Connected Urban Development
        Global Conference 2008
    Connected and Sustainable Energy

Energy Efficiency Perspec...
Defining the Energy/Climate Change Problem:
    5 Supply Perspectives and 1 Demand

     Carbon Storage                   ...
U.S. End-Use Energy Split

                                   Building Energy Use:

                                   39%...
Building Energy Use
No “silver bullet” solutions: heating, cooling and lighting dominate but must
  address complexity of ...
National Lighting Energy Consumption

                                                              390 Billion kWh used f...
Commercial Building Lighting wastes energy because
      dimming lighting controls are not widely used

All Lighting Shoul...
Good Lighting Controls (Daylight Dimming) Work

                                 Daily Energy Use (6 A.M to 6 P.M.)
    kW...
Making Lighting Controls Intelligent:
   Adding Wireless Communications Capabilities to Ballasts


                       ...
Potential Impacts of Advanced Lighting
    Controls in California Buildings




               Lawrence Berkeley National ...
The New York Times
           HQ Building
Owners program:
•   52 floors, 160,000 sq.M
•   Highly glazed façade gives worke...
Approach: Test Performance of Systems
Options in a Full-Scale Mockup of part of a floor                North          12
 ...
Extend Testbed Results to All Floors and
   Orientations using Simulation Tools                                           ...
Challenge: Verifying Installation and Field Performance
            New Tool used by owner to check calibration of install...
Intelligent Lighting and Shade Control - now in NYC!
                                 • Dimmable lighting
                ...
Controls for Natural Ventilation:
  San Francisco Federal Building
Natural ventilation in tower – no mechanical cooling or...
Energy/Demand Management with Active
                                        Façades+ Daylighting Controls

              ...
Automated Demand Response
     DR Definition: Action to reduce load when
        •        Contingencies occur that threate...
DR Automation Server and Client
                                       DRAS Clients –
                                    ...
Auto-DR in 130,000 ft2 County Office
     Current Practice




20
Time Scales of Building/Grid Optimization –
     Automated DR Future




                     Time of Use Optimized




21
Recent Energy Efficiency Activity

“Greening the Capitol” Project
– Make the House buildings Carbon Neutral
  in 10 years
...
Vision: Zero Energy Building
Creating a New Generation of Net-Zero Energy, Carbon-Neutral Buildings

                   Au...
Getting to “Zero Net Energy” or “ Carbon
Neutral” Buildings

• Deployment: (5 - 30% savings)
   — Identify what works and ...
What Will it Take to Achieve 2030 Targets?


                           9
                                                ...
“Think Big, Start Small, Act Now”

         • Challenge of launching and sustaining a large scale,
           long term, n...
Stephen Selkowitz - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Intelligent Networks & the Challenge of Zero Energy Buildings
Stephen Selkowitz - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Intelligent Networks & the Challenge of Zero Energy Buildings
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Stephen Selkowitz - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Intelligent Networks & the Challenge of Zero Energy Buildings

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Stephen Selkowitz - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Intelligent Networks & the Challenge of Zero Energy Buildings

