from ICT use shows Uninterruptible opportunities for Power Supply(UPS) reducing energy 250 and Other consumption by up to Lighting 90% (Integrated Design 003). 200 Heating, Ventilation Energy Usage and Air Conditioning (HVAC) (Watts) 150 Computing 100 50 0 Current practice Best practices Projected with with current advanced products concepts 7 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 33. Part 3 Identifying Carbon- methodology to identify opportunities Opportunities for and maximise carbon abatement Telecommunication networks potential, Climate Risk adopted the following process: The genesis of this project was the recognition that a movement towards teleworking should contribute to Step 1: Review Australian National Greenhouse Gas reduced greenhouse gas emissions Inventory, identify relevant due to reduced transport use. A sectors, discount less relevant review of the emerging broadband sectors and identify ‘target’ technology revealed that network- emission sources. related innovations may facilitate further emission reductions. Telstra Step 2. Review current and emergent network technology commissioned Climate Risk to quantify and applications for the sectors the potential of existing and next- identified. generation networks and applications for carbon abatement, and the Step 3: Overlay the results opportunities for telecommunication of steps  and , to identify networks to play a role in climate change telecommunication network mitigation in Australia. opportunities which reduce carbon emissions and create financial value for end users. The idea that ICT networks can reduce greenhouse gas emissions is not new, but still nascent. Excellent high level work published internationally has Step 1. Identifying Relevant highlighted several ways in which ICT Sectors may assist emissions abatement (ETNO 006). In this report we have built In 005 Australia’s net greenhouse gas upon this research to pragmatically emissions were 559 MtCO-e, about re-consider the types of opportunities .% above emission levels in 990. available, the plausible market uptake of new technologies and services, the scale Table  shows the major emissions by and significance of these opportunities category. By inspection, broadband can at a national level and the costs and provide only a limited role in agriculture, benefits to telecommunications land use, land use change and forestry providers and their customers. We also (LULUCF), industrial processes and present several new opportunities to waste. There may be some relevant reduce emissions which are potentially applications, but these are not in larger in scale than any opportunities the main target markets typical for previously identified, as well as being network services. For example an area internationally applicable where ICT networks could contribute significantly to these emissions sectors In order to provide a consistent is through ‘dematerialisation’, i.e. 8 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 34. Table . Australia’s net Sector and subsector CO2-e greenhouse gases by sector (AGO 007b). Stationary energy 279.4 Agriculture 87.9 Transport 80.4 Land use, land use change and forestry 33.7 Fugitive emissions from fuel 31.2 industrial processes 29.5 Waste 17.0 Total net emissions 559.1 All energy (combustion & fugitive) 391.0 ways in which the requirement for new c. Decarbonising the emissions from materials is avoided. the use of fossil fuels. The stationary energy3 and transport Step 2. Reviewing Current and sectors represent 64% of emissions Emergent Network Technology (Figure ). These sectors also experienced the largest growth in This step requires a review of current emissions between 990 and 005 and emergent network technology and (energy grew by 43% and transport by appliances. nearly 30%). They are highly relevant sectors in the context of this report. What can reasonably be expected in the future is that the push and The dominant work in the mitigation of pull of demand and supply will drive greenhouse gas emissions from energy up speeds and volumes of network and transport tends to rest on three use, and drive down relative costs. pillars: Consequently the same can be expected of the applications that these networks a. Decreasing the amount of energy provide. needed – through efficiency or changed demand There are two other relevant trends. The first is the trend towards distributed b. Increasing the provision of intelligence, where decision-making renewable/zero emission energy occurs at any point within a network. 3 Stationary energy includes emissions from electricity generation, the use of fuels in manufacturing, construction and commercial sectors, and residential heating. It excludes transport fuels. 9 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 35. Figure 11: Breakdown of Australian energy emissions by sector Figure . Contribution to net CO-e emissions by sector 005 (AGO 007b, p.3). 50 Strongest abatement potential using ICT networks – 64.4% of total emissions 40 This combination of smart devices and 30 netwrok control is a Percentage potentially powerful (%) tool in energy 20 management. 10 0 Stationary Agriculture Transport Land use, Fugitive Industrial Waste energy land use emissions processes change and forestry Sector The second is the process of intelligence that can assist with addressing the moving into devices. Devices that energy or emissions footprint of these were once passive, increasingly have basic human needs. the capacity for communication and distributed control. This combination Step 3. Major Carbon- of smart devices and network control Opportunities for is a potentially powerful tool in energy telecommunication providers: management. Overlaying emission sources with network technologies The task of forecasting applications in terms of energy use is driven by basic Based on steps  and  we can human needs and activities. We can conceptualise the overlaps between reasonably expect that whatever the emission sources and network new technology, people will be wanting technologies occurring in three distinct energy for light, heat, cooling and but interrelated areas: the home, the devices that allow them to communicate workplace and the transport of people, and travel for work and recreation. This goods and services (Figure ). report will focus on broadband solutions 0 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 36. Figure 12: Interdependence of building and transport energy emissions Figure . The carbon footprint of home and workplaces are often separate, but may Movement between home and overlap for people who work e.g. commuting work from home. The motion of people, goods and services accounts for a large proportion of emissions. Home Work Energy use e.g. electrical appliances Movement in private life e.g. Business to business driving to the shops movement e.g. moving goods Motion between cities The home includes all of the activities gas abatement, the following criteria that happen inside the home that were used: use energy or affect energy use. The workplace includes many of the same . The opportunity is economically needs and activities, however as noted viable; above this does not include emissions related to ‘industrial activity’. . Each opportunity has the potential to reduce Australia’s total net The carbon footprint of homes and emissions by .5 MtCO-e. workplaces are often separate, but may overlap for people who work from 3. The telecommunication sector’s home. scale and scope can facilitate the full utilisation of opportunity. The transport of people, goods and services accounts for a large proportion On this basis we see significant of emissions. Broadband has the opportunities related to buildings, air capacity to reduce transport needs travel, road transport and renewable and therefore reduce greenhouse gas energy. emissions (Figure 3). A final group of seven carbon- To identify specific telecommunications opportunities are presented here4. enabled opportunities which are realistic and can deliver meaningful greenhouse . Remote Appliance Power 4 The appendices provide a more detailed explanation of the identification, elimination and consolidation process and a wider list of the additional greenhouse gas abatement options.  Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 37. Figure 13: Pathways to reduce building and transport energy emissions Figure 3 . A conceptual framework for residential, commercial and transport emissions and how they may be abated. Home Work Reduce the transport envelope Motion Increase shared resources Reduce workplace emissions Reduce home emissions Management – The opportunity enabled homes, suburbs and to drive monitoring and control regional centres to either remove or downstream to the power supply significantly reduce the emissions system in the home and workplace, of people getting to and from their while pushing intelligence and place of work. management upstream into the network as a way of identifying and 4. Personalised Public Transport - The then eliminating standby power potential for an integrated network wastage. of transport modes (eg bus, train and taxis) to provide Personalised Public . Presence-Based Power - The ability Transport. Faster speeds door to of broadband-enabled buildings door, high flexibility and lower costs, and devices to allow a user-focused are accompanied by significant energy flow, in which only devices opportunities for greenhouse gas inside the physical range of abatement. interaction of the user are activated. 5. Real-time Freight Management - The 3. De-centralised Business District potential of broadband-enabled - The capacity for broadband vehicles and load monitoring to  Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 38. reduce unladen (empty) and under- Viability and Implementation laden trips. The carbon opportunities identified 6. Increased Renewable Energy - The in the report have been selected in potential for extensive broadband part because of the practicality of networks to monitor and facilitate their implementation, i.e. that there the management of heating, are technologies, products, services cooling and other loads. This load or systems that can readily assimilate management can be undertaken the identified innovations and deliver by an integrated mobile and fixed them to market. In some, but not all broadband platform and be used cases, there is assumed to be market to effectively neutralise the short- pressure for reduced emissions through term variability of renewable energy carbon pricing and a premium value for supplies, turning them into ‘stable renewable energy. These assumptions and predictable’ power generation. are plausible given current statements by political leaders in Australia. 7. ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing - The opportunity for Beyond an initial screening for viability, long distance, short duration travel this report does not set out a business to be effectively replaced with ‘in strategy or road-map for commercially person’ quality online conferencing realising the carbon-opportunities that is considerably more cost, identified, and so a detailed analysis of time and energy efficient, with implementation options and barriers is significantly reduced emissions. not provided or implied. 3 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 39. Part 4 Major Carbon-Opportunities for Telecommunication Networks Carbon-Opportunity 1: Remote 559.MtCO –e of emissions (AGO 007b; Appliance Power Management CAIT 007). At a Glance In homes and offices around the This opportunity reduces wasted country, devices on ‘standby’ consume electricity by networking the monitoring power even when they are not being Devices on ‘standby’ and control of power use in the electrical used. Standby energy wastage ranges consume power systems of homes and workplaces. from 4%-6% in offices to % of total even when they consumption in homes (Harrington & are not being used. Status and Trends Kleverlaan 00; AGO & ICLI 005). Standby energy wastage ranges from Homes and commercial premises Currently there are efforts to reduce 4% to 12% of total currently consume approximately the energy consumption of devices on consumption. 08,000 Gigawatt-hours of electricity standby (Energy Efficient Strategies per year (based on ABS 007), creating 006), and campaigns to change roughly 00 million tonnes (assuming behaviour by turning devices off at a little under  tonne CO per megawatt the plug to avoid drawing power when hour) of greenhouse gas emissions, unused. Both approaches require or about one fifth of the country’s changes to thousands of different Figure 14: Standby and conversion loss by end-use appliances Figure 4. Energy is lost while devices are Laptops 8% Monitors 1% on standby and also Mobile phones 11% in converting voltages between the outlet and the device ‘conversion loss’. The chart shows Other - telephony 18% the relatively high level Imaging equipment 12% of energy waste from ICT devices (Punchline Energy 007). Home - other 13% Modems 21% Sundry - other 5% Retail - other 1% Networking 7% Hospital - other 3% 4 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 40. product types and modifying the The distributed management of energy behaviour of millions of people, making could occur either inside the building reductions difficult. Standards are or anywhere online. In practice, this being developed to reduce the energy could mean combining outlets for power Rather than leaving consumption of various devices while and broadband into a unified socket or the charging they are on standby, however current inserting an intermediate networked transformers trends indicate that by 00 Australian plug/socket such as the one shown running, the remote electricity demand may increase in the breakout box. Both of these management sends by as much as 40% (ABARE 005). would allow intelligent control from a signal for the outlet Consequently, wasted energy from anywhere on the global broadband to turn off, halting devices that are on standby may still network. For example, charging tools the flow of standby increase. in a garage; the outlet or switching box power. is able to monitor the energy being The Carbon-Business Confluence drawn and management elsewhere on the network can tell when the charging Reducing energy use means reducing is finished. Rather than leaving the greenhouse emissions, which in turn charging transformers running, the represents cost savings. The value of remote management sends a signal for wasted standby energy is of the order of the outlet to turn off, halting the flow of $A billion per year5. standby power. The Telemetry Application The application draws on a broadband- enabled home or workplace, but also Telecommunication providers have requires the telecommunications existing telemetry products that provider to engage in the home can be extended to monitoring and electrical market and building industry The value of wasted controlling energy distribution networks to deploy appropriate products in new standby energy may in buildings. These products could and refurbished homes or provide be over 1 billion move energy management away from simple retrofit products. dollars per year. individuals or devices to intelligence in the communications network. REAL WORLD EXAMPLE Networks and remote intelligence can allow a more sophisticated level of intervention. A small company in Oxfordshire UK has created a single-point handheld device that allows the user to send a radio frequency signal to switch off all products (plugged into specially designed socket adapters) that are in standby mode when they leave the house or go to sleep. The company, ‘Bye Bye Standby’, states that the device can save large amounts of greenhouse gases through lower energy consumption, reduce electricity bills and decrease the risk of home fires (BBSB 007). 5 Calculation is based on .5GWh of standby energy at a delivered price of $00 per MWh (at the lower end of non-industrial delivered electricity prices in Australia), which gives a total value of $.5 billion 5 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 41. Challenges and Barriers This is an example of shifting from an incidental to deliberate specification of network enabled energy management. The ability to have the necessary information and control to intercept standby energy wastage requires devices that are both networked and controllable or power supply switches that are networked and controllable. Such devices and switches already exist, however the large scale uptake requires the ability to retro-fit such switching at low cost. It also requires applicable future devices to be suitably networked and controllable. 6 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 42. Carbon-Opportunity 2 : Presence- that by 00 Australian electricity Based Power demand may increase by as much as At a Glance 50%. Consequently, ‘orphaned’ energy from devices that are on but unused Electricity flows in the home and can be expected to increase by a similar workplace are currently device- amount. focussed. Once the appliance is on, it draws the energy that it demands. If no- The Carbon-Business Confluence one is in the room to enjoy the lighting or A typical plasma the air-conditioning, this can be thought There is very little work on how television uses the of as ‘orphaned’ energy. Broadband- much energy is wasted in ‘orphaned’ equivalent energy enabled buildings and devices allow a appliances. To some extent, this will of an electric heater user-focused energy flow (a ‘Presence- vary with the definition of what period even when no-one is Based Power’), in which only devices of non-use is applicable. Climate Risk in the room. inside the physical range of engagement estimate that, separate from standby of the user are activated. This power, about 5% of energy use may be innovation could reduce an estimated categorised as ‘orphaned’, extrapolated 5% of energy use currently wasted as from analysis by the larger product ‘orphaned’. manufacturers in the field. Status and Trends The Telecommunication Mobile network Opportunity Homes and commercial premises currently consume approximately Presence-Based Power may be 08,000 Gigawatt-hours of electricity understood as the aura that lights up per year (ABS 007), causing roughly the room when a charismatic person 00 million tonnes (assuming a little arrives. The ‘intelligent building’ is under  tonne CO per megawatt hour) aware as the person moves between of greenhouse gas emissions or about spaces. Devices, lights, heating, TVs or one fifth of the country’s 559. MtCO –e computers are on when required by the of emissions (AGO 007b; CAIT 007). person, but ‘go to sleep’ after the user leaves. Devices which are on but unused (orphaned) are wasting energy in homes The user, identified via their mobile and offices. For example, a typical phone or a key tag, can personally plasma television uses the equivalent define an ‘aura’ size - perhaps a  metre energy of an electric heater even when radius in the office. Any device inside no-one is in the room. Computers are that sphere will be active, but a device on in offices when people have left for a outside the person’s designated ‘energy meeting; lights and air conditioning are radius’ will be off until such time as the on in rooms or entire floors where no person comes back into proximity to the one is present. Current trends indicate device. The system can be extended to 7 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 43. Household emissions Commercial emissions Table 3. Breakdown of emissions from Category % Category % homes and commercial buildings based on Transport 31 Transport - Next Energy (006). Commercial standby is not included in this Appliances 25 Appliances 7 source but is estimated as 4-8% by the AGO Water heating 16 Water heating 34 005. Space heating/ 13 Space heating/ 32 cooling cooling Waste 5 Waste 0 Lighting 5 Lighting 27 Standby 5 Standby - Climate Risk estimate that, include time-based intelligence e.g. to (59% of household emissions and 00% separate from turn off hot water systems when people of commercial emissions). standby power, are at work. about 15% of energy use may The approach eliminates a large be categorised as fraction of the energy consumption of Challenges and Barriers ‘orphaned’. ‘orphaned’ appliances without the need for any behavioural change on the part Critical elements of success include: of the user and in a way that users can customise to their own needs without • The volume of customers loss of amenity. participating, The breakdown of household and • The range of devices that can be commercial emissions (Table 3) gives managed through external signals, some idea of the target applications which include space heating/cooling, • Customer trust in privacy. appliances, lighting and water heating REAL WORLD EXAMPLE Presence Based Power techniques have been applied in some parts of the USA (ThomasNet 006). It uses currently available technology including broadband to the home and workplace; broadband-enabled appliances, switches and sockets; radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and telemetry; and motion sensing, combined with software to predict normal behaviours (people leaving the house in the morning or going to bed). 8 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 44. Carbon-Opportunity 3: (ABS 007, based on 004 data). The De-centralised Business District dispersed urban form of Australian At a Glance cities means that the average distance travelled by a worker, to and from work Travel to and from Network-enabled homes, suburbs in a year, is 7,00 kilometres and this work generates and regional centres can remove or travel generates approximately .6% approximately 2.6% significantly reduce the emissions of Australia’s total greenhouse gas of Australia’s total generated by people travelling to and emissions (AGO 006a; ABS 007). greenhouse gas from their place of work. emissions. Although Climate Risk does not This carbon-opportunity considers have direct information on trends only the reduced greenhouse pollution in commuting levels in Australia, an arising from reduced or higher increasing trend can be inferred via efficiency travel to and from the the general growth in car use. This workplace. Its does not assume any coincides with a general increase in the reduction of emissions at the workplace percentage of travel on public transport. which may simply be transferred to a Figure 5 shows the increasing level of different location. car use causing close to 8% of national greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions Status and Trends from car use have increased by 500,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent Australians travel 43.5 billion kilometres (500,000 t CO –e) per year since 990, a year commuting to and from their the baseline year for the United Nations place of work using private vehicles and Kyoto Protocol measurements. Figure 15: Australian emissions from passenger car use since 1990 Figure 5. Trends in passenger car emissions over time 55 (‘with measures’) showing sustained increases since 990 50 (AGO 006a). MtCO2-e 45 ‘WiTH MEASuRES’ 40 The term ‘with measures’ refers to government initiatives with allocated 35 budgets, timetables and, if necessary, supporting 30 legislation which are used 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 to adjust projections of future emissions. Year 9 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 45. The Carbon-Business Confluence JEVOnS’ PARADOX There is a direct carbon impact from the William Stanley Jevons (835-88) was an English reduced use of vehicles for commuting. economist and logician who analysed the impacts of A direct value from reduced time the last Industrial Revolution. In The Coal Question spent by workers commuting also (865) he maintained that technological efficiency accrues either to the company or to the gains—specifically the more “economical” use of coal in individual, and can be monetised in engines doing mechanical work—actually increased the terms of the hourly rate that the person overall consumption of coal, iron, and other resources, would otherwise earn for their time. rather than “saving” them, as many claimed (Alcott 005, p.9). As this outcome ran counter to Jevons’ Australia is experiencing a skills and intuition, it is known historically as ‘Jevons’ Paradox’. labour shortage across many sectors as a result of continued economic growth and an aging population. More flexible hours and locations of work can partly teleworking and de-centralised working. redress this shortage by enabling new We do not include traffic efficiency due workers previously excluded by the time to Jevons’ Paradox. barrier of commuting. The economy will benefit from the deployment of Telework: such additional resources in any labour- constrained market. Telework allows people to work from home or local business centres without Reduced time spent commuting may the need to physically commute. encourage workers to relocate to According to the Australian Telework regional centres. This has a secondary Advisory Committee (ATAC), telework is financial benefit to employers and defined as: employees in that it allows people to settle in places with lower housing “encompassing work arrangements prices than Australia’s major cities. which take place between a remote This improves affordability, reduces worker and a central business location, wage pressures and results in more including where these arrangements: disposable income. The Telecommunication network • involve a worker located at home, Opportunity either as an employer connecting to a work location, or as a self- Telecommunication providers have employed worker, connecting to many existing products and services clients; and that can reduce the time spent • are enabled by ICT, such as a PC and commuting, or can provide viable network connectivity; and alternatives to physical commuting. • occur within the context of the The two solutions considered here are Australian economy (e.g. not 30 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 46. ‘off-shoring’ or ‘time-shifting’ close to home at a ‘telework centre’ arrangements); and or regional centre. This workplace • involve full-time, part-time or casual decentralisation yields considerably work; and reduced commuting distances, travel • occur within the context of an time and transport emissions. For employment relationship; and example, the average commute time in • are either formal or informal; and Sydney is 4.7 hours per week, compared • are voluntary or compulsory.” to .9 hours per week for the rest of (ATAC 006, p.4) NSW (MIAESR 00). Furthermore, the lower levels of traffic should increase Empirical research According to ATAC (2006), the benefits vehicle speeds and efficiencies. suggests that of telework typically include: teleworkers produce Broadband can serve to counteract more work per hour • increased productivity, these ‘lost hours’ commuting by than their work- • Decreased workplace costs enabling people to live and work in based colleagues. • Flexible work hours (e.g. for the smaller towns, cities or suburbs (with over-65 age group), much lower commuting requirements), • Removal of distance as a barrier to while continuing to work for city-based employment, national and international employers. • increased opportunities for people This may involve the use of multi- with disabilities, occupant business centres, or regional • Decreased travel times, costs and offices for larger businesses. In other emissions. cases, whole departments can be moved to regional centres. A quarter of the 9.5 million people in the workforce work at least some of their All of these changes hinge on the ability hours from home (ABS 007). Of the to move large volumes of data, voice 75,000 people who identify themselves and video between regional centres, as ‘working from home’, only about suburbs and cities. The richness of 95,000 are employees, the remainder the experiences will increasingly be being small business owner-managers. enhanced by higher-end services such Teleworking creates an important as ‘in person’ quality conferencing overlap between the home environment facilities. The economic opportunities to and the workplace, with consequent reinvigorate widely dispersed regional reductions in emissions as outlined centres through teleworking and de- above. Furthermore, empirical research centralised workplaces are obviously suggests that teleworkers produce more linked to the quality and extent of the work per hour than their work-based broadband network. colleagues (ATAC 006). Challenges and Barriers The De-centralised Workplace: Some barriers to teleworking and A variation on teleworking is the ability regional relocation are non-technical. of people to work not at home, but According to ATAC (006) the main 3 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 47. REAL WORLD EXAMPLES East Midlands Electricity (EME), united Kingdom EME is an electricity distribution firm in the East Midlands, UK. Approximately 50 of its 469 staff at the Pegasus building telework  to 5 days per week, resulting in considerable savings for both the employer and employees. Due to the high telework uptake, EME reduced its amount of office space, currently at a premium, saving the company approximately $A70,0006 per year. The workers save approximately $A 40 per week and an average of 0 hours each per week in commuting time. In total, an average of 38,000 km per week was saved by the 50 teleworkers (Hopkins & James 00). Malta information Technology and Training Services Ltd , Malta In Malta, an information technology service has utilised a hybrid approach to telework to maximise the opportunities and overcome challenges associated with telework. Malta Information Technology and Training Services Ltd (MITTS) decided on a three-day-telework, two-day-office program with its staff. This way they have managed to retain skilled working mothers who could not commit to a full-time office-based working week (ETC 007). 6 Based on  GBP = .7 AUD barriers to telework implementation are: • The trust-based relationship between employee and employer, • The monitoring and supervision of employees, • Insurance, • ICT costs, The average • Isolation, and commute time in • Cultural resistance. Sydney is 4.7 hours per week, compared to 2.9 hours per week for the rest of NSW (MIAESR 2002). 3 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 48. Carbon- Opportunity 4: commuters use their car to get to work, Personalised Public Transport and of these only 4% share the car with anyone else (ABS 007). At a Glance While recent increases in the cost of Wireless-broadband can facilitate public fuel have made a minor impact on transport on demand. Personalised private vehicle kilometres travelled, Public Transport allows the user to there continues to be a strong positive order public transport provided by an trend in private vehicle use (Figure 5). integrated network of multi-occupant The current greenhouse gas emissions The transport taxis, minibuses, buses and trains, from this sector are expected to grow sector accounts for which starts at the front door (multi- from 43 MtCO–e in 005 to 49 MtCO–e approximately 13.5 modal transport). The personal in 00, a 39 % increase on 990 levels percent of annual efficiency of Personalised Public (AGO 006a). Researchers identify net greenhouse Transport can exceed that of using the that a combination of demand-side emissions. private car, with faster speeds door-to- management, supply-side management door, greater flexibility and lower costs. and behavioural change is required to significantly reduce transport emissions Status and Trends (Cervero 00). Australia’s tyranny of distance and Public Transport: Public transport dispersed settlement patterns have use has varied in recent history, and led to a reliance on motor vehicles stabilised to a constant % between (Alexander 000). The transport sector 000 and 003 (ABS 007). Although accounts for approximately 4% of there has been a recent spike in public annual net greenhouse emissions (AGO transport use from increased fuel 007b). Further, it is anticipated that price (ABS 007), Australia’s dispersed under a business-as-usual scenario, settlement pattern has limited the viable private vehicle use and emissions will public transport services to hub-and- continue to increase significantly, with spoke options, i.e. in and out of the 3% growth between 005 and 00 city with poor intra- and inter-suburb (AGO 006a). services. In order to improve public transport use, there needs to be an Private Transport: Since the 950s, improvement in the ‘personal efficiency’ Australia has experienced considerable of public transport options, such as growth in private car ownership and increased frequency of services and kilometres travelled (ABS 007). across-town options (suburb-to-suburb, According to the Australian Bureau rather than suburb-to-city: Mees 000). of Statistics, the majority of private transport is used for commuting to and Transit Orientated Design: Throughout from work, as well as personal travel Australia there is an increasing trend such as school runs and shopping (ABS towards regional transport planning 007). Three-quarters of Australian that incorporates Transit Oriented 33 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 49. Design (TOD), in which dense mixed- The Telecommunications/iT industry use activity centres are connected Opportunity by frequent transport services (OUM & SEQROC 005; V.DSE 005). The opportunity identified here is Low-density sprawling Australian the application of ICT-facilitated neighbourhoods do not encourage Personalised Public Transport in high the provision of such services to areas and medium density urban areas to outside the TOD catchment without allow a reduction in car use in favour of incurring significant running costs. lower emission travel options. The Carbon-Business Confluence Personalised Public Transport is the provision of on-call public transport A range of potential ICT-based solutions vehicles which act as feeders to Transit exists to reduce private transport use Oriented Developments (TODs), using and improve vehicle energy efficiencies. integrated modes of local mini-buses, These include facilitating telework suburb-to-suburb links, high-speed options discussed earlier. express buses, trains and multi- occupant taxi services. The integration The carbon-business case presented reduces travel and wait-times and below is based on the opportunity increases the economies of scale for to facilitate new or changed services specialised services such as express that improve the personal efficiency commuter trains and buses, as well as of public transport to the consumer, suburb-to-suburb inter-connection. exceeding the relative value of personal car use. The net effect of PPT is: There are other opportunities that • Increased flexibility for the include web-based intelligence to customer, increase car pooling and therefore the net efficiency of car use and smart • Reduced waiting times for the traffic-flow monitoring (GoLoco 007). customer, There is a strong business case for an existing internet company or council to • Increasing the use of public create a web-based clearing house for transport within the catchment, car pooling. This report has not pursued traffic flow alternatives which could • More frequent services, be improved by network applications, because improved traffic flow and • Higher speed arterial services, efficiency lead to increased levels of traffic with little or no net greenhouse • Increased commercial viability of all emission benefit (Jevon’s Paradox). transport suppliers. 34 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 50. Challenges and Barriers The premise is that the barriers to non-car travel are based on personal The barriers to the uptake of public efficiency. Currently, even though a transport in general would also be bus trip may be significantly less costly a barrier to network enabled PPT than car-based commuting and personal and include imbalances in tax and travel, the net time spent waiting and corporate incentives, traffic access travelling and the value of that time to and prioritisation as well as funding for the person reverses the overall cost- major public transport infrastructure. benefit balance in favour of the car. REAL WORLD EXAMPLES Brisbane City Council Brisbane City Council is currently trialling a limited PPT system which operates outside the Translink network. Through an agreement with Black and White Cabs Pty Ltd, maxi cabs travel along a fixed route every 5-30 minutes in five subburbs to provide commuters easy acces to and from their local train stations, bus interchanges and shopping centre. The service only runs during peak hour and the costs the commuter $ for each trip (Brisbane City Council 007). MobiSoft Technology already exists for the facilitation of personalised public transport. MobiSoft, a Finnish software company, has developed software for transport providers which: “enables total management of incoming requests, offers real-time map-based route design as well as scheduling and capacity management, such as making sure the proper vehicle is sent to the customer. Mobile phone networks are used for fast and reliable data transfer, meaning that the system can be immediately deployed, eliminating the need for expensive equipment investments and lengthy delivery and deployment times.” (MobiSoft 007) Research is also currently underway to provide personalised public transport using automated, driverless vehicles. Capoco (007) have developed the Mobilicity project. Mobilicity is a demand-responsive driverless personalised public transport system which uses hybrid electric vehicles to act as transport feeders to main trunk public transport lines and is beginning trials at the Shanghai Expo in 00 and London Olympic Games in 0. 