Connected Cities


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The ideas explored in Connected Cities chart the emergence of a political and economic phenomenon-the city as the new connected republic of the 21st Century. Simon Willis, Global Head of eGovernment for the Internet Business Solutions Group at Cisco Systems, has collated essays that show how different cities, at the cutting edge of the process, are grappling with the various stages of connectivity.

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Connected Cities

  1. 1. Thought Leaders Essays from urban innovators Edited by Simon Willis
  2. 2. Cities Contents Preface 2 Simon Willis, Director of the European Public Sector team, Internet Business Solutions Group, Cisco Systems Dubai 12 Saeed Al Muntafiq, Director General, Dubai Development and Investment Authority Barcelona 20 Joan Clos, Mayor of Barcelona New York 28 Michael R Bloomberg, Mayor of the City of New York Stockholm 36 Monica Berneström, Head of Development TIME at the Economic Development Agency; Anita Ferm, Director of Education Administration and Per-Olof Gustafsson, Deputy Managing Director, Economic Development Office, Stockholm Milan 44 Silvio Scaglia, Chairman of e.Biscom, Milan Wroclaw 50 Slawomir Najnigier, Deputy Mayor of Wroclaw Manchester 54 Dave Carter, Director of the Digital Development Agency, Manchester Hamburg 68 Senator Gunnar Uldall, Minister for the Economy and Employment, Hamburg Hillingdon A case study: How to create the business case 74 Pacey Cheales, Corporate Programme Manager, Hillingdon Improvement Programme and Steve Palmer, Head of Technology and Communications, Hillingdon Council Biographies 110 1
  3. 3. Preface Simon Willis, Director, Public Sector, Internet Business Solutions Group, Cisco Systems, Europe, Middle East and Africa T his is a book about cities, largely need flows more effectively to where written by cities. It is also a book people are, then there is less imperative to about the future of the city and bring them all into the same place. therefore a book about the Secondly, more collaborative ways of future of the place where most of us live. working and decision-making emerge and The city leaders writing here are a diverse this changes the relationship of the city group and their experiences with with itself and with its citizens. connecting themselves and their citizens are very different – but a number of In the following sections I look at three common themes emerge, which taken themes that emerge from the essays. The together and carried forward, suggest that first is the changing nature of work and we are on the brink of some very particularly the increasing importance of profound changes. collaboration in the successful enterprise. This is a much wider trend that cities are People construct the endlessly complex inevitably effected by. The second is the architectures of their cities over time – growing realisation that for the city to driven by their desire to be with each change in the way enterprises have other, learn from each other, and grow changed, they require the kind of economically, culturally and spiritually. To information exchange environment that serve these desires, cities have created enterprises now take for granted. In the physical spaces and mechanisms; the process they may have discovered the next street, the marketplace or the coffee pervasive social infrastructure to follow shops. In our own age these have been water, roads, power and telecoms. The supplemented by digital spaces. As the third theme is political – a new model for means for the instant exchange of digital the polis becomes possible when new information are built, a new dynamic ways of working are combined with a new emerges at the heart of what makes a city pervasive social infrastructure. These cities – information can flow towards people are collaboratively reconstructing rather than people towards information. themselves around the needs of their citizens. What emerges is the As this dynamic begins to affect work so it connected republic. has subtle but profound effects on the nature of the city. Firstly, the boundaries The first common theme we see emerging of the working day and of the workplace in these essays is that changes in ways of begin to blur. Cities are partly defined by working are starting to effect the city’s days and offices. If the information people fundamental strategic planning. The first 2
  4. 4. essay from Dubai by a true innovator and verbal information is that networked entrepreneur, Saeed al Muntafiq, Director information takes the best route – General of Dubai Development and traditional information goes from point to Investment Authority, shows how point, while networked information takes digitisation and networking develops the the best route it can find. One of the way people work. Dubai constantly implications of this is that it becomes reinvents itself around the concept of the harder to control. This makes it both more trading hub. Demands for education and resilient – and harder to gatekeep. With IP medicine across a huge area are networking, fewer premiums are placed converging on Dubai’s new knowledge on, and less power is given to, the city – built on a fibre infrastructure. gatekeepers of information. This is potentially revolutionary. In the essay from Barcelona by Joan Clos, visionary mayor of Barcelona, you see an In connected cities, power and influence is example of an innovative, creative and a function of how well you facilitate competitive city that has seized the networks of information and action, not opportunity to change itself again and how much information you control. again over the past few decades. Mayor Collaboration and facilitation supplant Clos has put education at the heart of his hierarchy and formal structure as the city’s endless recreation of itself. dominant tests of effective organisation. It is not surprising to find cultures that The essay from New York by Mayor already tend towards the collaborative are Bloomberg shows how digitisation and at the forefront of this revolution. Our networking change the nature of work by fourth essay is a collective work from developing collaboration. The traditional Anita Ferm, Education Director of the City model of government put public servants of Stockholm, Per-Olof Gustafsson, Deputy in a position of gatekeepers, controlling Managing Director of Stockholm’s flows of information. The focus was to get Economic Development Office and Monica access to the information – to control it, Bernestrom, Head of the Department to trade it, to protect it. In New York (as TIME (Telecom, IT, Media and elsewhere) networked information has Entertainment|). Stockholm is a city changed the nature of gatekeeping. whose long-standing enthusiasm for collaboration has given it an edge in the One of the differences between networked struggle to embrace new thinking. information and telephonic, mailed or 3
  5. 5. Preface Many cities are on the brink of taking a a slightly different set of effects on the fundamentally new step in their thinking. nature of our cities. It is in the nature of That is to categorise, in their minds, many of these infrastructures that the communications infrastructure as on the market cannot provide them at the outset. same level as roads, railways, dams and We all are aware that water and transport airports. The cities highlighted in this book are first developed as a social (and many others) know that they need to infrastructure, in the first instance created, modernise their cities so that people can paid for and owned by the public sector. interact within them more effectively. If a What emerges from these city essays is city is sufficiently connected, then the possibility that the next pervasive investors will arrive and find the right kind social infrastructure that society wants of employees. Competitive cities are to advance to the next stage, is increasingly regarding real broadband broadband fibre. networks as belonging in the same political and investment categories as Although there are exceptions, it appears transport networks. Fibre infrastructure for that the public sector may have a key role a couple of million people is equivalent in to play in this development. There are two cost to a couple of miles of highway. It fundamental reasons why a pervasive has become a viable option for a city social infrastructure cannot generally be investing in its future. The question is, effectively provided by the market. Firstly, whether and when it will become an that the investment required in this case imperative. (in order to achieve critical mass in connectivity) is so huge that the market All those reading this book will be acutely cannot move, because the services cannot aware of the rapid growth of the amount be provided to the consumer by the and the speed of connectivity in the past private sector until the connectivity is ten years. This transformation is available and the connectivity cannot be happening much faster than previous invested in until the demand for future revolutions. If you go to the Linx server services is understood. ( and look at internet activity over Europe’s largest internet exchange Investing in real broadband infrastructure point over recent years, you will see that is expensive. The establishment of the dot-com crash apparently didn’t telecoms presents the most obviously happen. Just about the only event that has comparable example. To build the a significant impact on the graph is fundamental social infrastructure for Christmas. The apparent rollercoaster that telecoms required public-sector we have been on since 2000 has been just intervention both at the beginning of that a trivial variation around a remorseless revolution and well into it. Then came a upward rise in connectivity. point of maturity where it became appropriate to allow the market much Each of the pervasive social infrastructures more freedom. In fact, you may require that our cities are built around, such as the market to drive innovation onwards those for water and transport, have a and give the consumer more choice, but slightly different set of characteristics and there is a build-out stage where you 4
