Nicole Avril - Ecoblock Qingdao

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  • 1. The Eco Block China Sustainable Neighborhood Project Connected Urban Development Global Conference Amsterdam September 24, 2008 University of California Berkeley ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 2. At current growth rates, the built area of China will double within 25 years. China is building 11 million new ‘Superblock’ housing units each year to meet this rate of growth. ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 3. Gated Communities in China Current development patterns (both urban and suburban) are dominated by gated “Superblocks” with arterial roads, at .5 - 1 km intervals. This development model is highly efficient at providing urban housing, but creates many negative unintended consequences. ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 4. Mass-replicated SuperBlocks place significant demands on China’s infrastructure. sewage potable water landfill power plant SuperBlock traffic ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 5. To reduce demand on China’s infrastructure and natural resources, Superblocks must become self-sufficient with respect to energy, water, and waste. energy water waste EcoBlock ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 6. Goals: • Mass replicable • Economically viable • Resource self- sufficient (water, waste, energy) • 100% wastewater recycled on site • 85% reduced potable water demand • 100% on site renewable energy generation • Encourage journeys by foot, bicycle and transit • 40-60% site area to be green space The EcoBlock: Project Visualization ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 7. Desired City Characteristics ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 8. BRT Station BRT Station 5 min. walk 10 min. walk Dedicated off-street paths Primary Sidewalks Secondary Sidewalks Transit - Oriented High-level of pedestrian Development accessibility and connectivity ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 9. EcoBlock Prototype: Program Details EcoBlock • 600 units per EcoBlock • Eco-block = 3.5 hectares • 1,800 residents per 0 EcoBlock 120 0 • 171 units per hectare 30 600 600 Prototype Site 600 • EcoBlock replicated 8 times • 5,100 units at the Qingdao 600 600 site 600 • Increased density near transit ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 10. Energy Demand Reduction Strategies High performance Efficient lighting Energy efficient Shaded walkways glazing equipment Passive solar heating Reflective pavement Natural Ventilation Daylighting Shared Building shading ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 11. Creating a Sustainable Supply of Energy Roof mounted photovoltaics Anaerobic Digester Building integrated wind turbines Canopy integrated photovoltaics ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 12. Reducing Reliance on Grid Based Energy Conservation and Efficiency On-Site Generation per EcoBlock (Buildings Only) Net Annual Energy from Grid 100% 1,600,000 1,400,000 kWh/year Optimized 80% 1,200,000 facade 1,000,000 Natural Photovoltaics 60% ventilation 800,000 Passive heating 40% 600,000 Daylighting Wind turbines 400,000 20% Efficient equipment 200,000 & lighting Digester 0 0% 100% residual energy demand met by on-site renewables ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 13. Reducing Demand for Potable Water Recycled water for Low flow equipment Xeriscaping Low flow equipment irrigation ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 14. Wastewater Treatment Alternative Sources of Water Supply Reverse Osmosis Gray water treatment 15% of potable water Chlorination and UV Constructed wetlands treatment supply from off-site Rain gardens Swales Rainwater storage Porous paving Rainwater Harvesting ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 15. Reducing Reliance on the Grid Conservation and Efficiency On-Site Treatment Baseline 160 Developme 100% 140 80% 120 Water Demand from Water Efficien 100 Rainwate 60% Grid 80 60 Tertiary 40% Treatmen 40 Advanced Treatmen 20% Advanced 20 Treatment to Potable Standard 0 0% 85% savings on potable water demand overall ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 16. Whole Systems Design: Integrated systems that are mutually beneficial ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 17. How to Make Whole Systems Design Successful? A Smart EcoBlock Opportunities for ICT Collaboration with the EcoBlock: • Integrate designs for “the fourth utility” from the outset • Provide a digital ‘nervous system’ • Provide technologies to help influence residents’ behavior ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 18. Digital Nervous System for the EcoBlock A smart grid needs to collect: • The right information • At the right time • Deliver it to the right people • In the right way In other words, utility systems and appliances need to be able to: • Communicate with each other • Communicate with operators • Communicate with external information providers ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 19. Digital Nervous System: Communicate with Each Other photovoltaics appliances / load shifting grid wastewater treatment wind turbines digester ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 20. Digital Nervous System: Communication with Operators maintenance trend analysis / planning quality control and billing alarms ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 21. Digital Nervous System: Communicate with Information Providers Voice, data, TV Weather data Real time transit info ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 22. Technologies to influence sustainable behavior Smart panels encourage: • Load shifting • Energy and water consumption reduction • Increased transit use ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 23. The Bottom Line Delta between business-as-usual and EcoBlock: • Sustainability initiatives are estimated to increase cost of development by 5%-10%. • 10 year IRRs range from 2% for Base Case Scenario to 6% for a Double Utility Rate Scenario (an increase of 7.5% annually for 10 years) to 10% for Private Operator and Energy Import and Export Scenarios. • Payback periods range from 10 years for Base Case Scenario to 9 years for a Double Utility Rate scenario (an increase 7.5% annually for 10 years) to 7 years for Private Operator and Energy Import and Export Scenarios. • While an added cost, ICT systems are cost effective and not prohibitively expensive. ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 24. Eco Block Cost / Benefit Redistribution Model Who owns, operates and maintains the neighborhood infrastructure? Primary Land Developer and Secondary Builders • Incremental investment on ‘eco’ infrastructure for district • Incremental management / operation cost • Incremental investment on ‘eco’ infrastructure for buildings Government • Reduced need on infrastructure investment • Financial subsidy Users • Reduced fees payable on utilities and services to Government • Finance operation and pay back investment ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 25. ECOBLOCK ECO-SITE Reduced number of people drinking polluted water 1,422 people 12,087 people Reduced CO2 emissions to the atmosphere 1,404 tons 11,934 tons Reduced volumes of waste to landfill or urban dumps 415 tons 3,500 tons Reduced volume of untreated sewage discharged to rivers 90 million liters 765 million liters ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 26. 12 SuperBlocks are built every day in China If 25% of Superblocks built in the next year were replaced with EcoBlocks, China could save: 13 Drinking-water plants 11 Wastewater treatment plants 9 Coal fired power stations 8 Ledu County landfill $9 Billion $ ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 27. Why China? The World’s Worst and Best Hope China now leads the world in CO2 emission (<30%) and is among the worst environmental polluters. BUT……. • With its top-down and bottom-up political system, China can change its development practices almost overnight. • With a few successful models of whole-systems sustainable development, China could leap-frog away from a reliance on centralized infrastructure, reducing environmental degradation, leading the world to a more sustainable future. ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley
  • 28. The EcoBlock A model for sustainable development throughout the world ©2007 by the Regents of the University of California The EcoBlock Harrison Fraker, FAIA Professor College of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley