Chris Borroni-Bird - Reinventing the Automobile (Electric Networked –Vehicle, EN-V): (Personal) Urban Mobility for the 21st Century

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  • 1. In memory of Bill Mitchell, MIT Professor of Architecture (1944-2010)
  • 2. Reinventing the Automobile (Electric Networked – Vehicle, EN-V): (Personal) Urban Mobility for the 21st Century Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird Director, Advanced Technology Vehicle Concepts (and EN-V Program), General Motors 2
  • 3. Developing cities are the most densely populated Source: Alain Bertaud (2002) London Manhattan New York Sao Paolo, Tokyo Shanghai Source: Mats Andersson, World Bank (2005) Population density (people/hectare) 5
  • 4. Population Density, Traffic Speed and CO2 emissions Source: data from Jeffrey R. Newman, Felix B. Laube (eds) (2002) Source: NEDO report (2009) Development of Energy saving ITS Technologies 6
  • 5. Optimizing Urban Traffic Safety for all road users China accident data, c. 2000-2005 7
  • 6. EN-V: Comparison with conventional automobiles Typical EN-V automobile Mass (kg) 1,500 500 Occupancy (# seats) 6 2 Parking space (m2) 15 5 Maximum speed (km/h) 200 50 Propulsion output (kW) 200 10 Driving range (km) 500 50 Energy consumption 1,000 100 (Wh / km) CO2 emissions (g / km): 500 50 well-to-wheels (based on US electricity mix) 8
  • 7. Parking Space comparison Downtown Albuquerque, NM Source: MIT SmartCities Program 9
  • 8. EN-V: High-Level Autonomous System Architecture V2X, Maps & High Accuracy GPS for Outdoor Autonomous Navigation V2V & High Accuracy Dead Reckoning for Indoor Autonomous Navigation ‘Park Command’ Road Side Wireless ‘Retrieval Command’ Equipment GPS & Access V2I Communications; Points ‘Vehicle Status’ Position augmentation; ‘Wakeup’ Smart phone commands (e.g. Park/Retrieve) V2V Communications between Vehicles VEHICLE Brake, Manual Steer and Controls Wireless Drive Chassis GPS Controls Controls Autonomous Controls Remote wakeup Sensor Fusion 14
  • 9. Autonomous Features demonstrated in EN-V Forward Vision System – Lane tracking • Automated Retrieval – Object detection – Far IR Capability Short- Short- Range Range Sensors Long-Range • Manual and Autonomous Driving Long- Sensors Range Scanning Sensor Sensors Rear Vision System Enhanced • Pedestrian and Obstacle – Object detection Digital – Far IR Capability Map System Detection Side Blind-Zone Alert • Automatic Stop at Red Light or Lane-Change Assist Intersection • Videoconferencing from inside vehicle Dedicated Short-Range Communication + GPS (V2V) • Collision avoidance with another EN-V Forward Vision System • Platooning with another EN-V • Automated Parking Ultrasonic Sensors Ultrasonic Sensors Dedicated Short-Range Communication + GPS (V2V) 15
  • 10. EN-V: Throughput Comparison with Bus 16
  • 11. Reinventing the Automobile for Urban Mobility (EN-V) Design Ultra-small vehicle is easy to maneuver and park and is inherently affordable and clean Small vehicle is easier to park at stations, encouraging more use of public transport Reinventing Urban Electrification Mobility Connectivity Battery propulsion provides Wireless communications zero emissions and encourages helps to avoid collisions diverse , renewable energy sources and optimize throughput Electric Vehicles can be Wireless communications charged at key locations, co-ordination with public such as transport or help locate public transport stations nearest shared vehicle 19
  • 12. Summary • Automobile usage in cities is common because it has some valued advantages over walking/cycling and over public transport. • For urban use, today’s automobile is heavily over-engineered. • By reinventing the automobile, it is possible to preserve its benefits (safety, security, comfort, convenience, utility, freedom of route and schedule) without incurring the side-effects in urban use (energy, environment, safety, congestion, parking, affordability) • The same enablers (electrification, connectivity and vehicle design) can also create new opportunities for seamlessly integrating personal and public transport 20