  6. 6. Preface require some kind of public investment the really fundamental passive longterm and public intervention to make it work. In infrastructure. The essays show different the case of real broadband the amount of models in different cities of what stands investment involved is large. between the infrastructure and the end users. These allow people access to The second set of reasons as to why the different service providers – whether it is market cannot provide broadband telephony, video telephony, IP telephony, structure is based on what services people security applications around housing require. Someone investing in estates and into schools, and then infrastructure will have to get payback education, healthcare provision, video on over such a long period of time that they demand and entertainment and more. We will require exclusivity over the services still don’t know what services will develop that they are going to provide. This limits in this environment. It is clear that the field of access and services. The city somebody needs to sit between the decision-maker or public-sector decision- fundamental investment and the set of maker (who wants people to have access services that are going to be provided, to a wide range of entertainment services, and the city is emerging in many places as government services, communications the vehicle to do that, on its own or services and so on) will find that their through a public/private partnership or needs are not met. City decision-makers through some other joint mechanism. may not want to have access limited and pre-defined by a single infrastructure Among our examples, the Milan story told investor or service provider. by the far-sighted Silvio Scaglia, Chairman of e.Biscom, is of a pure private play. The The essays in this book show how availability of venture capital in the late different environments create different 90s, the lack of pre-existing cable to models, but increasingly the city is prevent the new entrant from getting stepping in as a fundamental stakeholder rapid take-up of services and the density and investor. The city will invest in the of housing were a set of unique passive infrastructure for connectivity and circumstances in Italy that allowed can borrow more cheaply than the private e-Biscom to take off in a really impressive sector. The city can run the business case way. Italian cities are only just beginning and will be able to sustain its borrowing to look at the wider set of city-service from quite a small stream of returns by applications and aggregated demands giving access to the infrastructure. The city that they want to use this infrastructure knows that this passive infrastructure (and for. The Fastweb experience has not been I’m thinking here about fibre) has about driven by the desire to put e-learning into 15-20 years of life in terms of its usability, schools or do initial primary care health which takes it beyond the type of return consultations in people’s living rooms. on investment calculations that most The driver for growth in Milan has come shareholder-owned companies and from the video on demand and video organisations are able to contemplate. telephony and entertainment and private communication applications that So, the public sector steps in and funds people demanded. 5
  7. 7. Preface That is one end of the spectrum and it has complex, and affected by the local political produced an interesting and successful environment as well as local legal and business. The next step will be for those economic factors. One model is like a city governments (increasingly not just utility, which is majority-owned by the city Milan but many other Italian cities as but has a lot of private-sector money and well) to look to the infrastructure investment. Wroclaw’s story as told by the to see how they can improve their own deputy mayor, Slawomir Najnigier, is a services as well as proving an attractive good example of that kind of approach, as investment environment for the growth they have actually used the heating utility of small businesses. (which has the holes in the ground) as a public/private vehicle to develop the Stokab is at the other end of the spectrum passive infrastructure. Hamburg too, as in that it is a pure public play. There was a shown by Senator Gunnar Uldall, offers a very clear vision in Stockholm that the mixed model, where the private sector building of a knowledge economy and the leads and the public sector encourages attraction of inward investment and the and invests. In Hamburg, the public sector provision of better public services would will intervene as and when necessary, and all be facilitated by a fibre-based will ensure that through the services communications infrastructure. When you provided Hamburg remains a growing and read the essay by key Stockholm decision- successful trading hub. makers (and visionaries) Anita Ferm, Per-Olof Gustafsson and Monica How significant is this trend? We are Bernestrom, you see that at the very heart aware of at least 40 European cities that of it is not only a business plan but a are currently either planning or building profound belief that this would be the real (Ethernet) broadband infrastructures. right way to go. They couldn’t calculate all The number increases weekly. It seems the benefits to Stockholm at the time that likely that something very significant is the investment was commenced, but they taking place here. can see the benefits now. For example, as people in Stockholm begin to In this very complex and confusing telecommute, strain on the transport environment, it may be useful to try to infrastructure is being reduced. This is a look at what is happening in more fascinating development and is more or conceptual terms. This may allow us to less at the forefront of what is happening develop a framework within which we can in the modern city. Stockholm already has see what is common to these success a different approach to work and the stories. The republic in political history was workplace emerging. Now they are an idea that broke with the concepts of looking at wireless and turning Stockholm monarchy, oligarchy and timocracy and into a wireless hotspot. The whole established the idea of rule by the ‘polis’. Stockholm model represents a very It was in the small trading-hub cities of Swedish belief in public provision of Greece in the 6th century BC that the fundamental infrastructure. democratic experiment truly began. Then we have a mixed model, often very The prospect of a ‘connected republic’ 6
  8. 8. Preface now presents us with the opportunity to that the schools are not good enough, make the idea of rule by the people more healthcare is not good enough and the real than it has ever been, creating an police can’t protect them from danger on environment in which people reconnect the streets of the city. These are the big with each other politically and at the same city issues, and our politicians are caught time rediscover the connection they have in a situation where their people are lost with their rulers. And the natural disengaged and not willing to pay more geographical confines of the connected money but are demanding higher republic are, as in ancient Greece, those of levels of service. the city-state rather than the nation-states which dominated the past century. At the same time, technology has created the possibility of more responsive services Every city is an autonomous competitor in that are more flexible to the signals that a globalising economy. It is not enough consumers send. The new connectivity has that a national government is doing the made the private sector much more right things to attract investment. The responsive to consumer demand, and that individual city needs to attract investors. has made consumers much more The people in that city need to be demanding, which has in turn made them attractive to employers. Workers in a more disconnected from their successful city have to deliver value in an unresponsive governments. That is not environment where what you knew ten because the public service is stupid and years ago is irrelevant to what companies the private sector is clever. The reason that now need from their employees. As a the private sector grabbed hold of change successful city, once you start to is that for a private sector company, understand modern educational needs you change is a life or death issue. For start to get this sense of lifelong example, when British Airways has education actually built into the heart of competition from easyJet and Ryanair it the economic strategy of city, the survival either responds or it goes out of business strategy of the city. in the face of competitors with lower back-office costs, simplified fare structures Meanwhile it is widely accepted that there and incredibly low transaction costs is an emerging crisis in democracy because based on new forms of technology- people do not feel engaged with their enabled connectivity. political decision-makers. They don’t understand them, they don’t know what For government, with its quasi-monopoly, motivates them and decisions appear to it has been harder to respond to this new come from on high. There is a kind of trend, although governments are disengagement. This is a disaster for beginning to see that they face an politicians as it takes away their legitimacy emerging crisis of legitimacy and service. just as it begins to undercut their ability to City governments have responsibility for raise revenues. Unwillingness to pay tax looking after the poor and vulnerable and, leads directly to restrictions on their ability because they are using public money, they to provide services. This feeds back into must take fewer risks. So they find their unpopularity with people, who feel themselves unable to move as quickly as 7