35 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 51. Carbon-Opportunity 5: MtCO-e in 00 (AGO 006). Real-time Freight Management Almost a third (8%) of the 9 billion At a Glance kilometres travelled involves empty freight vehicles (Figure 6). During these Currently one-third of the billions of times, larger freight vehicles may be kilometres travelled by Australian freight emitting between . and .4 kilograms vehicles are without loads. Network- of CO on average for each kilometre enabled vehicles and load monitoring travelled. can create systems that reduce unladen and under-laden trips. The Carbon-Business Confluence Currently the road Status and Trends The opportunity considered here is to freight sector is target unladen vehicle use in Australia. responsible for 36 Currently the road freight sector is Initiatives in overseas markets have % of the transport responsible for 36% of the transport shown that integrated high-speed sector’s emissions sector’s emissions and nearly 5% of communications can be used to create and nearly 5% of Australia’s total emissions (AGO 006a). new freight management systems and Australia’s total In 004 light commercial vehicles, rigid markets that can significantly increase emissions. trucks and articulated trucks travelled the average load factor on freight more than 35 billion kilometres moving vehicle. goods throughout Australia (ABS 007). An increase in the load factor of freight The greenhouse gas emissions vehicle use is effectively an energy from light commercial vehicles and efficiency measure which has direct articulated trucks is projected to carbon benefits from the reduced fuel increase from 3 MtCO-e in 990 to 3 use. It also represents dollar savings Figure 16: Annual distances travelled by Australian freight vehicles Figure 6. Fraction of freight vehicle kilometres which are laden and unladen (ABS 007, p. 533). Laden vehicles Unladen vehicles 9.7 billion kilometres 25.5 billion kilometres 36 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 52. which could accrue between freight route options using GPS technology, handlers, third-party freight managers providing the carrier with the shortest and the freight customer. Such a routes for the load pick-up and delivery. large percentage (8%) of current and projected unladen kilometres The anticipated cost savings for the travelled presents an opportunity for freight carrier would allow freight telecommunications providers and the brokers (or third-party network Almost a third of the freight industry to facilitate considerable providers) to capture a price for kilometres travelled greenhouse gas emission reductions. the service. The service would be by Australian freight particularly useful for owner-operator fleets is wasted on There are also non-carbon financial carriers who do not have the capacity empty trips. benefits due to the reduced capital or resources for an integrated stock required, reduced vehicle wear, management system. and reduced on-road costs (such as taxation). Many businesses throughout the world have recognised that unladen freight The Telecommunications/iCT industry vehicles kilometres reduce profitability Opportunity and have attempted to manage this cost in a variety of ways using ICT platforms. The opportunity we identify here is Moreover, as Radio Frequency the application of ICT-facilitated Real- Identification (RFID) tagging of goods time Freight Management, which increases, it is possible that more goes beyond typical in-house options precise savings can be utilised. undertaken by conventional freight businesses. Challenges and Barriers Use of mobile data networks to facilitate The major barriers to the deployment of real-time solutions would allow freight such a solution would be the necessary brokers to identify loads, vehicle tagging, monitoring and clearing-house locations, destinations and load status infrastructure. The system lends itself in order to offer freight to empty or to collaboration with a third-party partially laden vehicles. Furthermore, logistics partner. it is also possible to provide best REAL WORLD EXAMPLE Mercedes-Benz FleetBoard, working with Software AG, has recently developed an internet-based fleet management system whereby information between forwarders and carriers can be shared in real-time 4 hours a day, seven days a week. The system allows the freight forwarder to enter information on to a web-based platform which assigns orders to individual vehicles. The information is sent via SMS to the vehicle’s in-cab screen, allowing the driver to accept or reject the assignment based on timing or congestion issues. The end result is that there are less unladen vehicle trips, saving considerable time and money for both the forwarder and carrier. Furthermore, all of the information can be stored for future analysis of route planning (Software AG 007). 37 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 53. Carbon-Opportunity 6 : appliances in many buildings, can Increased Renewable Energy be used to effectively neutralise this At a Glance variability, turning such renewables into ‘stable and predictable generation’ Total fossil-fuel use Deep cuts in Australian emissions will and allowing them to contribute a in power generation require a transition to low and zero greater emission-free component of the accounts for emission sources of power supply. electricity supply. approximately 35% Though plentiful, low-cost renewable of the country’s energy sources like wind power are Status and Trends greenhouse gas hampered by intermittency, the minute- emissions. by-minute short-term variability of the Australia is endowed with large volumes supply. Extensive broadband networks, of fossil fuels, from oil and gas off the combined with intelligent active load North-West Shelf, to the vast brown management of heating and cooling and black coal reserves in the eastern Figure 17: Telecommunications network can reach energy generators, Figure 7. The ability electricity users and grid managers. of telecommunication networks to provide real-time Virtual energy storage communication across the whole electricity system allows many appliances in millions of homes and offices to be used to balance the short-term variations from renewable energy plants. This is equivalent to creating a Renewable Homes very large, very widely energy distributed, virtual energy storage battery. Electricity network Electricity grid Renewable Commercial energy Telecommunications network 38 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 54. states. In a carbon-constrained world, wind power, biomass energy from these assets may become a liability. agricultural wastes, solar radiation, Already large institutional investors geothermal power and ocean-based are seeking disclosure of the carbon generation. Hydro-electricity can liabilities of Australian companies (CDP supply energy on demand. Sources 007). Some energy companies are like biomass or geothermal can supply already responding by reducing the relatively constant energy. However, carbon intensity of their generation the most rapidly growing renewable portfolio and divesting coal and energy technologies - wind and solar purchasing gas and renewable energy - harness energy sources which have assets (AGL 007). This situation may some temporal variability. Wind farms become more onerous if some Kyoto- are placed in sites where there are signatory countries (including those usually strong and consistent winds, within the EU, Australia’s largest trading but there is always intermittency; partner) successfully call for the impost weather forecasting technologies are of carbon-based import tariffs against now applied to predict these variations non-signatory countries. Approximately (White 005) and multiple wind farms 86% of Australia’s electricity is supplied reduce the overall variations (Figure 8). by coal (AGO 007b), with total fossil- fuel use in power generation accounting Although there are over 6,000 for approximately 35% of the country’s megawatts of wind energy projects greenhouse gas emissions (ABS 007). proposed for Australia (enough to power 3 million homes), their implementation Australia also has large sources may be constrained by the management of renewable energy including of the variability in output from these Figure 18: Wind energy output from three states and in aggregate Figure 8. The variability of wind farm energy output in aggregate decreases as more wind farms 100 are added. The multi- South Australia hourly and daily Victoria 80 New South Wales variations shown here All can be predicted using weather forecasting 60 techniques, whereas the Capacity % short-term variations 40 must be accommodated by other supply sources on the network (Coates 20 004). 30 January 1 February 3 February 5 February 7 February 9 February 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 39 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 55. ECOnnECT (uK) AnD DiSTRiBuTED inTELLiGEnT LOAD COnTROLLERS Automatic Load Controller “Many domestic loads can be controlled effectively by our Automatic Load Controller. This product sheds non-essential loads when the system is in danger of becoming overloaded. Electrical appliances which can be switched off for short periods (user selectable between 8 seconds and 6 minutes) without affecting their function are most suitable - for example, washing machines, dishwashers, fridges, freezers, electric kettles, microwave ovens, irons, electric cookers, water and space heaters”. Governing Load Controller “At times of high availability of renewable energy resource and low demand, the energy can be usefully deployed instead of being dumped to a central dump load. Suitable loads, such as water and space heating can be added”. 40 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 56. wind farms. For example, although The Carbon-Business Confluence South Australia already has approvals for  wind farms with a total capacity of The commercial viability of this carbon- nearly 000 megawatts (Auswind 007), opportunity is based on the ability to there have been ongoing pressures to manage significant electrical loads limit wind power development partly across a large customer base that can be citing this variability: used to effectively neutralise the short- term (up to about one hour) variability of “South Australia is rapidly heading intermittent renewable energy sources. towards being, proportionally, the This would allow more clean energy into second largest producer of wind energy the grid network and also increase the in the world. …While wind energy has value of that energy. been, and will continue to be, a welcome contributor to the State’s electricity Since the grid is not a battery, the supply, the sheer scale of the proposals demand for electricity and the supply has prompted concerns regarding the of power must be kept in constant impact that such high levels of wind balance by the grid operator. Australia’s generation might have on the reliability, largest grid is managed by the National security and price of electricity in South Electricity Market Management Australia… more than 500 MW of wind Company (NEMMCO). The grid generation will result in unacceptable operator cannot control how people risks to reliability in the State and use energy in their homes, businesses create uncertainty over long term price or industries, and as such, the state trends. These impacts are the result grid companies and energy retailers of two particular characteristics of regulate the system to achieve the wind generation, namely the inherent balance. The electricity market is based variability and inherent uncertainty on information about expected demand associated with wind energy; and (e.g. in 5 minute intervals) at various the way it participates in the national nodes. This information is provided for electricity market.” (ESIPC 004) bids from all potential suppliers. Supply is dispatched according to least–cost Failing to harness low-cost clean- and environmental constraints. On energy sources like wind power because the eastern seaboard this is called the of concerns about intermittency National Electricity Market (NEM). represents a barrier to achieving deep cuts in national greenhouse gas In some of the more extreme cases, such emissions. Wind and biomass were as power station units shutting down, identified as amongst the lowest-cost the grid operator may regulate customer energy options by the CSIRO-led Energy energy supply by cutting supply to a Future Forum, which placed a 0% limit large industrial loads to avoid residential on the penetration into the grid of each blackouts. of the intermittent renewables in its future scenarios (CSIRO 006). An alternative to balancing the energy 4 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 57. CuRRuMBin ECO-ViLLAGE, GOLD COAST EcoVision Solutions, a Gold Coast based technology development company, uses an integrated control and management system which will facilitate cooperative management of resources in the energy and water supply chain. As a component of the cooperative framework, EcoVision has produced a home touchscreen interface which provides consumers with real time feedback of electricity, potable water, recycled water and gas usage. Greenhouse gases relating to resource consumption are displayed in graphical form as well as photovoltaic solar power or other forms of renewable energy generation. Energy use can be monitored at circuit level (eg lighting separate from general power) or at discrete appliance level. In conjunction with various in home sensors and timers, an in home EcoVision controller provides automation features to reduce energy consumption and phantom loads as well as shed loads in times of network constraint. All of the data gathered by EcoVision is sent to a central server (usually via the community network) for use by the Body Corporate, enabling comparison of performance in different households and benchmarks to be set. The important aspect of EcoVision is its architecture which facilitates aggregation of end use data far beyond the local community level. EcoVision enables occupants to offer demand side capacity back to the utility via the web at times of network constraint. This would typically include switching of major loads such as air conditioners, pool pumps and refrigerators which can contribute unnecessarily to coincident peak demand. As result distribution utilities can derive significant benefits via reduced outages and extended asset life. EcoVision is now installing its first 44 systems at the award winning Ecovillage at Currumbin, a residential subdivision on the Gold Coast. 4 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 58. supply on an ongoing basis is to manage note that the net energy use will be the DynAMiC LOAD the loads (demand-side management). same, but it is the ‘dynamic’ or ‘time MAnAGEMEnT In this way, a spike in demand of one shifting’ which is being harnessed. Some utilities use signals megawatt can be matched by either a over the electrical network to turn domestic hot water corresponding increase in supply of one The ability to manage discretionary systems on and off. This megawatt, or a corresponding dip in consumer loads on a large scale assists with their grid demand of one megawatt somewhere with rapid speed unlocks the ability management. else in the grid - sometimes referred to to actively manage variability in the as ‘negawatt’ (Lovins 989). There are grid in general, but particularly in the many electrical appliances in homes, management of the intermittency in offices and other buildings – especially renewable energy supplies. heating and cooling applications - which are only mildly time-critical and can The Telecommunication networks be managed to control loads with no Application loss of amenity to the customer. The conventional means to make these The opportunity we identify here is the loads assist with grid management has application of broadband to the home focused on providing a price signal to and workplace, with broadband-enabled customers using a ‘smart meter’ that appliances, switches and sockets which can show the price of electricity varying can be easily installed in buildings. though the day, but this is a slow and blunt instrument. A faster response Typical ‘discretionary loads’ in the home could assist in the management of the and workplace include: short-term dynamics of renewable energy. Broadband unlocks the speeds • Air conditioning, of response required for such tasks. • Electric Heating, The target loads that can be readily accessed by broadband are the • Electric hot water systems or electric ‘discretionary loads’. These are energy- boosted solar hot water, consuming devices where the timing of energy use is less important. For • Refrigerators and freezers, example, it may be important that the temperature of a fridge stays between  • Devices on charge such as tools, and 4 oC, but whether the fridge is on for laptop computers, wireless phones one block of 0 minutes or two blocks etc. of 5 minutes will make no difference to the fridge owner, but can play an Most of these appliances work within important part in power management user-defined ranges, such as the in the electricity network. The ability room temperature setting for an air to control when discretionary loads conditioner. Third-party management operate creates a large, distributed load of how the outcome is achieved is management tool. It is important to essentially invisible to the resident or 43 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 59. worker and causes no loss of amenity. • Customer trust in the management company to cause no loss of The permission to exercise control could amenity, be assigned as part of the broadband supply contract and perhaps coupled • External control of appliances with the promotion of third-party supply – some, like hot water systems, can of externally controllable appliances be controlled at the power outlet; (though this would lend itself to national others, like a fridge, need to be able standards legislation). to have the cooling turned on and off separately from internal lighting or The NEM also has an ‘ancillary services’ timers, market designed to maintain the supply availability and quality, and the load • The uptake of renewable energy management system presented here is subject to carbon pricing and may be suitable to bidding into these industry development mechanisms. markets. Challenges and Barriers Critical elements of success include: • The volume of customers with devices and appliances under external management, 44 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 60. Carbon-Opportunity 7 : ‘On-Live’ were released at ground level (Tyndall High Definition Video Conferencing 006). At a Glance According to the Australian Greenhouse Aviation emissions Office, domestic aviation has become which occur at Long-distance, short-duration travel can the fastest growing transport sub- altitude are some 2.7 be effectively replaced with ‘in-person’ sector. It is projected that its share of times more harmful quality, online conferencing facilities transport sector emissions will increase in greenhouse terms that are significantly more efficient in from 4.7 % (.9 MtCO–e) in 005 to 6.8% than if they were cost, time, energy and emissions. (5.9MtCO–e) by 00 (Figure 9). This is released at ground an increase from 0.5% of Australia’s total level. Status and Trends emissions to 0.8% in just 5 years (Figure 9). By 00, emissions from aviation Growth in air travel is increasing may easily have doubled since the Kyoto markedly with ongoing cost reductions, Protocol baseline year of 990. These leading to negative environmental and figures may be underestimated given social impacts. Aeroplanes are slowly the plans for ultra-low cost carriers to becoming more efficient, but this is enter the market (Tiger Airlines 007). outweighed by increased demand, and as a result, aviation greenhouse International research indicates that emissions are rapidly increasing. between 36% and 63% of short-haul air travel is for short-term business, the Aviation emissions which occur at wide range comes from the different altitude are some .7 times more airports considered in the study (Mason harmful in greenhouse terms than if they 000). Figure 19: Domestic aviation emissions since 1990 Figure 9. Trend and projected domestic aviation emissions (AGO 006). MtCO2-e 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year 45 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 61. The Carbon-Business Confluence Telecommunications network AEROPLAnE EFFiCiEnCy Opportunity: ‘On-Live’ High The aviation industry is In the medium to longer term, the high Definition Video-Conferencing seeing new, more efficient, aircraft enter the market. growth rates of 4% forecast by the The analysis herein aviation sector (Airservices Australia Business air travel can be exceedingly uses a 005 snapshot of 006) are likely to be unsustainable, time inefficient. High-value emissions which excludes given fuel supply costs and expected executives spend valuable hours new initiatives announced carbon constraints. and sometimes days in transit, a and launched since this significant waste of human resources time, as well as the sectors growth. Currently bunker fuels are excluded with a direct dollar value to their from restriction under the Kyoto companies. Protocol. This is expected to change in the next commitment period, To effectively replace business travel foreshadowed by emergent regulation it is important to recognise that 60% in the EU (Bows & Anderson 005). of communication between people is non-verbal, being contained in body As regulatory risks increase overseas, language, gesture and expression. this may impact on inbound and These elements are often lost by outbound long-haul travel as well as conventional teleconferencing where pricing structures in Australia. the body is not shown, definition is too low to capture detailed expression, and There is a clear disharmony between latency loses critical gestures. the rapid growth of the aviation sector in Australia and overseas, and the pressure Technology now available to Australian for carbon constraints. businesses has been designed to address these issues. Such high-end There is significant potential for carbon commercial systems (from Cisco and abatement and commercial gain if HP) have considerable bandwidth telecommunication companies provide requirements. The potential savings services offering equivalent contact for of time, money and greenhouse gas some aspects of business and personal emissions will increase the efficiency aviation. of many Australian companies. REAL WORLD EXAMPLE Cisco Systems, one developer of telepresence conferencing facilities, has offices all over the world and a highly mobile workforce. Since adopting the technology internally, the company has set a worldwide target of reducing its own air travel by 0%. The Australian division of Cisco has already reduced air travel by 6% in less than one year (Ross 007). 