  1. 1. Connected Urban Development Global Conference 2008 Connected and Sustainable Energy Energy Efficiency Perspectives: Intelligent Networks and The Challenge of Zero Energy Buildings Stephen Selkowitz Department Head, Building Technologies Department Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory seselkowitz@lbl.gov 510/486-5064 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  2. 2. Defining the Energy/Climate Change Problem: 5 Supply Perspectives and 1 Demand Carbon Storage Solar power Biofuels Energy Efficiency in Buildings Wind power Nuclear
  3. 3. U.S. End-Use Energy Split Building Energy Use: 39% total U.S. energy 40% of carbon emissions 71% electricity 54% of natural gas Fastest growth rate! Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  4. 4. Building Energy Use No “silver bullet” solutions: heating, cooling and lighting dominate but must address complexity of end use splits, which vary by sector and climate 39% total U.S. energy 71% electricity, 54% of natural gas Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  5. 5. National Lighting Energy Consumption 390 Billion kWh used for lighting in all commercial buildings in 2001 LED (<.1%) HID 22% Incandescent 40% Fluorescent 38% Lighting Energy Consumption by Major Breakdown of Lighting Energy Sector and Light Source Type Source: Navigant Consulting, Inc., U.S. Lighting Market Characterization, Volume I: National Lighting Inventory and, Energy Consumption Estimate, Final Report for US DOE, 2002 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  6. 6. Commercial Building Lighting wastes energy because dimming lighting controls are not widely used All Lighting Should be: • Dimmable • Addressable • (Affordable) Major Lighting Control Strategies Vacancy Detection or Scheduling Automatic Dimming with Daylight Tuning Strategies Personal dimming controls Institutional requirements Lumen Maintenance Demand Response
  7. 7. Good Lighting Controls (Daylight Dimming) Work Daily Energy Use (6 A.M to 6 P.M.) kWh/12 hr/zone 40 G South Daylit J North Daylit H Reference Data from 35 advanced H H HHHH HHH H H H H HH H HH H H H H H HH H HH HHHH H H HHHH HHH H HH H HH H HH H HH H H HH H HH H H H H H H H HH H HH H H H 30 H H H H HH H HH H H H H H HH H H H H H HH H H H HHH H HH H H H HH H HH H H H HH HH HHH HH HH H H H HH HH H HH H HH H H HH lighting controls H HHH HH H HH H HH H HH H 40-60% H demonstration 25 40-80% G G G Savings SavingsG GG G G in Emeryville, CA J 20 J G J G G G JG G G G GG GG G G G G G G GG G G GGJG G G G GG G GG (1990) !!! G G G G G G G GGG JJ JJ JG JJ JG J JJJJ G GJ GG G G G G G G G GG GG G G G G G G G G G GG GG J G G G G GG G G G G GG G G G GJG JGJGJGJGG JJ JJ G J G GG GG J J J J G G G G G GG GG G GG J GG G GG G GG G J J JJ JJJJ JJG G GG G G J J JJ JJ G GG 15 J JJ J JJJ JJ JJ H JGGG G G GG G G G G G G G G G G G G G G J J J J JJ JG GG G G G GG GG G G G G GG G G G JJ J JJ J JJ J G JGGGG GG GG GGG G G GG G G G G G GGG G G G JJ JJJJJ J J G G J JJJ J JJJ J J G J JJ JJ JJ J J G JJ Energy Use 10 J J JJ J JJ J J J J J JJ J J J JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJ JJ J G J JJ JJ J JJ J J J JJJJ JJJJJ JJJG JJ JJ JJJJJ JJJ JJJJ J JJ J JJ J GJ J G J G G J before retrofit: J J 5 J J 0 H G J H H G H J H H After retrofit: 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 South zone: Day of Year 1990 North zone: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  8. 8. Making Lighting Controls Intelligent: Adding Wireless Communications Capabilities to Ballasts Mesh Networks: Wireless Lighting Controls: Single Chip Mote Feasibility Demonstrated Wireless Control by single- chip mote demonstrated in ACM & Ballast Single Chip mounted to a board for integration with lighting components Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  9. 9. Potential Impacts of Advanced Lighting Controls in California Buildings Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  10. 10. The New York Times HQ Building Owners program: • 52 floors, 160,000 sq.M • Highly glazed façade gives workers views and allows the city to see “news” at work • But glare, cooling, visibility etc Need/Goal: • Develop integrated , automated shading and dimmable lighting system – Affordable, reliable and robust • Transform the market- push these solutions toward widespread use Challenge: • How to develop a workable integrated hardware/software solution • How to “guarantee” that such a solution will work in practice Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  11. 11. Approach: Test Performance of Systems Options in a Full-Scale Mockup of part of a floor North 12 A B Evaluate Shading, daylighting, employee feedback and constructability in a ~4500 sf testbed Fully instrumented; 1 year testing Concerns with glass facade: – Window glare (Tv=0.75) – Control of solar gain/cooling – Daylight harvesting potential Lighting Systems – Daylight dimming – Addressable systems – Task tuning – Load Shed/DR Real sun and sky conditions, 12-month monitored period Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  12. 12. Extend Testbed Results to All Floors and Orientations using Simulation Tools 13 Develop Shade Control Algorithms for Motorized Shades using Simulation Results • Each shade system has its own sensor and motors • Performance will vary with orientation, floor elevation, 2 view out, and neighboring buildings. • How to address performance with this variance? • Build a virtual model of the building in its urban context using hourly weather data simulate performance 17 2 17 18 18 Simulated Views from 3 of 22 view positions Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 3-D Digital model of site
