Dr Chengri Ding -

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Dr Chengri Ding -

  1. 1. 城市理性增长国家研究中心 马里兰大学 Sustainable 中国城市的可持 Public Financing for Chinese Cities 续公共财政 Chengri Ding 丁成日 Associate Dean 马里兰大学 Director of China Land Policy and Urban 建筑规划和保护学院副 Development 院长
  2. 2. Why City Spatial Development Matters 可持续发展:城市空间发展为什么重要? Atlanta is 26.4 times as large as Barcelona 亚特兰大建成区的面积 是巴塞罗那的 26.4倍 (人口数量相当)
  3. 3. Why City Spatial Development Matters 可持续发展:城市空间发展为什么重要? • Atlanta’s built-up area is • 亚特兰大城市建成区的面积 28 times larger than 是巴塞罗那 的28倍; Barcelona’s • So, the metro of • 巴塞罗那的地铁虽然有 Barcelona is only 99 km 99公里长,其站点却能在步 long and its stations are 行距离内服务60%的城市人 within walking distance 口; to 60% of the population • For the same level of • 若要达到同样的地铁服务水 metro service, Atlanta 平,亚特兰大却需要 would have to develop 3400 公里长的地铁系统; 3400 km of metro track
  4. 4. (From Alain Bertaud)
  5. 5. City Financing for Sustainability 公共财政与可持续发展 • City is hardly • 没有可持续的公 sustainable with 共财政难以取得 sustainable financing 可持续的城市发 • Infrastructure 展 • New/High Tech – 基础设施 usages – 新技术/高技 • Green GDP 术 – 绿色GDP等
  6. 6. How is LG financed? 地方政府财政收入来源 • Taxes: • 税 • property tax – 房地产税 • income tax – 收入税 • sale tax,etc – 消费税等 • Fees: • 费 • water pricing – 水费 • Loans: • 贷款 – 债卷 • Bonds • 财政转移支付/税收返 • Intergovernmental 还 transfers
  7. 7. What are Good Local Tax 好的地方税的特征 • Immobile tax bases • 税基不可移动 • Easy identification • 税的地方所用权容易鉴别 of local ownership • 收入稳定 • Stable revenue • Inelastic tax base • 税基非弹性 • independency • 独立和自主权 • Non-tax export • 无或少的税负出口 • Non-tax competition • 无或少的税竞争“ • Capitalized into • “资本化”入税基 prices of housing 房地产税是最好的地方税
  8. 8. Advantages of Property Tax 房地产税的优势 • Tax base can not be hid • 税基不能隐藏 • Affordability • 可支付能力 • Tax burden is • 税负是透明的 transparent • 参政议政,地方政府 • help public participation 执政压力 in administration • 非累退的(Not • Not-regressive Regressive) • non or less market • 较小的市场扭曲 distortion • can be used as land use • 能够用于土地利用调 instrument tool 控的政策手段和措施
  9. 9. Why Property Tax in China 中国房地产税 • Fundamental changes • 国家或社会发生了 • Urgency in tax/fiscal 根本的变化 reform • Risk of over- • 财税改革的迫切性 depending on land • 土地财政孕育的巨 revenues 大风险 • Skyrocketing housing • 飘升的房屋价格 prices • 可行性 • Feasibility • Profound implications • 巨大的意义
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