46 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 62. Consultations by Climate Risk indicate These services create possibilities that, for some businesses, pay back to overcome the health and financial periods on investments for ‘on-live’ barriers to air travel, or to meet with high definition video conference suites friends and family more frequently than costing $A50,000 can be less than six is feasible with air travel (e.g. someone months when both travel and salary in Perth having a catch-up with a sibling costs are evaluated. in London once a week). To some extent these are new applications that may not Beyond in-house company systems, reduce current or future aviation use or pay-for-use services by leading telcos emissions. They are therefore excluded Pay back periods such as Telstra would unlock a wider from our carbon abatement calculations. on investments for customer base including small and ‘virtual-aviation’ medium size enterprises (SME). These Challenges and Barriers suites costing would also allow greater participation $A250,000 can be in overseas markets by SME businesses The quality of the new ‘in person’ below 6 months who are typically constrained by modest conferencing is sufficiently high to when both travel travel budgets and the prolonged make ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video and salary costs are absence of key staff. Conferencing more personally efficient evaluated. than flying. However some of the appeal There is also a role for ‘in person’ quality of air travel is not about the travel itself, technology and bandwidth to offer but rather secondary benefits, for an alternative to long-distance, short- example the opportunity to see friends duration travel and provide greater while away. Consequently, some of amenity to the customer outside the these barriers may be addressed by business space. configuring the ‘on-live’ alternatives to provide equivalent secondary benefits. Photograph courtesy of Cisco Systems 47 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 63. Part 5 Quantifying the Opportunities The carbon-opportunities are based on using either existing ICT networks or BASELinE yEAR AnD networks that will be rolled-out in due course regardless of any greenhouse GROWTH gas benefits. Therefore the energy and emissions related to increased ICT use The Australian are not included within the emissions cost-benefit equations for each carbon- government regularly opportunity, but are instead included within the overall projections of increased publishes a National national emissions (Figure 4). Greenhouse Gas Inventory, the most Remote Appliance Power recent of which covered emissions in 005. The Management results presented herein are generally calculated based on this 005 Data and Assumptions Results ‘snapshot’. Since national emissions are growing it The total annual net greenhouse gas (All figures are based on 005 data has been assumed that the relative contribution emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO-e. without growth) of different sectors (AGO 007b). remains unchanging and . The total reduction in standby therefore the abatement Total residential and commercial emissions will be .8 MtCO-e per as a percentage of electricity consumption was 08,000 annum. national emissions GWh per year (ABS 004 , ANZSIC remains constant post 005. However, several divisions E-H and J-Q). . This emission reduction of the energy based represents 0.33% of total net emissions sectors to Estimated losses from standby power in Australian emissions. which these carbon residential and commercial sectors are opportunities apply are 9.3 % (AGO 007b). 3. The value of the carbon abatement increasing their relative will be $8 million, $36 million and proportion of national emissions. Therefore, Emission intensity of electricity $9 million at carbon prices of the results presented can production is 0.94 tCO-e per MWh (AGO $0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e be considered relatively 006b, p. 3). respectively. conservative, and the actual abatement may be The national average price of electricity 4. The avoided electricity purchase considerably higher. to residential and non-residential through application of Remote customers is estimated herein as 0 Appliance Power Management is cents per kilowatt hour (ESAA 004)7 . ,700 GWh per year. Assumes broadband-based Remote 5. The value of the avoided electricity Appliance Power Management solutions purchases at 0 cents per KWh is are used to reduce standby emissions $70 million per year. by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and commercial buildings. 7 ESAA 004, Electricity Prices in Australia 003/04. Electricity Supply Association of Australia 48 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 64. Presence-Based Power Data and Assumptions Results The total annual net greenhouse gas (All figures are based on 005 data emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO-e without growth) (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b). . The total reduction in standby Total residential and commercial emissions will be .97 MtCO-e per electricity consumption was 08,000 annum. GWh per year (ABS 004 , ANZSIC divisions E-H and J-Q). . This emission reduction represents 0.53% of total net Australian Emission intensity of electricity emissions. production is 0.94tCO-e per MWh (AGO 006b). 3. The value of the carbon abatement will be $9 million, $59 million and The national average price of electricity $48 million at carbon prices of to residential and non-residential $0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e customers is estimated as 0 cents per respectively. kilowatt hour (ESAA 004)8 . 4. The avoided electricity purchase is Assumes that ‘orphaned’ energy ,700 GWh per year. consumed by appliances is 5% overall for residential and commercial energy 5. The value of the avoided electricity consumption . purchases at 0 cents per KWh is $69 million per year. Assumes network enabled Presence- Based Power solutions are used to reduce ‘orphaned’ energy emissions by 50% in /3 of Australian homes and commercial buildings. 8 ESAA 004, Electricity Prices in Australia 003/04. Electricity Supply Association of Australia 49 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 65. De-centralised Business District Data and Assumptions Results The total annual net greenhouse gas (All figures are based on 005 data emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO-e. without growth and consider reduced (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b). travel emissions only) Total emissions from private transport . Annual reduction in emissions from (passenger car) were 43.7 MtCO-e per telework will be 0.9 MtCO-e. year (AGO 007b). . This emission reduction from The fraction of kilometres travelled used telework represents 0.6% of total on commuting to and from work is 3% net Australian emissions. (ABS 007). 3. The total reduction in emissions The fraction of jobs that are amenable to from the De-centralised Workplace telework is about 65% (ATAC 005c). will be . MtCO-e p.a. The emission intensity of  litre of liquid 4. This emission reduction from De- fuel is approximately .5kGCO-e per centralised workplaces represents litre (AGO 006b). 0.39% of total net Australian emissions. The assumed cost of  litre of fuel is $A.009. 5. The total reduction in emissions from telework and the De- Assumes that emissions for commuting Centralised Workplace will be 3.09 in non-urban areas or within a suburb, MtCO-e per annum. is half of those of city based commuting (based on MIAESR 00 and assuming 6. This total emission reduction from that for shorter distances non-car telework and the de-centralised options also become more attractive). workplace represents 0.55% of total net Australian emissions. Assumes that broadband-based telework is taken up by 50% of the 7. The value of the carbon abatement employees who have telework suitable will be $3 million, $6 million and jobs and on average work one day per $54 million per year at carbon week from home. prices of $0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e respectively. Assumes that De-Centralised Workplaces are used by 0% of 8. The avoided fuel purchase is . employees who have telework suitable billion litres per year. jobs, and their commuting emissions are reduced by at least 50%. 9. The value of the avoided fuel purchases at $A per litre is $. billion per year. 9 This figure is high by historical values but low by current prices 50 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 66. Personalised Public Transport Data and Assumptions Results The total annual net greenhouse gas (All figures are based on 005 data emissions for Australia is 559.MtCO-e without growth) (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b). . The total reduction in transport Total emissions from private transport emissions will be 3.93 MtCO-e per (cars) are 43.7 MtCO-e per year (AGO annum. 007). . This emission reduction represents The emission intensity of  litre of liquid 0.70% of total net Australian fuel is approximately .5kGCO-e per emissions. litre (AGO 006b). 3. The value of the carbon abatement The assumed cost of  litre of fuel is will be $39 million, $79 million and $A.00. $00 million at carbon prices of $0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e The relative emission intensity of public respectively. transport is 90% lower than personal car travel in the urban environment. 4. The avoided fuel purchases through application of PPT is .6 billion litres Assumes that wireless broadband- per year. facilitated Personalised Public Transport is able to capture 0% of car-based 5. The value of the avoided fuel commuters0. purchases at $A per litre is $.6 billion per year. 0 Assumes that a variety of vehicle options exist in order to optimise passenger vehicle size e.g. taxi for -3 passengers through to a train for hundreds of passengers. Feeder bus services increase train ridership by enlarging the catchments significantly (Najafi & Nassar 990). 5 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 67. Real-time Freight Management Data and Assumptions Results The total annual net greenhouse gas (All figures are based on 005 data emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO-e. without growth) (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b). . The total reduction in emissions Total emissions from freight transport from Real-time Freight Management are 6 MtCO-e per year (AGO 007) . will be .9 MtCO-e per annum. The fraction of kilometres travelled by . This emission reduction from unladen freight vehicles is 8% (ABS Real-time Freight Management 007). represents 0.5% of total net Australian emissions. The decrease in fuel use from unladen to laden is 40% (AGO 006c). 3. The value of the carbon abatement will be $9 million, $58 million and The emission intensity of  litre of liquid $45 million per year at carbon fuel is approximately .7kGCO-e per prices of $0, $0 and $50 per tonne litre (AGO 006b). CO-e respectively. The assumed cost of  litre of fuel is 4. The avoided fuel purchase is . $A.00. billion litres per year. Assumes that Real-time Freight 5. The value of the avoided fuel Management effectively avoids 5% of purchases at $A per litre is $. unladen truck kilometres. billion per year.  Freight figures include light commercial vehicles (LCVs), rigid trucks (including non-freight trucks such as fire engines) and articulated trucks. 5 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 68. Increased Renewable Energy Data and Assumptions Results The total annual net greenhouse gas . Increased Renewable Energy would emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO-e. facilitate an additional ,000 GWh (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b). of renewable energy production per year. Total residential and commercial electricity consumption was 08,000 . This is equivalent to 4.GW of GWh (ABS 004 , ANZSIC divisions E-H additional renewable energy and J-Q). capacity. Emission intensity of electricity 3. The emission abatement from production 0.94tCO-e per MWh (AGO avoided fossil fuel use would be 0. 006b, p. 3). MtCO-e per year. The Nominal capacity factor of 4. This emission reduction represents intermittent renewable energy .8% of total net Australian generation plants is 0.3 (Transition emissions. Institute 004). 5. The value of the carbon abatement The cost of large-scale, grid connected will be $0 million, $0 million renewable energy is $80 per MWh and $304 million at carbon prices (Transition Institute 004). of $0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e respectively – however it is assumed Assumes that one-third of homes and that this is already included in the commercial buildings are broadband renewable energy pricing structure. enabled and that they have agreed to have their discretionary (non-time- 6. The value of renewable energy sales sensitive) loads managed by Telstra. enabled by Increased Renewable Energy is $86 million per year. Assumes that on average, 5% of the total loads across residential and commercial buildings are discretionary at any one time. Assumes that at a minimum, discretionary power is able to leverage the same average renewable energy capacity. Assumes that the additional value of Increased Renewable Energy is 0% of the electricity production cost. 53 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 69. ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video Conferencing Data and Assumptions Results The total annual net greenhouse gas (All figures are based on 005 data emissions for Australia is 559. MtCO-e. without growth) (based on 005 figures in AGO 007b). . The total reduction in domestic Total emissions from domestic aviation aviation emissions will be 0.8 was 5. MtCO-e per year in 005 (AGO MtCO-e per annum. 007b). . The total reduction in domestic and Emissions from international aviation international aviation emissions will are approximately double that of be .4 MtCO per annum. domestic emissions (May 004). 3. This direct emission reduction is The CO emission per litre of aviation equivalent to 0.43% of total net fuel is /litre (Aviation Environment Australian emissions. Federation 007). 4. The equivalent emissions reduction The nominal fuel efficiency of air travel including ‘up-lift’ is 6.5 MtCO-e per is 0.035 litres per person per kilometre annum. (IATA 007). 5. The value of the carbon abatement The estimated fraction of short haul will be $4 million, $48 million and travel due to business use is 45% $0 million at carbon prices of (Mason 000). $0, $0 and $50 per tonne CO-e respectively. The assumed cost per kilometre of business air travel in Australia is 0c per 6. The avoided fuel consumption is 960 kilometre. million litres of aviation fuel per year. Assumes one third of business travellers 7. The avoided spending on air travel could replace a trip with an ‘On-Live’ through use of ‘On-Live’ High meeting with high speed, high definition Definition Video Conferencing is links. $. billion.  By way of illustration this would be equivalent to a Melbourne-Sydney trip of about 000km costing $00 including taxes. 54 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 70. Total Impacts of Abatement Opportunities The total emissions abatement potential across all seven initiatives and assuming no double counting is 7.3 MtCO-e per year. This represents 0.49% of total national emissions based on the latest National Greenhouse Gas Inventory for 005 (AGO 007b). Figure 20: Breakdown of contribution from seven Carbon-Opportunities Figure 0. Annual avoided emissions from ‘On-Live’ High Definition each of the identified Video Conferencing carbon-opportunities 2.4 MtCO2-e (MtCO-e). Remote Appliance Power Management 1.8 MtCO2-e Increased Renewable Energy 10.1 MtCO2-e Presence-Based Power 3.0 MtCO2-e De-centralised Business District 3.1 MtCO2-e Real-time Freight Personalised Public Management Transport 2.9 MtCO2-e 3.9 MtCO2-e 55 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 71. Value of Avoided Carbon The value of the avoided carbon will be depend on the future price of carbon. Should Australia adopt a carbon tax such a price would be fixed. If it adopts a market based approach to carbon abatement, as has been announced, then the value of carbon may vary according to the depth and timing of the cuts and the success or otherwise of various competing abatement technologies. Figure 21: The value range of avoided carbon emissions Figure . The value of the carbon abatement based on carbon prices of 0, 0 and 50 dollars 350 AUD per tonne of CO-e Carbon@ $10 tCO2-e Carbon@ $20 tCO2-e which is consistent with 300 the range identified by Carbon@ $50 tCO2-e the CSIRO and ABARE 250 research (CSIRO 006). Carbon Value 200 (million $A) 150 100 50 0 en er ci n w d or c en ht er le tr d en io sp bli Po ase ng em w D lise t En ab er em ig t t er nit t gy an u ic ag Po ag Fre -B w Tr d P ss ra nf efi ce an ce ne is ne nt e an e Co D en M ian is Re M tim si ce o h al es Bu e- de ig l ed on pp - Pr al D Vi e’ H s Re rs A ea Pe e v cr ot Li In n- m ‘O Re 56 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 72. Total Value of the Identified For example for reduced aviation Opportunities use, the value of avoided air travel in staff time saved, travel expenses and The total value of the opportunities accommodation expenses, less the identified will be a combination of cost of using ‘on-live’ meeting suites, avoided fuel use, other avoided costs, would rest with the employer. Similarly, additional value created and the value the savings for a household from an of carbon abatement. These have been electricity bill would rest with the estimated in Figure  based on the householder responsible for paying intermediate price of $A0 per tCO-e. the energy bills. In relation to carbon credits, in some instances it may be possible for that carbon to be assigned Attribution to a third party to be aggregated and Although we identify the value of sold on national or international carbon various energy-saving or energy- markets. creating measures which are, or can be, facilitated by telecommunication For this report we identify that there