  13. 13. Challenge: Verifying Installation and Field Performance New Tool used by owner to check calibration of installed systems • High-dynamic range (HDR) digital images • Captured automatically, processed within 1 minute, then produces continuous luminance maps of the scene. – Accuracy to +/- 10% within 0-5000 cd/m2 range • R&D tool developed in testbed • Verifies that installation meets specs • “Production tool” used by owner in building -----------> Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  14. 14. Intelligent Lighting and Shade Control - now in NYC! • Dimmable lighting • Addressable • (Affordable) (1/3 original cost estimate) • (Multifunctional) Occupied 2007 New York Times office with dimmable lights and automated shading
  15. 15. Controls for Natural Ventilation: San Francisco Federal Building Natural ventilation in tower – no mechanical cooling or ventilation in open-plan perimeter office space Mechanically operated and manually operated windows Extensive daylighting, dimmable lighting Designed with state-of-the-art simulation tools, EnergyPlus* and CFD Control system tested with EnergyPlus prior to installation Virtual Controls Testbed - to optimize the strategies for opening windows for cooling Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  16. 16. Energy/Demand Management with Active Façades+ Daylighting Controls 30000 30000 30000 30000 Typical commercial Peak demand reductions building load profile during curtailments 25000 25000 25000 25000 Electric Demand Lighting: 75% 20000 Air conditioning: 25% Reduced 20000 20000 20000 A/C Other: 10% Solar Gain 15000 15000 15000 15000 A/C Dimmed Lighting Lighting 10000 10000 10000 10000 Other 5000 5000 5000 5000 Other 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 3 5 5 7 7 9 9 11 11 13 15 17 13 15 17 19 21 19 21 23 23 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 Tim e of Day Tim e of Day Tim e of Day Tim e of Day © André Anders & Windows Group (EETD), 2007
  17. 17. Automated Demand Response DR Definition: Action to reduce load when • Contingencies occur that threaten supply-demand balance • Market conditions occur that raise supply costs – peak-load reductions different from efficiency, transient vs. permanent DR Communications Infrastructure Needs • Create real-time, automated DR infrastructure to respond to changing contingency and market conditions • DR infrastructure should coexist with legacy systems, technology and tariff improvements, with near- and long-term benefits. C a lifo r n ia D a ily P e a k L o a d s -- 2 0 0 6 7 0 ,0 0 0 R e s id e n tia l A ir C o n d itio n in g 6 0 ,0 0 0 C o m m e r c ia l A ir C o n d itio n in g 5 0 ,0 0 0 4 0 ,0 0 0 MW 3 0 ,0 0 0 2 0 ,0 0 0 1 0 ,0 0 0 0 J a n -0 6 M a r -0 6 M a y -0 6 J u l-0 6 S e p -0 6 N o v -0 6 18
  18. 18. DR Automation Server and Client DRAS Clients – 1. Software only (Smart) 2. Software & Hardware (Simple) 19
  19. 19. Auto-DR in 130,000 ft2 County Office Current Practice 20
  20. 20. Time Scales of Building/Grid Optimization – Automated DR Future Time of Use Optimized 21
  21. 21. Recent Energy Efficiency Activity “Greening the Capitol” Project – Make the House buildings Carbon Neutral in 10 years – Plan published; Action launched Architecture 2030 - Zero Energy Buildings – AIA and 500 cities have signed on California PUC: Launches “Big Bold” initiatives – ~$1B/yr on Efficiency; shift to longer term focus – “New Commercial Buildings are Zero Net Energy by 2030”
  22. 22. Vision: Zero Energy Building Creating a New Generation of Net-Zero Energy, Carbon-Neutral Buildings Automation Functional Building Tunable Windows • Energy sensors & actuators Materials • Wireless communication • Thermal • Feedback control systems • Structural Cool Stuff
  23. 23. Getting to “Zero Net Energy” or “ Carbon Neutral” Buildings • Deployment: (5 - 30% savings) — Identify what works and deploy it widely — Applies to all buildings: new and existing — Mandatory programs: codes and standards — Voluntary programs: incentives — e.g. Clinton Climate Initiative • Demonstrate Emerging Solutions (20 - 60% savings) — Find Underutilized, unproven technologies and systems — R&D to improve, optimize; Make them mainstream — e.g. New York Times • Breakthrough Innovations (50-80% savings plus on-site renewable power) — New, more effective, high performance options — Lower costs, Lower risk
  24. 24. What Will it Take to Achieve 2030 Targets? 9 BAU Total Energy Consumption 8 These levels of (Quads = 10^15 Btu) 7 efficiency are unlikely to 6 be achieved by market 5 forces alone; 4 3 Major new public/private 2 initiatives to drive 1 toward goals 0 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Business opportunities for firms with Year “solutions” Existing Buildings Retrofit Buildings New Buildings New Commercial Buildings Save 90% by 2030 plus 50% Retrofit Savings by 2030 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  25. 25. “Think Big, Start Small, Act Now” • Challenge of launching and sustaining a large scale, long term, national program, blending policy, economics and technology • Public - Private partnership • New and Existing Commercial Buildings • Long Term effort - 10-20 years • “You cant manage what you don’t measure…” • Making Performance “Visible” - display energy use • IT network and smart controls enable real time, high resolution, performance monitoring from devices to buildings to grid • Get involved……… • Zero Energy Commercial Building Initiative ge 28 • www.zeroenergycbi.org
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