  9. 9. Preface the private sector, and up until now have been 25 or so different departments they could not subject social services or dealing with everything – if you want your healthcare provision or the criminal justice garbage picked up it is this department, system to the risks associated with and if you want your water turned off it is innovation and new technology. another one, and if the people next door are noisy it is another. But as the New York That may now be changing. Even if the essay makes clear, you shouldn’t need city governments are boxed in, they are someone with a doctorate in municipal responsive political animals; they want to politics standing next to you as you try to deliver good things to their communities. sort your way out of a problem. Now, the They need to find a solution. These essays city’s networked information system document the emergence of that solution allows New Yorkers to pick up a phone, in the development of what we call the dial 311 and be put through to the right connected republic. Ideas that have been person to solve their problem. It is the applied to business over the past ten years city which thus has to rearrange itself are being applied to the different public- around the needs of its citizens, and not sector environment in ways that overcome vice-versa. the obstacles which are holding this process back. (I’m indebted to my Several years ago, Barcelona rearranged its colleagues, Martin Stewart-Weeks and network around a portal that reflected the Mark Badger for much of this analysis – way people live their lives and the see their forthcoming book on the problems they have. This sounds very Connected Republic.) obvious, but it is very difficult for public servants to make that fundamental shift Despite their differences, all cities have from ‘this is the way we are arranged’ to some fundamental things in common. ‘this is how your needs as a citizen are arranged’. Clearly public servants are not First of all, they must grapple with the going to reorganise their departments issue of how to re-engage with people around citizens’ needs every week. who are becoming disengaged. People’s needs are different: they are Governments have to become transparent: constantly changing; they overlap and citizens must be able to see what contradict each other. However, once government is doing. Communications citizen and official are networked, they technologies unlock the possibility of can collaborate. The official finds himself reorganising and presenting information or herself working in a great virtual in a way that is appealing to citizens. contact centre where inquiries can be routed to the appropriate destination. It’s what the Government of Canada called Mayor Bloomberg’s New York essay ‘No Wrong Door’. And once information is describes what appears to be a small, but networked, citizens see it is transparent is in fact a crucial step forward. The and become ready to engage with principle behind the 311 service is that authority, which they now see as offering citizens shouldn’t have to work out for them a service. Indeed, it becomes more themselves how the city is organised. likely that citizens will use the opportunity Cities have been opaque because there to influence, shape and guide authority. 8
  10. 10. Preface A key element of any strategy for the It’s that kind of emerging role as connected city is customer-centricity, or orchestrator that you see in the essay from citizen-centricity. Hillingdon is a borough David Carter, Director of Manchester’s of London and it discovered that the Digital Development Agency. Connectivity investment required for customer- in Manchester is not just about big centricity would repay itself in an business and knowledge workers. It is also incredibly short amount of time. So one of about excluded communities becoming the fundamental drivers for Hillingdon’s connected through the city as it connectivity was to reorganise its services orchestrates local community groups. around what citizens actually wanted and These local voluntary groups and public- to be more responsive to requests coming sector groups are trying to meet the needs in. It has discovered a double win. Firstly, of local communities, whether by giving citizens feel better served, and re- them access to training, or giving them engaged; secondly, it becomes cheaper for information about where they can get the city to do its work. It is a similar story childcare so they can get back to work, or in Barcelona, where the CAT 365 project by helping them connect with other has set up a clearing house for citizen people in similar situations so that they information. CAT 365 involves the private can feel more part of a community and sector as well – a public/private develop common, mutually supportive partnership runs the clearing-house, which strategies. Manchester is an example of also offers services out to banks, and real people using connectivity so they can utilities and other private-sector players start to take control of their own which need private sector information. development and their own fate. The city What will perhaps emerge is a new depends on its infrastructure to become funding model, as these people pay for an orchestrator – and in the Manchester the ability to become more responsive to case, wireless has played in increasing part citizens. If the government is effectively of that infrastructure, even in the poorer subsidising the service, so much the better. eastern district of the city. Citizen-centricity can help make it possible Mancunians are typically innovative, for organisations to become orchestrators creative and entrepreneurial people. The rather than doing everything themselves. city is trying to serve all of them and at They reach out to the place where the the same time include that group of thing is best done. The city is no longer people who were left behind when the the great monolithic provider of services last industrial revolution left Manchester. to all people and disappointer of people at So there is a very rich emerging portfolio all times. In contrast, the city is the of what the city can orchestrate. Dubai facilitator for a set of groups, some of the has also developed an orchestrator independent, some of them semi- function, but one much more focused on independent, who are able when the resources of its people and their networked together to provide a much ingenuity. Through the internet, it is more responsive service. orchestrating local talent, regional players and the private sector. Large companies are being attracted to Dubai to provide a 9
  11. 11. Preface set of services for the region so the city real value in services that citizens require. can re-invent itself as a knowledge hub for So successful has Hamburg become that the region – and Dubai has a typically the countryside around it has towns radical conception of what its region is. coming to the city and asking them to act as a bureau for them as well. It is the None of this is easy. The industry is awash same in Hillingdon, which has started to with the dynamic of early hopes and work with larger groupings of local expectations that shoot up too high and authorities in London. lead to disappointment when they are not fulfilled. Yet these essays engender the The Hillingdon in-depth case study offers a feeling that people have recently been too road-map for the early part of the journey. glum; new connectivity is actually Resources are limited, however strong the happening. It turns out that it is harder to case is, and the options for what you do than some people thought. It is not might do are many. Any city manager will just a matter of whacking up a website be standing with a small pot of money and saying, ‘come and visit our city’. Nor and a huge number of claims on it – and is it just a matter of putting a bunch of the question is, ‘What do I do next week? networks out to the classrooms and How do I get started on this journey and hoping that classrooms will be what should I do first?’ The reason the transformed by mere access to technology. case study shows step-by-step It actually requires changes in processes prioritisation and budget allocation is that and fundamental changes in the way even in a tough investment environment it people work. You can see in the Hillingdon will allow a city to make changes that will case study how people had to stop doing not only pay back and allow it to expand certain jobs because functions ambitions, but will change the way that disappeared. Hamburg too offers a great people work. example of quite ruthless standardisation, driven by a finance department in Hillingdon takes quite small processes and Hamburg which would not give access to changes people’s relationship to their IT budgets to anybody who failed to work and the way they collaborate. With adhere to the standards it had established. all the money and political will in the This is pretty dry stuff, but it is actually world you are not going to get anywhere critical because it turns out that this is unless the actual city workers buy into where money has been wasted, as collaboration, start to behave differently everybody re-invents the wheel in the and become more responsive. housing department, the refuse collection department, the benefits department The development of a business case to and so on. support the modernisation of Hillingdon council’s housing service is a tangible Addressing that back-office process, re- outcome. Although not completely engineering, standardisation, the creation unexpected, the scale of the potential for of shared service bureaux, will be the task deploying new working methods – of the next wave. The city can increase the affecting nearly 70% of the workforce – productivity of its workforce, unlocking and the consequential impact on office 10