are networks, it is beyond the scope of this precedents for companies and other report to develop a detailed model of organisations to undertake emission attribution that would indicate with reducing activities and to trade the which party such value would reside. carbon abatement. We note that the Figure 22: Aggregated value for each of the Carbon-Opportunites Figure . Each of the carbon-opportunites 2.5 creates value from Carbon@ $20 tCO2-e avoided fuel use or Saving/Value increased energy value, 2.0 as well as revenue from carbon credits created and other ancillary Billions dollars 1.5 services. $A per year 1.0 0.5 0.0 nc on Bu De- por ic en ht tr d er le w d en e s bl g D lise em nc Po ase re iti t em ig En ab t gy t t in ic er an u Pe nfe fin ag Fre ag lia Tr d P w ss ra -B is an pp ne e ne nt ce e an e Co D is im ce Re M A en o h al er te de ig -t es on d al w o V i e’ H se Pr M si Po Rem Re rs ea v cr Li In n- ‘O 57 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 73. carbon and non-carbon value could overseas jurisdictions and therefore no attribute to either the conference insurmountable regulatory constraints provider, the customers, or a third party, are anticipated. however as we have noted above, it is beyond the scope of this report to Timing provide analysis of the likely or possible attributions. Looking at the roll-out of the opportunities identified in this report would require the development of Regulation deployment scenarios which is beyond In some cases the carbon-opportunities the scope of this study. However the may be fully or partially constrained ability of the various opportunities to be by regulation, though this an area of applied in the short term (i.e. deployed constant flux. This is particularly true of to the levels indicated over a period of the renewable energy market which is about 5 years) has been considered. underpinned by Federal and State based ‘Renewable Energy Targets’ which In general this requires avoiding require retailers to procure a certain processes which require expensive fraction of their energy from renewable retro-fitting and/or long turn-over sources. There are other market drivers periods. We have also noted that the such as private demand for Green deployment of new networks such Energy. There are also changes in the as ‘Fibre To The Premises’ provides spot prices in the National Electricity unique opportunities to deliver carbon Market which at time of writing are, abatement products and services at the on average, high enough to pay for same time, such as network enabled wind energy without any additional plugs or RFID systems. assistance, in part due to shortage of adequate supply (affected by climate As an indication only, we estimate related water shortages in the East). that a plausible development and demonstration period, followed by The opportunities presented in this market deployment, would provide an report have not been assessed against abatement profile as shown in Figure 3. regulatory constraints, but it is noted in The effect on national emissions (with each section where such systems are measures) in shown in Figure 4). already being applied which indicates that they are being used in Australian or 58 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 74. Figure 23: Plausible emissions abatement from Carbon-Opportunities Figure 3. A plausible roll-out of the carbon- opportunities would include product 35 development time and a gradual build up 30 of deployment in the market. 25 MtCO2-e 20 15 10 5 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Year Figure 24: Possible effect of Carbon-Opportunities on national emissions Figure 4. Applying the above roll- 850 Business as usual out of abatement Best estimate with effect of anticipated government from the carbon- measures to reduce emissions opportunities results 750 Kyoto target in an approximate stabilisation of CR-Telecommunication 650 Networks Scenario emissions before 05. Emissions 550 MtCo2 -e 1990 levels 450 350 250 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year 59 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 75. Part 6 Conclusions Beyond Carbon Neutral The Climate Challenge This report goes significantly beyond The latest statement from the ‘holding the line’ goals of corporate Intergovernmental Panel on Climate carbon neutrality and carbon. Instead Change (IPCC 007) indicates the next it sets out a suite of opportunities ten years are critical in meeting the that would allow telecommunications challenges posed by climate change. providers to play a leadership role in For the first time, scientists and decarbonising the Australian economy governments are now agreed that global and equipping the nation to prosper in emissions must be stabilised by 05 a carbon constrained future. All of the if climate change is to be effectively strategies and opportunities are based addressed. Similarly the global on avoiding the release of fossil carbon economic Stern Review concluded that into the atmosphere; they are not based “to stabilise at 450ppmii CO-e, without on off-setting emissions. overshooting, global emissions would need to peak in the next 0 years“ (Stern Seven options are proposed to build on 006, p. 93). Reducing greenhouse existing and next-generation networks. emissions requires major commitments The realisation of opportunities from both the public and private sectors outlined in this report would result in as well as the government. telecommunications providers assisting Australian businesses and households In 005 Australia’s net annual emissions achieving total greenhouse gas totalled 559 mega-tonnes of CO reductions equivalent to approximately equivalent (MtCO-e) from all activities, 4.9% of Australia’s total national which equates to .4% of the global emissions. Some of the opportunities total. In the short term, it appears that identified in the consumer space can Australia will stay close to its Kyoto be achieved using existing network Protocol target of no more than an 8% services and others are contingent on increase above 990 emission levels the roll-out of fibre to the node (FTTN) (AGO 007b). However, the underlying broadband infrastructure. Overall trend is that Australian emissions will the initiatives identified in this report increase at about .3% per year. present the opportunity for one of the single largest reductions in Australia’s The use of fossil-fuels in stationary- carbon footprint by an Australian energyiii and transport applications corporation. is the nation’s major source of emissions. The trend is not declining Companies seeking to maximise or stabilising, but continuing to grow their carbon emission reduction significantly. If deep cuts in emissions could leverage the existing and next- are to be achieved, emissions from the generation networks already built by energy sector are Australia’s greatest Telstra. greenhouse challenge. 60 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 76. Telecommunication’s Significance government’s plans for next-generation in Climate Change Mitigation networks, which provides synergies for new emission reduction opportunities. Telecommunication operators are a major conduit for new technology and This report identifies seven carbon- infrastructure. Australia has the only opportunities appropriate for Australian national wireless broadband network in businesses and households, which the world. have the potential for viable carbon abatement using existing and next- The scale and scope of the generation networks. These carbon- telecommunication sector’s operations opportunities have relevance for unlock the ability to aggregate multiple energy consumption in buildings, road distributed initiatives to achieve transport, renewable energy production nationally significant emissions and aviation. savings. The anticipated greenhouse emission constraints coincide with the Table 4. Summary of Carbon-Opportunity (in order of size) MtCO2-e saving Percentage of emissions abatement national emissions from carbon- increased Renewable Energy 10.1 1.81 opportunities Personalised Public Transport 3.9 0.70 De-centralised Business District 3.1 0.55 Presence-Based Power 3.0 0.53 Real-time Freight Management 2.9 0.52 ‘On-Live’ High Definition Video 2.4 0.43 Conferencing Remote Appliance Power Management 1.8 0.33 Total 27.3 4.88 6 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 77. Key Findings . This report provides an analysis 5. The estimated energy and travel of the opportunities for Australian cost savings are approximately society to achieve nationally $6.6 billion per year, and value of significant greenhouse gas the carbon credits created may abatement using telecommunication be between $70 million and $. networks. billion subject to the future price of carbon. . The report identifies that the scale and scope of telecommunication 6. Some of these carbon-opportunities network services and users provide can be realised immediately; others a unique opportunity to harness are contingent on the roll-out of economies of scale to achieve a national fibre optic network meaningful emission reductions. to residential and commercial consumers. 3. Many of the carbon-opportunities identified lead to energy and other 7. In combination with other measures cost savings for commercial and being implemented by Government, residential customers, and in some a deployment of the carbon- cases will enable the on-selling opportunities in the period 008 of newly created carbon creditsi to 04 would have the additional and electricity management effect of stabilising national commodities. emissions in the period up to 04 in keeping with the findings of the IPCC 4. The estimated abatement and the Stern Review, as shown in opportunity calculated herein is Figure 5. almost 5% (4.9) of Australia’s total national emissions, making the use of telecommunication networks one of the most significant opportunities to reduce the national carbon footprint. 6 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 78. Figure 25: Combined effect of telecommunication networks Carbon- Figure 5. If the seven Opportunities carbon-opportunities identified in the report were deployed, over the period 008 - 04, the effect would be a stabilisation of national 850 Business as usual emissions in the period Best estimate with effect of 0 - 04. anticipated government measures to reduce emissions 750 Kyoto target CR-Telecommunication 650 Networks Scenario Emissions 550 MtCo2 -e 1990 levels 450 350 250 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Figure 26: Aggregated value for each of the Carbon-Opportunites Figure 6. Each of the carbon-opportunites 2.5 creates value from Carbon@ $20 tCO2-e avoided fuel use or Saving/Value increased energy value, 2.0 as well as revenue from carbon credits created and other ancillary Billions dollars 1.5 services. $A per year 1.0 0.5 0.0 on enc ion Bu De- por ic en ht is ed er le w d en e s bl g em nc Po ase t em ig En ab t gy r it t t in lis ic er an u Pe nfe fin ag Fre ag lia Tr P tr w ss ra -B ed an pp ne e ne nt ce an e D Co D is M im si ce Re M A en o h al er te de ig -t es d al w o V i e’ H se Pr Po Rem Re rs ea v cr Li In n- ‘O 63 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 79. Part 7 References ABARE (005) Australian Energy: National and State Projections Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). (005). Standby Energy to 09 - 30. e-Report 05.9, October 005. Consumption: Australian Local Government Buildings [Electronic Version] from Adger, N., Brown, K., & Tompkins, E. (005). The Political economy pubs/005-standby-local-gov.pdf. of Cross-Scale Networks. Resource Co-Management. Ecology and Society, 0(). Australian Telework Advisory Committee (ATAC). (005). Telework: International Developments, Paper Three. AGL. (007). Chicago Climate Exchange® Welcomes Australia’s AGL Energy [Electronic Version]. AGL Media Release from http:// Australian Telework Advisory Committee (ATAC). (005). Telework: Literature Search 005. ge%C%AE+Welcomes+Australia’s+AGL+Energy.htm. Australian Telework Advisory Committee (ATAC). (006). Airservices Australia. (006). 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  • 83. Glossary Abatement – A reduction in greenhouse gas a variety of devices and applications. emissions (also see mitigation) Business as Usual – Refers to the Adaptation -The Intergovernmental emissions trajectory associated with Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines undertaking activities without any measures adaptation as an ‘adjustment in natural or to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Often human systems in response to actual or greenhouse gas mitigation policies are expected climatic stimuli or their effects, compared to “business as usual” to show which moderates harm or exploits beneficial the potential impact of the policy. opportunities’ (Metz et al. 00, p.708). Capacity – Maximum rated power of Anthropogenic – The result of human a power station, usually measured in activities. megawatts. ATM – Assynchronus Transfer Mode. Capacity Factor – The percentage of ANSI and CCITT communications protocol yearly energy generated as a fraction of its allowing different types of information e.g. maximum possible rated output. voice, data, video to share the one network and interface. Based around a system of Carbon Credits - When pollution levels are separating bytes and reassembling at capped, in some schemes, it may be possible delivery for optimal use of network. to trade greenhouse gas pollution rights referred to as ‘carbon credits’. Currently Base-load – Normally refers to a power NSW has a greenhouse gas emissions station that runs constantly (4 hours per trading scheme, the Federal Government day, 7 days per week) regardless of energy has announced plans to introduce a national demand. Due to their slow start up and shut scheme in 0 and there are also voluntary sown times it is more cost effective for them abatement markets. to remain on. CERN - Organisation Européenne Baud – Data rate in bits per second. Falling pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European out of use as a term. Organization for Nuclear Research) particle physics laboratory based just outside of Broadband – The term originally applied Geneva to internet networks when they were faster than 64 kbit/s and always connected. CO – Carbon dioxide, which is one of the Different commentators apply different primary anthropogenic greenhouse gases data speed thresholds for the beginning of Broadband e.g. 64, 8, 56 Kbit/s or CO-e - Carbon dioxide equivalent. The net beyond ,  Mbit/s. The term Broadband has effect greenhouse gas emissions is often morphed into a description of wide, fast, presented as carbon dioxide equivalent transparent connectivity and interfacing for which is a conversion to the global warming 68 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 84. potential of carbon dioxide over a 00 year and geological (underground) storage of CO period. For example, the global warming emissions. potential for a tonne of methane is  times that of a tonne of carbon dioxide. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) – Gases in the atmosphere that adsorb and emit infrared Dial Up – An Internet connection where the radiation, which subsequently lead to global modem dials into an analog phone line using warming. Most common anthropogenic standard telephone dialing protocols. greenhouse gases are (CO), Methane (CH4), Ozone (O3), Nitrous Oxide (NO) and Sulfur Emissions Intensity – The emissions Hexafluoride (SF6). generated per unit of input or output. HSDPA - High-Speed Downlink Packet Fibre – Refers to Optical Fibre, invented and Access is a mobile telephone protocol refined in the 60’s and 70’s, and able to carry allowing high speed data transmission and analog and digital data as modulated light is used in Telstra’s Next GTM network offering extremely high bandwidths at long distances. Fibre can have a variety of optical IP – Intelligent processing within a network. communications interfaces applied and it Network layer protocol in TCP/IP offering a comes as either Multi-mode or Single- mode connectionless or packetised service with the physical advantages of being light and flexible for installation. ICT – Information Communications Technology Fossil Fuel – A non-renewable source of energy formed from decayed organic ITU – International Telecommunications matter millions of years ago. The most Union i.e. coordinates standards for predominant fossil fuels are coal, oil and telecommunication networks and operations gas. around the world with signatories from participating countries. FTTx – Fibre-to-the-‘x’ where ‘x’ is a node, premises, segment e.g. FTTP, FTTN etc. Latency – The delay through a network or process that can be caused by distance such Fugitive Emissions – The emissions which as over satellite or through dealing with come from the mining, transportation and information such as reassembling bytes in storage of fossil fuels (but does not include an ATM network or decompressing video. the emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Mitigation- The Intergovernmental Panel GDP – Gross Domestic Product – the on Climate Change (IPCC) defines as ‘an economic value of a country’s annual anthropogenic intervention to reduce the production of goods and services. sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases’ (Metz et al. 00, p. 76). Geosequestration – Refers to the capture 69 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 85. Modem – Device for modulating data and NEM is a wholesale market for electricity signals over a network according to the supply which delivers electricity to market interfacing protocols required by the devices customers in all states and territories, except on the network. Theer are different types for Western Australia and the Northern of modems for different networks, whether Territory, through the interconnected phone or cable TV networks etc. transmissions and distribution network. MPEG – (Moving Picture Experts Group) NEMCO - The National Electricity Market Protocol for moving compressed video Management Company Limited administers and audio down data networks either as the National Energy Market (see NEM). broadcast/satellite or along wires/fibre. So far there are MPEG. .5, , and 4 referring Network –The term for communications to different rates and processing outcomes systems and originally meant the physical (e.g. there was an MPEG 3 specified for cable of a phone network or a data network. HDTV but it was never used). With the growth of ATM and wireless has widened to include how signals are dealt MPLS – Multi Protocol Label Switching is a with on a physical network but not referred method for carrying IP over ATM. Favoured to the electrical characteristics of that because it allows customer traffic to be less network plus the devices on the network. expensively introduced into backbones Also no longer limited to wires but includes without needing an intermediate service. mobile and wireless systems. MRET – Mandatory Renewable Energy NGNs – Next Generation Networks where Target the physical and electrical characteristics of the network are not paramount so much Mt- Mega-tonnes. One mega tonne is one as the active way in which information million tonnes. Greenhouse gas emissions is processed and dealt with across the are often displayed in mega-tonnes carbon network. With NGNs this means intelligence dioxide equivalent per annum (MtCO-e/yr) is built into the network making it (see MtCO-e). transparent to a wide range of devices and applications with application’s architecture MtCO-e - Mega-tonnes carbon dioxide plugged into the network. equivalent (MtCO-e) is the internationally recognised measure used to compare the Orphaned Energy / Appliance - an emissions from the various greenhouse appliance which is using energy even though gases. This measure factors in differences no user is present is refered to as orphaned. in global warming potential and converts them to a carbon-dioxide equivalent. For Peaking Plant – Normally refers to power example, the global warming potential for a stations which run at peak times to meet tonne of methane over 00 years is  times short term peaks in electricity demand. that of a tonne of carbon dioxide. Photovoltaic Cell – A renewable energy NEM – The National Electricity Market. The technology which converts sunlight into 70 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 86. electrical energy. telecommunications company or carrier. Point-To-Point – When two sites or nodes in Telepresence – Enhanced Video, audio a telecommunications system are connected and information conferencing with the aim together by a physical cable or wireless of minimising the perception limitations of system. present electronic communication such as video conferencing compared with face- Power - Energy transferred per unit of to-face meetings. As well as using better time. Electrical power is usually measured sytems such as HDTV it involves designing in watts (W), kilowatts (kW) and megawatt in ‘soft’ issues such as lighting, sound (MW). An appliance drawing 000 Watts ( placement etc. kW) for  hour is said to have used  kilowatt hour ( kWh) of electricity. Teleworking – Using Broadband facilities to enable working away from the office QoS – Quality of service. Has set definitions whether at home or on the road. including network availability as well as quality of usage. Twisted Pair – Two wires ‘twisted’ together in a certain pattern to minimise electrical Renewable Energy - Energy which comes interference and connected as an electrical from natural processes and which are circuit for carrying phone or data as a point- replenished in human time frames or cannot to-point connection from the house to the be exhausted (sources of renewable energy telephone exchange. include wind, biomass, solar radiation, geothermal energy, wave and tidal power). VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol. Makes use of Broadband to repackage voice as data Solar Power - (see photovoltaic cell) routed using IP. Used for placing computer to computer calls or for entire business SONET- Synchronous Optical Network networks. implemented over fibre as a ring so if a fibre stops working traffic can be rerouted Wind Farms – A collection of wind turbines without interruption. Data rates from 5.84 which connect to common substation to Mbit/s through to 9.953 Gbit/s. feed into the main electrical grid. Switch – The large-scale device for Wind Turbine – A renewable energy switching phone and data from their sources technology that converts air currents into to their destinations via the network. mechanical energy which is then used to generate electrical energy. TCP – Transmission Control Protocol ensuring data is delivered to the application Wireless – Refers to mobile phone layer in proper sequence without errors, networks or any public network that uses missing data or duplication. radio. Also can refer to local area networks or LANs that are distributed using inhouse Telco – shortened version of wireless systems. 7 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 87. With Measures – Describes an emissions trajectory with greenhouse gas mitigation measures and generally shows the deviation from the business-as-usual projection. xDSL – x Digital Subscriber Line, a family of high bandwidth telecommunications services consisting of ADSL, HDSL, SDSL, IDSL. ADSL (Asymetric) and SDSL (Symetric) have been focussed on because of the opportunity to provide broadband to the premises over existing twisted pair in addition to phone service. 7 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 88. Appendicies Appendix 1 • Some homes feature full automation of lighting, security and entertainment with a Voice over Industry Example: Broadband and Internet Protocol (VoIP) phone for Urban Development - Genesis, video conferencing Coomera • Smart wiring and automation introduction provide a range of monitoring and control functions in the homes. Genesis Coomera, by award winning Environmental controls such as developer, Heritage Pacific, was Telstra’s temperature and air quality, light and first Smart Community connected shade can all be regulated; with Fibre To The Premises (FTTP), providing a high-speed optical fibre • Energy saving has been an cable to each of the proposed 700 important design consideration with residential buildings. It is located 3km much of the automation optimised from the Coomera Town Centre which to maximise energy savings with is identified as a Major Activity Centre minimal user interaction. in the South East Queensland Regional Plan (Gold Coast City Council 007). In order to consider how broadband can The development is occurring in one facilitate reduced carbon emissions in of Australia’s fastest growing regions a community like Genesis Coomera, it and as such measures to reduce the is relevant to consider the geographical environmental impact are important to and social context with which the curbing national emissions. community is being established. The Genesis development is exploring Coomera, Gold Coast and South East new boundaries in urban development Queensland in several ways. This innovation has been recognised through a number of Rated as one of the world’s most awards for its design and construction. biodiverse areas, rapid growth is placing Some of the key elements include: resource pressure on the region (Gold Coast City Council 005). The rapid • Water recycling and environmental urbanisation of the Gold Coast has flows which can be remotely contributed to some suburban areas monitored and controlled suffering social isolation and a lack of public facilities and transport (Gold • Genesis residents have access Coast City Council 005). Environmental to shared central services for pressure is growing with climate recreation, business and education, change and urbanisation increasing including an office suite with full vulnerability within the region. high-speed broadband connectivity The region is predominantly rural with a 73 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 89. low population. The Pacific Motorway is for communities heavily dependent the major public transport route. There upon private cars for commuting and are two train stations in the area with personal activities. Any carbon tax, less frequent services than the regional cap or trade mechanism is also likely to average. Currently high dependence on increase costs for urbanised and rural the private car for transport needs has communities whose travel is based heightened the economic vulnerability predominately around the car. of residents (Dodson and Sipe 006). Given that Genesis is evolving within an Upper Coomera is an area with high area with relatively high unemployment, levels of disadvantage and no public there is strong indication that its transport service. The State government residents will work outside the area, is planning to centre most development possibly for businesses in Brisbane. around Coomera in proximity to rail Without the provision of effective transport running north-south parallel alternatives, the presence of a major to the Pacific Highway. motorway nearby will draw residents to car based commuting. How Can Broadband Assist with the Carbon Footprint of Genesis? Home Appliance Efficiency Smart Development reduces Genesis is a community with a high level environmental impacts of appliance energy consumption. This high degree of automation could lead to Genesis residents will have access to significant increases in energy demand an epicentre for recreation, business above those of the less ‘smart’ home. and education. Synergy, a $3 million Conversely, this automation may be investment for exclusive use by Genesis used to leverage energy management residents, provides an epicentre with and therefore reverse and reduce recreation, business and education energy demand. facilities. There is an office suite and social centre including a cinema on site Smart Homes reduce heating and with full connectivity. Water recycling cooling demands and environmental flows can be remotely monitored and controlled if A proportion of homes have been required. automated and connected to high- speed broadband. These feature Transport full automation of lighting, security and entertainment with a Voice over In a climate sensitive, carbon Internet Protocol (VoIP) phone for video constrained world, increased fuel prices conferencing. Smart wiring allows are likely to place considerable strain for a range of automation in these on the cost of living. The increase in homes. Environmental controls such as transport costs will have repercussions temperature and air quality, light and 74 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 90. shade can be regulated to allow blinds at the development has the potential to come down during sunny periods to save a considerable amount of and louvres to open to let in afternoon greenhouse gas emissions. breezes. The projected savings for residents who Automated window opening and closing are employed in the Brisbane area can maximises energy savings with minimal be estimated as follows: user interaction. Teleworking one day per week saves Telstra Smart Community brought 96kms per week per person. This is together via the web equal to 9,00kms per year (46 weeks x 96kms per year). All homes also share a domain (@ Assuming a typical Australian car emits There is significant potential to develop 60g CO-e per kilometre then 780 kg of collaborative relationships i.e. car- CO-e per year would be saved. pooling or online purchasing, in addition to practical issues pertaining to the site. If 300 of the adult residents in the Local universities offer online courses planned development worked from and delivery of education via the web. home one day per week then 5 tonnes of CO-e would be saved per year (based Smart Technology on travel to Brisbane). Telstra have connected a product called Ancillary benefits include time, cost Telstra VelocityTM which is FTTP which savings, reduced traffic congestion and at present offers 8 - 0 mbps, multiple air pollution. phone lines and television services on one fibre cable. This delivers ultra high Potential for increased Emission quality connections and the use of many Reductions applications rarely found in CBD offices. This high-speed broadband connection Personalised Public Transport facilitates the uptake of full-time or partial telework. At Genesis, of the 85 By utilising Telstra Fibre to the Premises % of residents connected to Telstra (FTTP) at the Genesis development there VelocityTM , all request that dedicated is potential for deeper greenhouse gas office facilities be built at their home abatement than provided by teleworking (Harrison 007a). Profiling provided by alone. The Genesis development is Genesis suggests that many residents located 3km from a soon to be ‘Major employed in Brisbane are working from Activity Centre’ which includes a large home at least one day per week. One public transport node on the main rail resident has been able to move a high line to Brisbane. technology sound production business to his home. The uptake of teleworking As discussed earlier in this report, one 75 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 91. Figure 7. The Genesis Development at Coomera, Gold Coast of the major barriers to the uptake of speed broadband and can be engaged rail and other public transport use is the in the the Remote Appliance Power absence of feeder networks for those Management carbon-opportunity. As outside the walking catchment of the each Australian home each loses more stations. Personalised Public Transport than % of its electricity to appliances (PPT) present significant greenhouse on standby, considerable emission gas reduction potential for the Genesis reductions and dollar savings could be development. The on-call services PPT made. could provide would allow residents to easily access the Coomera transport Quantifying the Savings for PPT node for commuting throughout South East Queensland, as well as providing Assumptions: access to shops and employment opportunities available in the town a. 00 residents replace personal car centre. The facilitation of feeders use for PPT for commuting alone to services such as PPT would also free up Brisbane in a car. land use space in the town centre that would otherwise be used as a park-n- b. Average distance travelled driven ride. per day to and from work to Brisbane is 96 kilometres Remote Appliance Power Management c. Number of days worked a year is 00 A high percentage of the 700 homes at d. CO-e emissions per kilometre is the Genesis development have high- 63g 76 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 92. Emissions savings: Barriers to implementation In order to realise emissions reductions = (a x b x c x d) using PPT at Genesis, government support to increase the functionality = 3,000 kgs CO-e per year saved of public transport in the region will be necessary. This would include high Assume petrol is $ per litre results in frequency rail services from Coomera to $.7 million in combined savings (after Brisbane to ensure public transport is a $65 per person, per week spent on viable option. public transport is removed). Conclusion Quantifying the Savings for Remote The Genesis development is well Appliance Power Management equipped to provide best practice systems to reduce greenhouse gas Assumptions: emissions through the use of FTTP and consequent high quality teleworking a. 700 homes when complete options. Herein it is envisaged that by utilising two of the proposed b. Average household energy use 6.6 options in this report (PPT and Remote MWh per annum (ABS 004) Appliance Power Management) deeper greenhouse gas emission cuts are c. Standby percentage .6% (AGO & possible. ICLEI 005) d. 900 kg of CO-e per MWh (CAIT 005) Emissions savings: = (a x b x c x d) = 504,000kg GHG emissions saved. Total emissions savings potential is 3,000 kg (using PPT) plus 504,5 kg (using Remote Appliance Power Management) = 86,5 kg per annum. 77 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 93. Appendix 2 Carbon Emission Abatement in Schools Industry Example: Next Using technology to save emissions generation networks, Carbon and in schools offers a great opportunity The annual energy Education - Catholic Education to expose students to new ways of saving of this server Parramatta managing their emission profile. They consolidation is 1.4 can then carry this into the workplace megawatt hours and “broadband is changing the and home. a carbon reduction way pupils learn and construct of approximately 140 Significant energy and carbon emission tonnes of greenhouse their work, changing the ways savings could be realised via two of gas emissions per year. teachers organise lessons and the opportunities identified earlier in co-operate with colleagues, this report; Remote Appliance Power and changing the way schools Management and Increased Renewable Energy. administer their courses.” (Underwood et al. 005, p.6) A ‘Typical’ School Catholic Education Parramatta (CEP) Each of Catholic Education Parramatta’s schools are different. In order to The Diocese of Parramatta is located in consider this industry example it is one of the fastest growing areas of New useful to create an hypothetical ‘typical’ South Wales. The diocese is west of school. Sydney and reaches from Dundas Valley, west to Katoomba, south to Luddenham • Our case-study school has ,000 and north to Richmond. pupils and just fewer than 00 members of staff. There are 76 Catholic schools in the Parramatta diocese of which 54 • The class occupancy is about 5 are primary and  are secondary. children per class and this includes Approximately 4000 staff attend smaller classes for specialist to the total student population of subjects. 4,600 students. There are also six congregational (independent Catholic) • The school has 40 classrooms schools in the diocese with the most equipped with air conditioning for recent, St Mark’s Catholic College, cooling in the summer and heating opening at Stanhope Gardens in for the winter, using an average of February 007. 3.7MWh of energy per classroom per year over the year3. By comparison a typical home uses about 6.MWh per year. 3 Assuming 50 square meters per class room, 0.5KW of power used per square metre (SEDO 004) when in use, 3 months heating in summer, 3 months cooling in summer for 5 hours per day. 78 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 94. Broadband technology has the potential to revolutionise the Australian education sector. The always-on nature of broadband connections allows school students to use the internet as an everyday research tool in the classroom more easily. High bandwidth enhances the effectiveness of existing distance learning programs by enabling video conferencing on the desktop. Access to sufficient bandwidth allows researchers in Australia’s higher education institutions to participate in international collaborative research projects and broadband allows tertiary students to access high quality course materials from campuses across the country and around the world. (Broadband in Schools, NOIE Canberra August 00) • The school has standby loads day or during holiday periods. The including computers, laptops on intelligent networked control switch charge and musical equipment. It would enable the caretaker to selectively also has electrical hot water heating turn on areas for after hours use. on 4 hours a day, seven days a week. Standby power consumption is typical of that in the residential sector. If we assume that the schools have energy wastage similar to residential The average energy consumption standby, the opportunity exists to in this typical school is 335KWh per provide for simple standby reduction person (pupils and teachers) per year through centralised online control (QDOE 006) which equates to a total of of either outlets or network enabled 370MWh per year. intermediate sockets (an adaptor between the socket and the device plug Remote Appliance Power which can be used without the need to Management in Schools retro fit the outlet). In line with commercial and residential Assuming 50 square meters per class sectors, a significant proportion of room, 0.5KW of power used per energy in Australian schools is wasted square metre (SEDO 004) when in use, on standby power. Remote Appliance 3 months heating in summer, 3 months Power Management would allow all cooling in summer for 5 hours per day. appliances to be switched off by the school caretaker at the end of the school All standby power across the school 79 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 95. could be terminated from 5pm to 8am would be approximately 50kW, which each school day and over the weekends, is enough ‘discretionary’ load to marry reducing the number of hours in which with a 750 kilowatt wind turbine with a standby devices could draw power 5% capacity factor. Across the total CEP by 73%. Assuming an average % of school population of 4,000 students, energy is standby, the savings would this would be enough discretionary equate to 3.MWh of energy per school load to partner with a substantial 30 (enough to power 5 homes a year) and megawatt wind farm - approximately saving over $3,00 per year on the double the amount of wind energy school electricity bill. currently operating in NSW. increased Renewable Energy Conclusion Heating and cooling facilities in the This example illustrates a significant school present an opportunity to use opportunity