  12. 12. Preface accommodation – almost a 50% reduction based services, they can redefine what – was more significant than anticipated. they offer around the actual needs of The relevance and impact of these initial their citizens. findings were enhanced by the subsequent quantitative ROI analysis. This work They are driven by democratic demands established a financial cost and saving of for re-engagement and for better and fully deploying modernised working in more responsive and accessible city housing services. More people can work services. They are also driven by from home and stripping out 35% of competitive forces. office costs on a recurring basis from year four onwards means local councillors have As it looks outside its nation-state choices to make regarding reallocating boundaries to define what it is going to resources that were previously locked up be in the future and how it is going to be in relatively fixed assets. successful in this environment, the successful city learns not just how to work The Hillingdon business case generated, or differently within its departments and rather confirmed, a piece of learning that agencies but how to collaborate with its has been stated before but is worth own citizens on the project and make reiterating. The modernisation business them part of the success of their own city case is not ‘about’ putting forms on the – thus giving the city back to them. web, implementing CRM or having colleagues work from home. What the modernisation business case is “about” is achieving profound business transformation through carefully managed organisational change. There is nothing particularly radical in this statement other than that the words are now grounded on a detailed business case whose scope and scale constitute a complete transformation for Hillingdon’s housing service. What is more, the business case process is now a useful diagnostic tool. What we see in these essays is perhaps the emergence of a political and economic phenomenon – the city as the new connected republic of the 21st century. Standing on the bedrock of real broadband as a new social infrastructure, these innovators and visionaries are redefining their role in the globalising information economy. As orchestrators of networked information and information- 11
  13. 13. Dubai Saeed Al Muntafiq, Director General, Dubai Development and Investment Authority D ubai has an economic blueprint Why did we start with technology? for the future, first conceived in 1998 by the Crown Prince with History – and there was no more pressing the simple objective of historical example at the time than increasing per capita GDP. Unlike some of Netscape: a small company that IPOd at our neighbours, we have little in the way about $18 dollars and closed on the same of naturally occurring mineral resources, day at $75. Examples like this were still so we needed a service- or technology- very much in everyone’s mind in 1999, based approach. when His Highness launched Dubai Internet City (DIC). The strategy we adopted was based on the model usually referred to as ‘cluster We soon realised that technology alone development’1 and is designed to create was not enough. We also needed content, specific engines to drive economic growth. convergence and – of course – talent. So, The objective was the creation of a after the launch of DIC, Dubai Media City ‘technology cluster’. (DMC) arrived in 2001. In late 2003 we moved ahead with Dubai Knowledge Six years later, Dubai has become the hub Village, an enclave within DIC designed to of – and therefore the gateway to – an provide a broad range of education and untapped market that spans the Middle training faculties. East, North and South Africa, the Indian subcontinent and the CIS. This market We had to learn tough lessons throughout consists of 31 countries, 53 languages, this process, and especially when we 1.8 billion people and a collective GDP developed our second and third clusters, of $1.1 trillion. for the financial and health sectors respectively. Each time, we had to go back Our vision is now increasingly focused on to the drawing board. Every project went one aim: to make Dubai a global hub of through major revisions with regard to the the world knowledge economy by 2010. parties involved and the relationships, as well as the basic model. 1 Professor Porter of the Harvard Business School’s Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness launched the Cluster Mapping Project to define clusters statistically and create objective, detailed profiles of regional economies. Cluster mapping involves the analysis – at several geographic/economic/demographic levels – of regional economic units. This data is used to identify those areas that, by virtue of their performance, location and interdependencies between different industries, can be termed ‘clusters’. Clusters can be evaluated in terms of their contribution to employment and earnings, 12 economic growth, generation of new businesses, and development of IP.
  14. 14. Dubai at the centre Change of plans Since Media City the model has changed, Firstly, it’s forced us to focus on sound and with Dubai Health Care City (DHCC – business planning, working through see panel), we raised finance exclusively everything from (in the case of Dubai from the regional private sector. This came Media City) how technology and media about from a change in our appreciation companies can work together, to of our position geographically and how real-estate management can increase economically – we had to revise what we return on investment. thought of as being our 'region'. This planning process goes through several Investment in any given region flows to stages. First, the business opportunity the ‘hub’: for example, the USA has New analysis, from conception through idea York, Europe has London, Asia has Hong mapping, process specification and so on. Kong and Singapore. But if you look at the We bring in experts to look at each sector, wider geographical context of Dubai, you weighing up the value propositions. soon see that we’re in a ‘region’ that used not to have a hub at all – even, and Once we’ve mapped the sector within the perhaps especially, taking Africa into industry and within the cluster, we choose account, although it has a vast economy. specific business opportunities and create a top-level business plan for each one. We It was this realisation that transformed our run due diligence on the plan, then profile ambitions. We stepped in to fill the gap. the top 150 or so key investors in the We have since been very successful in region. We establish relationships with positioning ourselves as the hub of the them, so that we understand their extended region outlined above. With a investment profiles and can match our collective GDP of $1.1 trillion, it’s no offerings to their portfolios. surprise that we can rely increasingly on ‘regional’ financing! This is hard, carefully targeted work. For example, when we launched Health Care This shift has changed the way we work City, we knew exactly who to go to for and especially the way we plan, legislate, investment in our teaching hospital, our foster talent and create communications diabetes research centre (diabetes is the infrastructures. number-one killer in this region), the medical centre and so on. 13
  15. 15. Dubai The rule of law subsidiary has its own president and operates as a separate business unit. So Secondly, it’s forced us to introduce new just as GE, for example, has its statutory frameworks – especially where engine’s division, its plastics and finance and health are concerned. There chemicals, so Dubai has its Media City, are numerous issues that can be Financial City and so on. overlooked – the role of intellectual property law in healthcare, for example, But you also need to be aware of the where companies are investing heavily in human element at the bottom of the pile. IP research and development. Where is the skills pool that is driving the machine? Personally, this is something I The lessons we’ve learned here are think about every day: from where are we principally that you can’t do it all at once. going to get the talent? Right now, if you You have to focus on one sector and map sat down and worked it out, we’d have it out carefully. Every new regulation you about six projects for every individual! introduce is going to impact on the People are the issue, which is why we country and the region as a whole. When spend a lot of time in finding, grooming, you’re operating subsidies at the level mentoring and then pushing new required for these sorts of projects, young nationals. statutory influence is mandatory to avoid destabilising niche economic sectors: Our educational strategy is an identical you’re not simply managing projects at proposition to Boston. It is not cluster- this scale; you’re also macro-managing the driven – any cluster structure emerges economy as a whole. The critical success organically from seed projects. Boston has factor here is leadership – you have to stay Harvard; it also has MIT, and that’s what on top of everything – and you need to be we’re aiming for here. We’re expanding able to win vital support and commitment our facilities for those entering high to keep going. school and, at the other end of the scale, for postgraduates. We’re not dealing with The human factor the 18-year-old age range, where there are very significant costs involved. We want to Next, we’ve had to deal with human lay the foundations with a good general factors, such as how the people at the top education, and then we’ll provide the should be incentivised to boost specialist finishing courses to take people performance. This is an important into work. example, because each cluster is totally independent, responsible for its own Making connections success and managed, in effect, like a company. Today, each city independently determines its technology and connectivity At a higher level, there’s a council of requirements but, going forward, we ministers or executive council, which is envisage that all of these cities will effectively the corporate holding company be connected. with all the cities as subsidiaries. Each 14
  16. 16. Dubai Their needs will be different, of course. Oracle, IBM, Cisco, Compaq and Ariba. You only have to think of something like We allow 100% foreign ownership and telemedicine to realise that the Health sales. Furthermore, company earnings and City, for example, will require higher private income are exempt from any form communications specifications than other of taxation. DIC is already cash-positive, sectors. It’s not just infrastructure either: although not profitable yet, but this is applications and protocols are needed to largely an issue of how we treat create a comprehensive healthcare system depreciation – there are obviously vast in Dubai, answering the requirements of infrastructure costs. the teaching hospital and ultimately enabling the linking of all healthcare Dubai Media City is already home to over information systems – clinics, hospitals, 550 media companies including key pharmacies etc – to the central Health players such as CNN, Reuters, Sony City ‘hub’. Broadcast & Professional, McGraw Hill Publishing, Bertelsmann and MBC. Then there are the cultural challenges Regional companies and new start-ups implicit in extending communications supplement the mix and there’s a growing links. Schools don’t want to lose control talent pool offering creative skills and over communication between students of services to the larger companies. Media different gender, for example. In all these City is cash-positive and already looking at cases, the first step is to research and launching a second project: Film City – a identify what the customers want and Hollywood of our own. need. Broadband may be driving infrastructure development in many Dubai Knowledge Village launched in the modern cities, but that doesn’t mean fourth quarter of 2003. It's become home you can take your eye off the basic to a broad range of education and question: what do people actually want training operations, ranging from major to use it for? international universities, such as the US Purdue University with large, on-campus It’s also important to define your own role facilities, to independent, freelance in this process. Our approach is to get the trainers operating out of fully serviced experts to define the needs and the business centres. specifications and to carry out the work; we’re only the project managers. After all, Dubai Health Care City will take longer to we’re not doctors (for example) and reach profit. This is because the health shouldn’t pretend that we are. sector has demanded a different approach. DHCC operates in both the From vision to reality academic research and healthcare service arenas. We feel that we have to subsidise These strategies have borne fruit: our the former while allowing the private projects have been extremely successful. sector to develop the latter – and therefore to take the profit. This isn’t a Today, DIC is home to over 500 companies problem for us: any economy that aspires including Microsoft, Hewlett Packard, to global status needs to invest a 15
  17. 17. Dubai percentage of GDP in research. in the first phase to develop the project's infrastructure. The sky’s the limit. The business model for Dubai International Financial City works Killer instincts predominately through real estate. We also offer access to regional markets – What have I learned during this period of Saudi, Bahrain, Kuwait etc. One of our enormous growth and tremendously hard value propositions is our time zone. work? The most important lesson, I think, We have a six-and-a-half-hour slot has been to trust your instinct. between close of business in New York and the start of trading in Asia – a Articulate the vision, address the very attractive proposition for finance economies of scale, clusters, houses and especially those involved in competitiveness of the region – then go foreign exchange. with what you know. Don’t keep asking consultants: go for entrepreneurs, for In the past, the main focus in the real people who get the things done. Plan, estate market has been on taking profit. cost, manage – and then don’t let But there’s increasing focus on taking anything get in the way of executing the longterm revenue from real estate, via plan – ruthlessly. You want to think like a tourism, financial services, manufacturing team of mercenaries: go in, assassinate, and so on. If you look at a ten-year and get out! business plan for any of these cities, the first four are going to be focused on real estate revenue streams, but strategic revenue streams kick in during the second half. Revenues generated by a city from its real estate will not go to government: they help to pay back the banks and boost investment in the value-added industries that the city needs to take it to the next level. Dubai Internet City, for example, can pay back the bank and put money into research in technology and telecoms, redefining itself as an alternative service provider. Meanwhile, it’s onwards and upwards. In October 2003, Dubai announced the region’s biggest tourism project yet – Dubailand – with an estimated investment of more than Dh18 billion. The government intends to spend Dh2.6 billion 16
  18. 18. Dubai Dubai Internet City Broadcast & Professional, McGraw Hill Publishing, Bertelsmann, and MBC, A strategic base for companies along with regional companies and targeting emerging markets in a vast new start-ups. The interdependent region extending from the Middle East media community also boasts a to the Indian subcontinent, and Africa growing talent pool that offers a range to the CIS countries, covering of creative skills. Currently, over 250 1.8 billion people with GDP $1.1 trillion. freelance media professionals are based in the City. As a free-zone entity, Within a short span of time, a dynamic Dubai Media City allows companies international community of ICT 100% company ownership along with companies has established itself in commercial benefits that include a 50- Dubai Internet City. These companies year tax exemption from personal, represent a community of over 10,000 income and corporate taxes. knowledge workers. The cluster of ICT companies in Dubai Internet City Dubai Knowledge Village comprise software development, business services, web based and Knowledge Village aims to create a rich e-commerce, consultancy, education ecosystem for a variety of and training, sales and marketing, and organisations and individuals to create back-office operations. DIC provides a and disseminate knowledge. scalable state-of-the-art technology Knowledge Village provides a world- platform that allows companies class learning infrastructure and looking to provide cost-effective environment for the development of Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) scholarship, education, training, ideas, services, such as call centre operations, creativity, innovation and and easy access to these services. entrepreneurial expertise. Dubai Media City Knowledge Village will be a catalyst for the development of a strong and The Media City provides an advanced sustainable future, based on a wealth infrastructure and supportive of knowledge – human resources environment for media-related rather than natural resources. businesses to operate globally out of Knowledge Village creates access to Dubai. The Media City brings to the this new culture of learning in three media community an advanced distinct ways: firstly, by facilitating infrastructure based upon a global access to high-quality learning interconnected network, linked by opportunities – for all ages, career satellites, computers, the internet, stages and levels; secondly, through television, radio, journalism, cinema the wide diversity of areas of studies and film production. available; thirdly, through the strong, close and diverse background and The Media City is already home to over interaction of learners at Knowledge 600 media companies, including global Village – a global learning habitat giants such as CNN, Reuters, Sony where individual contact and 17