to reduce the emission these loads for Increased Renewable footprint of any school through Energy during the working hours of the the application of several of the school (assuming these loads are they opportunities identified in this report to are all off outside these hours). heating, cooling and energy loads. The amount of power used in heating and cooling classrooms during the relevant summer and winter months 80 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 96. Appendix 3 Current Emissions14 Telstra has approximately 36,000 full- time equivalent (FTE) employees in Industry Example: Telstra - Change its Australian workforce and operates Through Leadership Australia’s largest vehicle fleet of over 7,000 vehicles (including salary introduction sacrifice vehicles). The organisation’s physical footprint covers 4,500 This report identifies the opportunity for commercial properties with nearly Telstra to act as a catalyst for reductions 33,000 cabinet facilities. in national emissions which go beyond the direct scope of Telstra operations. As a builder, operator and maintainer of telecommunications infrastructure, This chapter explores Telstra’s Telstra’s main emissions - 89% of the environmental stewardship to date and total - come from energy use in network identifies opportunities to use Next IP™ operations including data centres and for further emission reductions. offices (Telstra 006). Telstra is one of the largest occupiers of commercial introduction to Telstra property in Australia with over 0,000 sites nationally. The scale and scope Telstra’s history dates back to the of Telstra’s operations and assets foundation of the Commonwealth present significant energy management in 90 when the Commonwealth challenges. For example, the CDMA Government established the network when retired will reduce energy Postmaster-General’s Department requirements while the roll-out of next to manage all domestic telephone, generation networks is likely to increase telegraph and postal services. consumption. Telstra, as Australia’s largest Other emission sources include Land telecommunications provider, serves Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Australian customers via fixed line (LULCF) which could be both negative (including data, broadband, IP and through clearing of easements or cable), wireless (GSM, 00MHz, CDMA positive through replanting. Staff travel and Next GTM) and satellite networks. is extensive with over 4 million road In addition, it operates a number of kilometres travelled in the financial year international services. In total Telstra 005/06. provides nearly 0 million fixed line services and over 9. million mobile Current iCT based abatement services. strategies Telstra recognises and tracks its greenhouse gas emissions on a yearly basis. Telstra to date has saved 5,4 4 The data and information contained within this study is sourced from publicly available documents and from information provided by senior management. The principal source document, the Telstra Corporate Responsibility Report 006, is written in accordance with GRI G3 standards however the information reported has not been verified by Climate Risk and no assurance is given as to its completeness or materiality. 8 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 97. Figure 28: Telstra’s annual CO2 emissions Figure 8. Telstra’s annual CO emissions (excluding aviation , 2 000 000 logistics and LULUCF) (Telstra 006). 1 600 000 Tonnes CO2 1 200 000 800 000 400 000 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Year tonnes of CO equivalent emissions productivity by 5% (Telstra 006). (Figure 9) (Telstra 006). Telstra has a range of greenhouse gas reduction Decreased waste paper use: During programs, some of which include ICT 005/06, 47% of waste was recycled, based strategies: an increase from 3% in 004/05. This translates to more than half a tonne per Fleet management: In addition to employee across Telstra. Online billing increasing the use of low emission fuels has proved popular with its customers for its 7,000 fleet vehicles, Telstra has with over 85,000 opting for this option a partnership with Greenfleet to off-set last year. Telstra has more than 50 of vehicle emissions, through tree planting its major vendors using electronic based to absorb the equivalent emissions. It processes for transactions. should be recognised however that the long term security of these carbon Renewable energy: Telstra is the nation’s ‘sinks’ is the subject of some debate due largest solar power operator. In 005/06 to the climate impacts of increased bush the company operated 0,450 solar fire and reduced precipitation. powered sites including exchanges, radio terminals, small repeater stations Telstra is also utilising information and payphones (Harrison 007b). technology to enable fuel efficient travel patterns. Telstra has installed Future Opportunities GPS in more than 4,500 or 7% of its vehicles, and is committed to increase Quantifying the Savings from Telework this to achieve a 5% reduction in fuel consumption while increasing As Telstra employs approximately 8 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 98. Figure 29: Telstra’s cumulative avoided emissions Figure 9. Telstra’s cumulative avoided CO emissions (Telstra 200 000 Fleet 006). Waste 160 000 New energy savings (for current year) Tonnes 120 000 Cumulative energy savings (from previous years) CO2 80 000 40 000 0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Year 36,000 FTE people in Australia there is scope to reduce the waste of ‘standby’ considerable opportunity to facilitate and ‘orphaned’ energy in the workplace. increased emissions abatement through actively encouraging telework, either Telstra’s current building based from home or regional Telstra hubs (as emissions are responsible for shown in section .). approximately 80,000 tCO per year. This could be reduced by 0% overall If an additional 5% of the workforce by deploying Remote Appliance Power worked from home or from a regional Management and Presence-Based Telstra hub, approximately ,000 tonnes Power, delivering overall emissions of transport related carbon dioxide abatement of about 36,000 tCO per emissions could be saved per annum. year. Assuming the transport patterns of Conclusion Telstra workers reflect the national average, 5,000 drive alone to and from Telstra is aware of its responsibility work. If 5% converted to using public to the environment and has already transport, approximately 4,000 tonnes saved over 5,000 tonnes of CO-e of CO emissions could be saved per emissions through a range of initiatives. annum. The commissioning of this report demonstrates leadership in facilitating Quantifying Savings in Building emission reductions across the wider Emissions community. There is a significant opportunity to demonstrate in house Telstra has a large number of staff and many of the opportunities outlined in a large number of buildings throughout this report. the country providing considerable 83 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 99. Appendix 4 will be of the most significance to the health sector, “In the longer term, and with considerable variation between Industry Example: The Health populations because of geography and Sector, Climate Change and vulnerability, the indirect impacts may Telecommunication Networks well have greater magnitude than the more direct impacts” (Epstein 999; “The institutions of healthcare McMichael et al. 996). have enormous power to do There is a proven relationship between good or harm to the natural climate and health as more impacts environment and to increase or mean more health sector activity diminish carbon emissions” which in turn leads to more emissions. (Coote 006, p. 344). For example, the southerly spread of tropical disease carriers in Australia increases the number of patients, some The Double Exposure of the Health of whom will need air transfers, with Sector to Climate Change. consequent increases in greenhouse The health sector is recognised as gas emissions. This interdependency being at the front line of climate illustrates that health care provision change impacts, responding to issues is both a source of greenhouse including extreme weather impacts gas emissions and bears the brunt and disease migration. The World of impacts from climate change. Health Organisation “estimates that Nevertheless, there are opportunities for the warming and precipitation trends the sector to decarbonise its footprint due to anthropogenic climate change and to increase its resilience to climate of the past 30 years already claim over change impacts. 50,000 lives annually. Many prevalent human diseases are linked to climate using networks to Address 21st fluctuations, from cardiovascular Century Health Challenges mortality and respiratory illnesses due to heatwaves, to altered transmission Despite the direct and indirect of infectious diseases and malnutrition consequences of climate change from crop failures.” (Patz et al. 005) for human health becoming better researched and understood, there is Direct health impacts are only one relatively little planning within the health component of the health sector. Indirect sector to consider the infrastructure impacts of climate change may include requirements needed for adaptation to the effects on the integrity of energy and climate change. water infrastructure supporting health and productivity of the wider economy. Healthcare comprises a complex Further, it has been suggested that mix of institutions, structures and these secondary and tertiary impacts individuals. These structures generate 84 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 100. varying temporal and spatial challenges e-Health that ICT networks can help address. From medical professionals and “e-health is an emerging field administrators to patients and insurance in the intersection of medical companies, this sector has wide-ranging informatics, public health and information and communication needs. business, referring to health Existing or emergent applications services and information enabled by ICT networks which are delivered or enhanced through relevant to the health sector include: the Internet and related technologies…commitment • The exchange of patient records and data; for networked, global thinking, to improve health care locally, • Monitoring of patients in aftercare regionally, and worldwide and vital care situations; by using information and • Transfer of images radiographs, communication technology.” ultrasound, CAT/MRI scans; (Eysenbach 003) • Teleconsultation; Strong technological leadership and good infrastructure has led to the • Online health information and emergence of a global e-Health industry. clinical support; In Europe the industry is estimated to be worth 0 billion Euro. Telstra • High quality interactive video for has pioneered a number of e-Health remote care; applications in Australia and is further developing the use of internationally • E-Learning, training and testing; significant applications in critical care using ICT networks. • Medical Research and collaborative team working; and The Virtual Critical Care Unit (ViCCUTM) developed by the CSIRO, is a specialist • Retention and recruitment of staff in teleconferencing and remote diagnostic rural practices. facility. Combined with the Telstra’s Next IP™ services, it enables specialists All of these examples reduce travel in metropolitan hospitals diagnose requirements and therefore emissions. and treat patients in remote hospitals, improving the standard of patient care The following examples highlight in regional areas. This obviates the risk several emerging eHealth solutions and transport costs, and allows patients enabled by ICT network technologies in to be cared for in their own community. regional and remote areas. 85 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 101. According to the CSIRO the key benefits from 1990 to 2004 are currently of ViCCUTM include: working in rural and remote Queensland.” • Regional delivery of expert advice (White 006) often faster than via helicopter transport; In many of Australia’s rural areas, there is a dire lack of specialist care. • Improved patient recovery, in their Recruitment of rural practitioners is own community environment, difficult due to isolation of staff, reduced supported by specialists; revenues due to patient numbers and a lack of general resources. Rural patients • Recruitment and retention benefits may require round trips of many for rural health professionals; hundreds of kilometres for specialist diagnosis. There are considerable travel • Addressing health equity challenges costs and subsequent emissions created in rural or regional areas; by patients and family for treatment and aftercare support. • Multi-disciplinary intervention; and Transfer of patient care accountability • Reduced costs and risk to the back to GPs can reduce travel, but this medical system through avoided requires providing specialist support movement of patients. to doctors, support which may only be available at a state or national level. Within the context of climate change mitigation, such applications are A successful example of how broadband reducing the need for long distance networks are being applied to bring road and air travel by practitioners, need and expertise together and avoid patients and carers, and the associated long distance, high emission travel by greenhouse gas emissions. patients and/or medical staff is in the field of dermatology. Within the context of adapting to the physical impacts of climate change, this Tele-Derm is an online diagnosis type of initiative increases the resilience tool available to doctors throughout of rural communities to events that Australia. Using Tele-Derm, GPs are may require critical care and provides a able to access online dermatological model for other services which can be case studies, education opportunities, moved online. recommended links and discussion forums. Regional Health Care Tele-Derm also allows rural doctors anywhere in Australia to electronically “Only 4.9% of University of submit specific cases for assessment. Queensland medical graduates These cases are available as case 86 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 102. studies for all GPs enrolled in Tele-Derm. Loddon Mallee Health Alliance Loddon Mallee Health Alliance (LMHA) Since it began, Tele-Derm has been used is a governance entity that represents extensively by the medical community: the ICT interests of 6 hospitals and 65 health agencies located at 60 sites • It currently has over 450 people throughout the Loddon Mallee Region enrolled; (LMHA 007). • In a typical month, Tele-Derm The Loddon Mallee region covers 5% of has over 000 hits from over 70 Victoria’s land mass over which LMHA individual doctors; has implemented high-speed broadband services. The LMHA network is a secure, • Approximately 00 interactive, self- high-speed Wide Area Network (WAN), paced cases are now available for utilising Telstra IP infrastructure. The doctors to work through; and network has been designed to provide fast, reliable and secure connectivity to • Tele-Derm has assisted with over the internet, other health agencies and 00 individual cases. government. It has also been designed to perform at a service availability of Rural and remote communities 99.8%. Unlike other networks, access benefit from rapid access to expert to the LMHA network is : contention advice through initiatives such as which means that access availability Tele-Derm. Currently based on ISDN, and speed is not determined by the next generation networks will provide number of users trying to connect at any better visual definition and faster particular time. It allows connectivity to communication services. As such centralised resources and applications, they can form the basis for expansion as well as advanced voice, video and to other types of diagnostics and data services. treatment. The reduced travel by patients and doctors will directly equate The geography and dispersion of to reduced emissions. patients across a wide area mean that some nurses are driving 800km for a Remote Health single patient visit. As a result of the first 3 month trial of video conferencing, the network is on target to save some “We desperately want IT 75,000kms per year equivalent to 45.5 training on-site for nurses, in tonnes CO-e. plain English, which covers problem solving, confidence, problems of isolation”, says one bush nurse. Grampians Health Region eLearning Feasibility Study 006 87 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 103. Future Opportunities • The person is accompanied by Quantifying Savings: Reduced Air Travel a family member for each of the Emissions trips. The use of ‘On-Live’ High Definition Based on these assumptions: Video Conferencing, as identified in this report, has an application to remote . The total air travel involved for diagnostics for rural and regional the patient and family member is Australia. This is a natural extension of 4,800kms. the static image based diagnostics used by Tele-Derm, to detailed video based . The total amount of fuel used is diagnostics which can be undertaken in 40 litres. real-time. 3. The total amount of greenhouse In order to quantify the potential value of pollution caused is 0.77 tonnes such applications, a nominal patient is CO-e per patient. considered: Conclusion • The patient requires specialist diagnosis which is only available Healthcare is at the front line of climate in a major city. change risk and adaptation in Australia and these pressures can be expected • The patient is 400km from the to intensify. There is a role for ICT city and chooses to use air travel networks to overcome the tyranny (for distances of 300km or less of distance and the relative shortage people may prefer to drive). of skills at a regional level by sharing limited human resources through online • The overall efficiency of short services. The double benefit is that distance air travel in smaller overcoming the need to move people aircraft is significantly less than between healthcare centres will also that of intercity travel and is reduce emissions associated with rural assumed to be 0.05 litres per health care provision in Australia. passenger per kilometre. • The patient has to travel three times; once for diagnosis, once for a stay with treatment and once for a follow up consultation. • Road transport and other emissions related to the trip are neglected. 88 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk
  • 104. Appendix 5: Summary of Sectors and Applications Considered with Action Climate Risk Area of interest Possible method for Characteristics Emissions sector Possible applications Action GHG reductions Home efficiency Reduced energy use, and 0% of electricity in the home is wasted in Stationary energy, Broadband, networked appliances Separate into ‘remote appliance power infrastructure efficiency using standby energy. Estimated that even more fugitive or switches, distributed intelligence, management’ and ‘presence based intelligent communicating is wasted in appliances that are on but not external controls to obviate standby power’. Combine household and devices and third party being used. consumption, systems reactive to commercial. control. climatic conditions or external signals. RFID tagging and telemetry. Renewable energy Increased uptake of Over 90% of electricity comes from coal Stationary energy, Requires that loads are dynamically Develop as specific carbon opportunity, intermittent renewable energy fired power stations at high emission fugitive adjusted to match renewable energy ‘increased renewable energy’. penetration sources (e.g. wind) through intensity. Various research limits output over appropriate period. dynamic load management of renewables at 0-30% of mix due to Therefore requires applications that multiple devices in multiple intermittency (eg CSIRO Energy Futures allow real time load management homes, offices, buildings and Forum). without affecting customer. Could communities. include wired or unwired appliances which have automated control already eg fridges, aircon, hot water, charging. Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Workplace/building Reduced energy Up to 4-6% of electricity in the office Stationary energy, Broadband, networked appliances Separate into ‘remote appliance power consumption using intelligent is wasted in standby energy. Also fugitive or switches, distributed intelligence, management’ and ‘presence based efficiency communicating devices and appliances that are on but not being used, external controls to obviate standby power’. Combine household and third party control. though this will tend to be desk based consumption, systems reactive to commercial. rather than room based. climatic conditions or external signals. RFID tagging and telemetry. Productivity Increased productive output If human productivity is increased, then Stationary energy, High speed (fibre) broadband in Not taken forward for several reasons. per person for the same or less people required for given job, and transport, fugitive, home and workplace. On line storage . There is good reason to suggest reduced resource use. Ability therefore less associated consumption, waste solutions. Virtual networks with that released resource is reallocated to work while in motion or emissions and waste. However, must compatible devices (phone, laptop, elsewhere in the economy without returning to hub. recognise that economy will expand to use desktop, network, storage). Monitoring the additional (human) resource created and evaluation tools for users to . It involves behavioural changes and therefore consumption may expand overcome trust barriers. which are hard to measure with increased productivity. accurately. Office Utilisation Reduced embedded and Commercial buildings use about 0% of Stationary energy, Looking at optimised use of space Not taken forward because of risk of operational energy through national emissions. Reducing growth or fugitive, waste through management that may be transfer of emissions and also office space increased load factor of floor even absolute demand through greater facilitated by networks, e.g. hotdesks, costs will tend to determine use of space space. efficiency therefore has pro rata effect on shared meeting rooms, office efficiency. emissions provided they are not simply equipment volumes which take up relocated. space. However, much of the research overlaps with telework which implies that the reduced office space has been shifted to peoples homes or cars, so the emissions savings have only been transferred. Load factors Reducing multiplicity of Where there are multiple devices Stationary energy, No additional devices being used, but Taken forward in the case studies only devices and energy/resource running at less than capacity there is the Waste more network movement of say data to (education example). Looks at major use through increasing the opportunity to consolidate and reduce the increase load factor of devices and allow change in data management and device utilisation of any given device number of devices, their energy use and redundant devices to be closed down. usage trends, e.g. trends toward increased or service e.g. servers in many the end waste. Probably housed with same companies and mobile storage and number of company offices replaced or locations. Wider application would devices which limits opportunities for by single servers hosting be to move material online into fewer consolidation. multiple company data sets. data centres, essentially reverting PCs back to terminal function. 89
  • 105. Area of interest Possible method for Characteristics Emissions sector Possible applications Action Climate Risk GHG reductions Freight and Fleet Reduce the emission intensity /3 of all kilometres travelled by freight Transport Use of RFID and telemetry to track Taken forward as ‘Real time freight of freight movements. carriers in Australia are unladen. vehicles, and cargos. Also requires management’ Efficiency multiple participant companies from large trucking companies through to couriers and taxis, all with common technology platform for tracking and dispatch. E-materialisation, Reduced use of resources, Upsurge in global consumption is Stationary energy, Broad range of on-line application and To take this forward requires moving into energy and transport and consistent with increased wealth and Waste, Transport services largely delivered by internet area of carbon content or carbon debt of De-materialisation therefore carbon for creation numbers of people. Moving some of this multiple items and services. i.e. life-cycle or movement of goods. consumption out of the physical into the analysis. Decision made not to take life- virtual can reduce total carbon footprint cycle approach forward due to complexity of the consumption. E.g. getting software and dominance of the other impacts. online rather than from shop or by post, downloading film rather than driving to video shop. Could fully remove the need for some consumption or increase use Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future of existing items, e.g. eBay provides a recycling service by bringing buyers and sellers together for items that would have lower value or become redundant, and for which more new items would have to be purchased. Personal Car Travel Reduced need for car use Car use uses over 0% of national Transport Opportunities are in reducing the need Taken forward as ‘personalised public for personal purposes e.g. emissions. Anything that reduces need for car travel and/or providing better transport’ where it is semi-combined with shopping or taking kids to for car travel reduces emissions. Trends alternatives. Thus focus is on the commuting. school. are for increased car travel. personal and work life and movement in between rather than on vehicles or traffic as traffic tends to fill space available. Commuting Decreasing the emissions More than 70% of people drive alone to Transport Opportunities are in reducing the need Taken forward as ‘Decentralised business associated with commuting and from work each day, often poor public for car travel and/or providing better district’ and ‘personalised public through reduced need to transport options are cited as a significant alternatives for work eg by being able transport’. commute and increased contributing factor. Major component of to work at home or close to home. Thus uptake of higher efficiency transport emissions. focus is on the personal and work life options. and movement in between rather than on vehicles or traffic as traffic tends to fill space available. Work air travel Private sector emissions from About 40% of air travel is for business Transport, bunker fuels The long distance, short duration Taken forward as ‘on-live high definition travel, especially aviation, creating .million tonnes of CO per year. trips have lowest amenity where video conferencing’ in conjunction with can be reduced through use Domestic and long haul (even though the ‘conferencing’ or ‘presencing’ personal. of ‘presencing’ technology long haul isn’t part of Kyoto inventory). alternatives may be an equivalent or - especially aviation. improvement. Current technologies are not getting cut though. Next generation can pick up weaknesses, several suppliers of tele-presence suites. 90
  • 106. Area of interest Possible method for Characteristics Emissions sector Possible applications Action Climate Risk GHG reductions Personal Air travel Reduce emissions from Aviation in Australia produces 5.5million Transport, bunker The long distance, short duration Taken forward as ‘on-live high definition person long distance, short tonnes of CO per year. ‘Love miles’ take fuels trips have lowest amenity where video conferencing’ in conjunction with duration trips that can be people long distances for short periods ‘conferencing’ or ‘presencing’ work air travel replaced with ‘presencing’ because of no satisfactory alternatives. alternatives may be an equivalent or alternatives. improvement. Current technologies are not getting cut though. Next generation can pick up weaknesses, several suppliers of tele-presence suites. Note that needs will be different in this case. personal long haul short duration trips tend to be for special events, which would need special application of solutions, eg telepresence wedding suites, or cafe style ‘catch-up’ suites. Behavioural change Consumption reduction, Ultimately - it is human behaviour that All Behavioural change training can be Not taken forward, as very diverse, long examination between wants leads to anthropogenic GHG emissions. delivered through various platforms, eg term and hard to measure accurately. and needs, acceptance of There is a certain degree of path from desk-top, phone, school computer However, in principle this could be one of alternative options e.g. dependency which makes behavioural lounge. Probably reinforced by being the larges abatement areas. telecommuting, awareness change a challenge. across all applications and devices. of impacts of activities, Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future training of use of lower impact activities eg in schools. Products Products used from suppliers Products contain embodied energy which Stationary energy, There are the direct products used for Not taken forward as beyond the scope who have a commitment to are often externalities and not accounted Waste, Transport, and sold by telcos. And there is the of this report which does not include reducing GHG emissions, for in the end price. These include energy Industrial processes influence the telco can have on the life cycle assessments. Potentially a only purchase products made used to extract resources, create, store, purchasing behaviour of the customers significant item if life-cycles are assessed from recycled goods or that market and transport the product. and therefore supply chains and in future analysis. have a certain accreditation. recycling of the products. Eg rather than Using Telco shops as conduit selling products, these can be rented, for low emission products. recovered and recycled. This also provides an opportunity for increased/ controlled turn-over to capture efficiency gains. Recycling / re use Increase the uptake of Recycling rates are extremely low in Waste, Industrial There are the direct products used Not taken forward as beyond the scope recycling and re use to reduce Australia in part because of lack of pure processes for and sold by telcos. And there of this report which does not include the amount of waste and streams and also because of limited is the influence the telco can have life cycle assessments. Potentially a resources required for new processing. This of course also stems on the purchasing behaviour of the significant item if life-cycles are assessed products. from market pull for recycled products. customers and therefore supply chains in future analysis. Also interesting to look and recycling of the products. Eg at use of ICT networks by second hand rather than selling products, these can goods traders. be rented, recovered and recycled. This also provides an opportunity for increased/controlled turn-over to capture efficiency gains. ICT also allows companied like eBay to provide high- end recycling of products which reduce demand for primary supply. 9
  • 107. Area of interest Possible method for Characteristics Emissions sector Possible applications Action Climate Risk GHG reductions Education Education sector has some On-line education services are growing for Stationary energy, The impacts in emissions will occur if Niche application taken forward only in the services that could be supplied delivery at home or in the class-room. waste, transport, ICT based education leads to reduction education case study. through ICT networks. bunker fuels in travel or energy use in general. There could be some dematerialisation too, eg though avoided production and transportation of training materials. Likely to be focused on higher education where travel is most significant. Shopping By reducing the number of Shopping is one example of the many Stationary energy, The use of ICT networks to optimise ‘De-centralised business district’ necessary visits to shops personal reasons for car use. Waste, Transport movement of personal goods seems to with emphasis on localisation of there is the potential to have abatement opportunity. Eg on-line activities. Actual shift of distribution reduce transport related GHG ordering with super market undertaking from the purchaser to the supplier has emissions. local distribution, rather than lots of been wrapped into ‘real time freight cars making individual visits. management’ though this would be a special case which is not fully explored in that application. Stock and Asset Real-time asset tracking Poorly managed stock can result in Transport, Waste, This captures much of the monitoring Taken forward under ‘real time freight allows for dynamic wasted energy, and ultimately GHG, in the stationary energy based efficiency improvement management’ and also under ‘presence Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future tracking management or moving and transportation of goods. discussed under various applications. based power’ fixed assets, and therefore Includes telemetry, RFID, remote reduced transport and monitoring and management, stationary related GHG intelligent devices. emissions. Waste Any application that either Waste in Australia causes in 7MtCO-e Waste Applications to reduce waste would be Research shows no strong market ready reduces waste or increases of emissions through decomposition of in general reduction of product use, see applications beyond what is being used the recovery of products or organic matter into methane. However products and recycling above and on already without a major change in the energy from waste is likely to this does not include the embodied energy increased waste recovery. There may waste management systems already in reduce overall emissions. which is lost. be some rationale for increased waste place. There is the ability for telecos to monitoring and therefore value with change their own waste levels, but this is monitoring and tagging. Eg organic smaller niche, not society wide. Not taken wastes need to be focused into areas forward. where landfill gas can be harnessed. Low cost tagging or monitoring could be used to increased recovery or material intensity of waste streams for recycling. Shipping Applications that lead to Shipping emissions are covered under Bunker fuels Optimised freight efficiency Freight efficiency applications taken reduced demand for goods bunker fuels but these are outside Kyoto applications will have some relevance forward in “real-time freight management’ into or out of Australia accounting and also wrapped into aviation to shipping as per trucking above. which can be extended to international would reduce requirement bunker fuels. Reduced need for freight through de- shipping in principle. for freight shipping. There materialisation/e-materialisation will is also the opportunity for also affect shipping. increases freight efficiency being applied to international shipping. Traffic Smart traffic management Transport emissions have grown by more Transport Congestion control, lights for public Taken forward in ‘Personalised Public tracking can enable reduced that 3% since 990. Affected by efficiency transport, urban form, traffic speed Transport’ and ‘de-centralised Business management idle time - and subsequent and urban form. controls can be facilitated by telemetry District’ . Traffic efficiency measures for transport related GHG and integrated management using ICT cars have not been taken forward because emissions. networks and technology. There are of questionable benefits. however questions about whether more traffic comes to fill the space created. Therefore focus must be on increasing utility of public transport and avoiding need for travel. 9
  • 108. Area of interest Possible method for Characteristics Emissions sector Possible applications Action Climate Risk GHG reductions Fugitive emissions Monitoring of emissions, Fugitive emissions are ‘side effect’ Fugitive ICT networks can provide enhanced Not taken forward as this is primarily optimising responses. emissions from extracting fossil fuels monitoring of fugitive emissions and a monitoring application with weak and responsible for about 5% of national pick up unknown fugitive emissions eg additionality in terms of reducing emissions. in gas pipeline leaks or concentration emissions. of coal seam methane levels. This information can also lead to more efficient capture and use of fugitive emissions. Industrial Multiplicity of activities in the Mining, wood paper, chemicals and other Industrial, transport, ICT can impact by reducing the demand Major role appears to be in low cost industrial sector. manufacturing are responsible for over stationary energy, for industrial products or increasing monitoring across industrial sector under 00Mt of CO emissions per year. Metals fugitive the efficiency of production. Former emissions trading scheme or similar. processing is dominant high emissions is dealt with under products and Not taken forward as an abatement industrial sector. recycling above. Latter may be a new opportunity as the additionality is weak. application especially in the monitoring of environmental performance for compliance or even for regulation of carbon trading products between industries. Agriculture ICT applications would have to Agricultural emissions come from 40,000 Agriculture Telemetry technology, GPS in devices Not taken forward as other technologies Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future impact agricultural emissions individual enterprises which with land can provide detailed information are already available and being used in this from cropping to animal use makes up 5% of national emissions. about crop performance, fertilizers sector to deliver efficiency gains, so added rearing. Livestock is % of national emissions placement, water availability and soil value would be uncertain. (67Mt) and cropping is 9(Mt). content. Land Use, Land ICT impacts on land use Land clearing rates have dropped LULUCF There could be an argument that de- The paper production industry is change in Australia would substantially in Australia, but still cause materialisation means that materials international and overlays with issues Use Change and need to focus on land clearing nearly 50Mt of emissions per year. could go on line or through ICT of old growth versus plantation, which Forestry mainly. networks. Eg people get news through makes carbon budgeting more difficult. phone rather than newspapers, Monitoring issues are very unclear. therefore less tree use. However much Though this is a very large emission sector land clearing is for farming. There globally, the additionality issues mean could be role for ICT networks for that it has not been taken forward, so far. monitoring and compliance, or even However the large uncertainties in this in increasing the value of carbon sinks sector could mean that these services have through monitoring. a very significant value. 93
  • 109. Climate Risk Pty Limited (Australia) Level , 36 Lauderdale Avenue Fairlight, NSW 094 Tel: +6  8003 454 Brisbane: +6 7 30 453 Climate Risk Europe Limited London: + 44 0 844 450 Manchester: + 44 6 73 474 Climate Risk 94 Towards a High-Bandwidth, Low-Carbon Future Climate Risk