  19. 19. Dubai connectivity into global networks via cluster economy is a university medical technology are richly combined into a complex; consisting of a university unique experience. specialty hospital, a post-graduate medical school and nursing school, Dubailand and a life science research centre. The combination of these three The government intends to spend components will enable Dubai to Dh2.6 billion in the first phase to leapfrog to the forefront of regional develop the project’s infrastructure, medical practices, establishing a and with an estimated investment of position of regional leadership through more than Dh18 billion. leading edge education and research, and thereby becoming a centre of Dubai’s strategic plan is to add more excellence in global healthcare. depth to the tourism sector and contribute towards transforming the Dubai International Finance city into one of the top tourist Centre destinations internationally. The project will be built along Emirates Situated as a bridge between the Road, next to Nad Al Sheba, Al Qouz financial centres of Europe and Asia, and Al Barsha, which will give it the Dubai International Finance Centre advantage of easy access from Abu (DIFC) is a platform for accessing the Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and the trillion-dollar regional market. Dubai is Northern Emirates. building its international financial centre on four foundations: Dubailand will be completed by late 2006 and expects to attract 15 million The first is regulation and transparency, tourists to Dubai by 2010. because a global finance centre of the 21st century has to be Dubai Health Care City open and well regulated so that it is trusted by other jurisdictions and The Dubai Health Care City (DHCC) companies who locate within it, initiative is to provide the highest knowing their reputation is safe. quality of healthcare services to Second is the creation of new medical care and wellness seekers from financial capital markets, which will the region (comprised of the GCC, help bring prosperity to the entire Indian Subcontinent, Northern Gulf, region. Financial capital moves to Central Asia, the Levant, North and where it is safest and best rewarded, East Africa), by creating a world-class so DIFC’s combination of total cluster of healthcare professionals and transparency and zero tax enable service providers at the heart of Dubai. Dubai to benefit from the global flight to quality. Third is, it’s a great DHCC aspires to provide state-of-the- environment for people, and fourth is art medical care services in selected its stable political environment. disciplines that are relevant to the health problems facing the patients in the region. The ‘core’ of the healthcare 18
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  21. 21. Barcelona Joan Clos, Mayor of Barcelona B arcelona, one of Europe’s major neighbourhood portals have created cities, is the economic, cultural debate, because they are not only news and administrative capital of portals but also interchange platforms Catalonia, an autonomous region within the community. For example, when in the northeast of Spain on the an urban city planning reform is launched, Mediterranean coast. It is sixth in Europe the community can air their views – the in population density and fifth in industrial dialogue itself is a tool for the planners in concentration. The metropolitan area of the decision-making process. These Barcelona traditionally had a high websites work in the majority of the proportion of industrial activity as part of Barcelona districts and have increasing its total economic activity. Today, the city citizen participation. and its surrounding area are a significant economic centre in terms of new Barcelona City Council is moving towards technologies and advanced services within e-government, using the internet as a tool the framework of the information society. to achieve the following key strategic objectives: Our aim is to transform Barcelona into a great city, where the knowledge economy • Rethinking and improving internal can develop out of the dense urban management nucleus that is our city. The new EU • Enhancing and deepening policies that will increase the funds commitments to citizens available for research and knowledge offer • Developing a participatory strategy for us a great opportunity to move forward. the city We are known as a city that produces and At present, the data network of Barcelona exports medium-high-tech goods. ICT City Council is made up of four clearly manufacturers have increased exports distinct areas: almost fourfold since 1993 and Barcelona has become the principal export • Corporate network base in Spain. • Access network • Extranet More important is the capacity of the • Internet ‘New Technologies’ to bring government closer to our citizens and to create The official website of Barcelona City transparency in the city management. We Council provides access to a broad range have experience in citizen networks. The 20
  22. 22. ‘ of information and services. Barcelona is a by Barcelona City Council (Ómnibus, June European city with a high number of 2003), 46.5 per cent of the city’s homes transactional services. The site displays its are connected to the internet. That means contents in three languages – Catalan, that nearly one in every two Barcelona Spanish and English – and provides homes is connected to the net. Of this information for residents, companies and group, 37.8 per cent has a broadband tourists. The site and its services have won connection at home, and the last quarter several awards: third prize in Design in the has seen swift growth in DSL connections, European E-City Awards (2002), first prize a technology that is replacing the of the Auna Foundation (2002), the traditional telephone line, along with slow Stockholm Challenge Award (2002), and it but steady growth in connections was also a finalist in the World Technology by cable. Awards (2002). Compared to the Scandinavian countries Barcelona City Council has broad or Southeast Asia, these figures are low, experience participating in European but one must bear in mind our projects: Dalí, Gala, Exe, NetForNets, demographic context. Permis, Gaudi, Eurociti, Elda and others. It also belongs to large networks of cities In Spain as a whole, 27.4% of the such as TeleCities, and belongs to big city population is connected to the internet, networks (currently holding the while the figure is 32% in Catalonia, presidency), including EuroCities, according to the latest EGM survey Metropolis, Major Cities of Europe performed by AIMC. However, it must be and ELANET. remembered that this survey includes all internet users, not only those with home The broadband city connections. That is, there is a differential of at least 20 points between Barcelona’s In order to explain the development of geographic surroundings and Barcelona broadband in Barcelona, you need to itself. The same trends can be seen in understand the setting in which it has broadband connections. taken shape. This essay first describes the demographic context, and then the Furthermore, certain socio-economic socio-economic context. factors have hindered the growth of broadband in the city. Elsewhere in the According to the latest data from studies world, broadband developed in the 21
  23. 23. Barcelona framework of a pre-existing cable Channel Integrated Service network, which had been created, System (MISS). extended, operated and made profitable in the 80s and 90s for television. The system, which serves more than However, in Spain, digital television 18 million requests a year, centrally entered people’s homes by satellite manages most of the information and rather than by cable, and satellite services going both from the City Council technology has not yet made an to citizens and from citizens to the effective leap to bi-directional data City Council. transmission – a necessary condition for broadband internet. MISS is based on internet technology, and it allows for sharing the same information Barcelona City Council has faced up through three channels: the website to these challenges with the longterm, the telephone information vision of providing better services to service and the public information offices. citizens, as broadband is not an end in itself but rather a tool for improving the In order to develop the MISS, intranet and productivity, and therefore the integrated internal services, we have had competitiveness, of the city. And most to create a powerful internal broadband of all for achieving internal changes in network to support the information flows the council itself. As we have said, the required in an information architecture of aim is always to provide citizens with this type. better services. Data network For instance, for some time now the City Council has been broadcasting live online, • Corporate network via streaming video, all municipal plenary • Access network sessions. Users can also see all past • Extranet plenary sessions on demand through an • Internet index of plenums by subject. Here, the limited spread of broadband in the city The Corporate network is a private has prevented provision of more advanced network that links together the 123 services to citizens. centres of the City Council. • The Broad Services City: the challenge The Access network ensures the of transforming administration through connectivity of centres with lower broadband • Multi-Channel Integrated Service broadband requirements to City Council System (MISS): e-government beyond applications by means of a channel an Internet portal between the centre and the CPD/IMI. It is • The creation of a 155 Mbit/s high- defined on the basis of public networks speed internal network for the City and configured like a VPN. There are four Council has enabled the development main access technologies: frame-relay, and implementation of the Multi- ADSL, XDSI-XTC and GPRS. 22
  24. 24. Barcelona more complex, thereby being capable of Public administrations must take including citizens, other public institutions, advantage of the development of private companies and other actors wireless technologies to involve in the city. citizens by giving them a greater role in management processes Towards the universal availability of public services and information Most of the equipment supporting the Public administrations must take network is Cisco. All the networks use a advantage of the development of wireless combination of Radius-LDAP as the technologies to involve citizens by giving authentication system of entering users. them a greater role in management processes, while reducing costs in service management. Above all, the most For its part, the Extranet provides a link important goal is to improve both between external companies and the City provision of services to the public and Council. It is based on point-to-point links citizens’ quality of life. that originate in the City Council and have an endpoint in each of the companies involved. The technology of the Extranet is One of the most important challenges of Gigabit Ethernet and is supported by m-government in meeting this aim is to operator links. The system operates with effectively combine secure methods of CISCO 2948 and 3512 units. identification and easy-to-use applications so as to ensure citizen-accessibility. The corporate Internet provides an internet connection to the internal The following are some good examples of network as well as to the public internet the possibilities of m-government: services available. automatic question-and-answer services (the voice portal, currently under development in Barcelona, based on voice- The City Council has its own public IP recognition and web-semantic address, as it is constituted as an LIR. technologies); reminders of appointments with the administration; sending of public The Multi-Channel Integrated Service transport timetables depending on System helps improve people’s quality of location; use of multimedia messages life by offering those without internet (MMS) as instruments of public access the chance to benefit from the participation; payment of public parking same information and the same services tolls; tickets for public transport; provided by the City Council on the information about public employment internet. vacancies; services in museums and other tourist attractions; and an endless list Moreover, the MISS structure is the limited only by our imagination. technological framework that allows us to enlarge our internal network and make it 23
  25. 25. Barcelona Barcelona is already seeking to design an of life. effective model of global m-government that would meet all these challenges and In short, e-governance helps citizens take place all these actors at the service of a more proactive role in deciding what the city. kind of services they want and through what type of structure they wish to This is because m-government is not only receive them. a phase of e-government, but a reinvention of public services from the Two emblematic projects standpoint, more than ever, of the citizen. • 22@ Bcn The broadminded city: towards • The Universal Forum of Cultures 2004 e-governance Currently, two projects are running in According to the United Nations, the Barcelona that are examples of the concept of governance must be commitment of the city to the socio- understood as a process. In this process, economic, urban and international institutions, organisations and citizens position of the city in the future. At organise to make decisions through the same time, these two projects effective mechanisms of transparency. show our belief in technology as an indispensable element of building a just Thus, and continuing with the definition and equal society. of the United Nations, e-governance is the use by the public sector of the most 22@ Bcn innovative information and communication technologies, such as Barcelona has set itself a new goal: to fully internet, to provide citizens with better integrate itself into the new technological services, more reliable information and revolution and face the challenge of the more knowledge in order to facilitate information economy. The Poblenou, the access to governing processes and leading nucleus of industrialisation in promote citizen participation.’ It is, Spain in the 19th century, is striving to be indeed, an unequivocal commitment by the main technological platform for decision-makers to strengthen the Barcelona and Catalonia. collaboration between private citizens and the public sector. Real, living Barcelona, as a labour market that includes nearly two million jobs The introduction and acceptance of and a population of 4.3 million, is the e-governance is the path towards ensuring sixth leading metropolitan region that each citizen has the same right to be of the EU demographically, exporting a part of decision-making processes that 22.5% of Spain’s industrial and affect them directly or indirectly, and to non-industrial goods. influence the process so that it can improve his or her conditions and quality 24
  26. 26. Barcelona The updating of the regulatory framework In short, e-governance helps has taken the form of the Modification of citizens take a more proactive the General Metropolitan Plan for the role in deciding what kind of renewal of the industrial areas of services they want and through Poblenou (MPGM), approved 27 July 2000, what kind of structure they wish which has generated conditions to receive them. favourable to stimulating and attracting advanced economic activities. These activities demand a central location, good infrastructures and a quality urban The network of metropolitan cities, with environment. Barcelona in the lead, is quickly shifting its productive specialisation: nearly two-thirds The Modification of the PGM changes the of its exports today are goods with high or characteristics of the urban planning middle-high technological intensity. Its regulations of the industrial area, future competitiveness critically depends replacing the old urban zoning on its capacity to integrate new qualification 22a with the modern 22@: information and communication technologies and to strengthen • It regulates the uses and density of knowledge-dense tertiary or industrial construction activities. The city of Barcelona acts as • It provides incentives for conversion to both the main centre of services to a attract knowledge-dense activities multi-nucleus metropolitan area and as • It creates a new equipment capital of Catalonia. To preserve its leading qualification called 7@, which role economically and professionally, it will clear the way for building must deepen its specialisation in information infrastructures knowledge-dense activities, as these are • It defines new standards of urban also employment-dense activities. development and – in the Special Plan for Infrastructures – provides for Barcelona’s traditional economic and the complete urban development of urban planning strategies were based on the area manufacturing as the dominant economic • It defines the obligations of activity, and on the premise that zoning in landowners and determines the the central municipality of the metropolis forms and mechanisms for derivative was needed to preserve manufacturing. planning – Special Plans – in order to The transition from an industrial enable conversion manufacturing model to one based on the information society has entailed in-depth Throughout its execution over 15 to 20 revisions of urban regulations of the old years, the project will allow for the industrial areas of the Poblenou district building of 3,200,000 m2 of new and (zone 22a of the General Metropolitan used buildings for productive uses, Plan of 1976). between 3,500 and 4,000 new housing units under a regime of official 25
  27. 27. Barcelona subsidisation, the freeing of some safeguarding of human rights and forms 220,000 m2 of land for new facilities of living in harmony with the and garden areas, and for an increase environment. These elements, among of 100,000 to 130,000 jobs in the area. others, are crucial for forging conditions that are more favourable to progress and Forum 2004 human development. Barcelona is committed to a future where a stable Barcelona is starting the innovative peace means much more than absence Universal Forum of Cultures in 2004. This of conflict. is a new type of event with an international dimension, where the city aims to provide a space in which to reflect upon and experiment with the most important cultural and social conflicts faced by the world in the 21st century. It will be held from 9 May to 26 September, and will be structured around three themes: cultural diversity, sustainable development and the conditions of peace. Knowledge of other cultures is essential to engaging in constructive dialogue between peoples. Such knowledge entails reflection upon the commonalities of all human beings as well as their differences. To the extent that we are able to conceive difference as enrichment and a common heritage, not an obstacle, we will be able to reduce tensions and turn them into a positive force. Today, it is more urgent than ever to find forms of growth that respect natural resources and conserve them for the good of all, particularly for future generations. It is important to understand sustainability as a concept that goes beyond ecology, and also as a factor that enables creating conditions for coexistence, dialogue between peoples and peace. The creation of a culture of peace must be based, most of all, on respect for other cultures, social and political justice, 26
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  29. 29. New York By Michael R Bloomberg, Mayor of the City of New York C itizen Service – the concept of we are streamlining government and government agencies providing doing better with less. world-class service to its citizens – is a major goal for my New York City is at the forefront of administration. Over the past 20 months, technological innovation in municipal we have focused our attention not only on government. From our 311 Citizen Service balancing the budget, improving our Hotline, to digitising 911 emergency schools and keeping crime down, but also response calls, New York City continues to on improving service delivery wherever deploy technology to every agency to help possible. Technology is a driving force in them fulfil their goals. providing better Citizen Service to all New Yorkers. Instead of paper-based systems Below is a sampling of the different that inherently make it difficult, costly and programmes New York City has underway time-consuming to share information, we and how we are using them. have made an aggressive push to drive more applications and functions to the 311 Citizen Service Hotline internet (or other digital mediums) where the information can be quickly shared and On March 9 2003, the 311 Citizen Service distributed to the parties that need it. Hotline went online. Before 311, every Over this period, there is no question that time the city announced a new New York City has become more efficient, programme or service, there was always a innovative, technologically adept, and new number attached to that programme citizen service-friendly. or service. By the time I took office, there were 11 pages of telephone numbers in During the current fiscal crisis, we cannot the phone book listing different ways New afford to operate at anything less than full Yorkers could contact their government. efficiency. In business, we are judged by Whenever New Yorkers had to contact performance, not by how much we spend. their government, they had to be a Government should also be judged by the near-expert in municipal government to same standard. Cutting $2.3 billion from find the right office (for instance, the Fire the budget does not mean we cannot Department doesn’t repair broken fire provide good or improved services to the hydrants, the Department of public, and that is exactly what we have Environmental Protection does). 311 done this year. From using technology to changes all of that. Now New Yorkers only improving citizen service, to cutting into need to remember two numbers when the city bureaucracy of cars and permits, contacting their city government – 911 for 28
  30. 30. emergencies and 311 for everything else. of them conduct their business more If you want to report a broken streetlight, efficiently and with better citizen service. find out if you qualify for food stamps, or even report graffiti, all you need to do is Digitising x-rays dial 311 (or 212-NEW YORK if you are outside New York). In November 2002, the Health Hospitals Corporation (HHC) completed the In five months we have already received installation of Picture Archiving two million calls, and call volume is Communications Systems (PACS) at all picking up every day (nearly 20,000 calls HHC facilities. Each year, PACS come into 311 each day). Clearly, electronically stores digital x-ray images providing easy access to city services is a for one million radiology cases, replacing big hit with New Yorkers. the use of outmoded and cumbersome x-ray film. Prior to the system-wide Using 311 technology, for the first time installation of PACS, it took 24 to 48 hours the cty can prevent problems before they to access almost every radiology image. arise. How can we do this? For instance, With PACS, every image is available within we can map all double-parked car four minutes. Using PACS, a patient’s complaints, noise complaints, and all medical team can review the digital x-rays establishments with liquor licences from from virtually any location over secure the State of New York. We can use this internet gateways 24 hours a day, seven data to ascertain if some of these double- days a week, consult on treatment options parked car complaints and noise faster and more efficiently, and maximise complaints are coming from a club or bar, the productivity of scarce radiology and and try to prevent the problem from medical expertise. Digital storage further arising again. improves patient care by allowing for easy comparison of images over time, and by 311 represents a major achievement of my providing detailed and accurate administration. Not only did we magnifications of images. consolidate 12 call centres (eventually, all 40+ city call centres will be rolled into The programme saves doctors’ time and 311), but we now have sophisticated tools hospitals’ money – $1 million at Elmhurst to measure our performance in alone. In fact, instead of having a responding to requests. 311 affects every radiologist at all times at both Elmhurst city agency in New York and has helped all Hospital Center and the Queens Hospital 29
  31. 31. New York Center, just one is needed for both only enhance patient care but also locations at night. The PACS system improve the bottom line – patients are maximises the productivity of scarce treated more quickly, at a lower cost, and radiology and medical expertise. insurers are providing higher While fewer than ten per cent of reimbursement rates to healthcare hospitals nationwide have digitised facilities with CPOE, an increase of as x-rays, the PACS system has been much as four per cent in 2002. installed at every HHC facility in the city. This has saved $4 million Putting all medical records online and will save $11 million annually. The successful implementation of the Computerising physician orders Computerized Physician Order Entry system is hastening the completion of In 2002, HHC completed system-wide HHC’s overall goal of storing all patient installation of Computerized Physician records in its Electronic Medical Record Order Entry (CPOE) throughout its (EMR). Currently, the electronic medical 11 acute care hospitals and at over 100 record of every one of HHC’s 1.3 million community-based clinics. Annually, HHC patients includes medication history, lab clinicians now use CPOE to order results and radiology tests. The EMR also approximately 13 million pharmacy links to the Micromedex patient prescriptions, 96 million lab tests, and one information system, which clinicians use to million radiology tests. National safety provide patients with a printout – in experts widely agree that using a CPOE English or Spanish – of complete system reduces medication errors by as information about their prescribed much as 50 to 70%, and HHC’s medications, specific medical conditions medication error rate with this system is such as asthma, and other critical less than .000001% – or less than one in a medical information. million. CPOE also provides clinicians with alerts and warnings, and detailed Improved adoption access medication history. CPOE further improves patient care by giving clinicians faster In February 2002, the Administration for centralised access to lab results, allowing Children’s Services (ACS) launched the doctors to treat patients promptly. For ‘Meet Our Kids’ website. The website routine lab tests, results are available in allows interested families to view photos under two hours, urgent tests are and stories of children who are waiting for available in under 30 minutes, and a permanent, loving adoptive family. The emergency screening results are back in benefits of having adoption information less than ten minutes. HHC remains far online include immediate availability of ahead of the national trend in this effort, adoption information, 24 hours a day, with 100% of all HHC physicians using the seven days a week, significant savings in CPOE system for all their ordering. Only staff time, and the ability to reach five per cent of all hospitals nationwide – adoptive homes outside of New York City, public and private – have achieved this which is a great way for ACS to find goal. Ultimately, these innovations not homes for children who might be hard to 30
  32. 32. New York State-of-the-art revenue collection New Yorkers can now pay parking tickets, property taxes, water bills Thanks to NYCServ, New Yorkers can now and other fees in one quick visit pay parking tickets, property taxes, water over the internet bills and other fees in one quick visit over the internet at Through NYCServ, which went online in February 2002, New Yorkers can also place. Since ‘Meet Our Kids’ was launched, contest tickets online by conducting a enquiries to the ACS Parent Recruitment hearing with an Administrative Law Judge Hotline have increased by 65%, with via email. Individuals can also track down internet inquires accounting for about towed cars and pay certain business taxes. 50% of the average 600 total calls to the Since January, NYCServ has serviced hotline each month. ‘Meet Our Kids’ is 630,000 transactions, collecting a total of also one of the most visited areas of the $1.4 billion. ACS website, consistently ranking among the top ten pages viewed, with about Purchasing permits online 2,200 hits per month. Savings for the city include a reduced number of mailings, reduction in staff time on the phone and Last year Parks established an online credit digital photography cost savings of card payment system for special events $35,000 a year. and tennis permits. The Parks website also allows users to obtain special events permits/applications, athletic permits and Benefit QuickCheck for seniors applications, forestry permits, lifeguard applications, guidelines for donating In May 2002, the Department for the works of art to Parks, volunteer sign-up Aging released QuickCheck, an easy-to- forms, and more. use, online tool that helps New York City’s senior citizens check their eligibility for a Mayor’s Office of Film, Theatre and variety of benefits and programmes. The Broadcasting QuickCheck user completes an online application, and can then choose from 16 assistance programmes administered by In 2002, the Mayor's Office of Film, various branches of federal, state and local Theatre and Broadcasting loaded all government. QuickCheck informs the permit applications online at applicant which benefits they are most Prior to this, the likely to receive and then provides a link agency had been processing permits by to the administering agency’s eligibility hand and with typewriters. In addition form. Following the introduction of to streamlining the permit process, the QuickCheck, the number of monthly visits agency has installed a new phone to Aging’s website rose by nearly 50% to system whereby an individual answers over 23,000 hits. the phone rather than an automated voice mailbox system. 31